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COMMUNICATION

SAFETY

VHF Radiotelephone
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
PYROTECHNIC
VDR
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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
VDR
Pyrotechnic

VHF Radiotelephone
SOLAS Chapter III Reg 6.2.1
SOLAS Chapter IV Regulation 7
Radio equipment: General
1 Every ship shall be provided with
.1 a VHF radio installation capable of transmitting and
receiving;
.1.1 DSC on the frequency 156.525 MHz (channel 70). It shall
be possible to initiate the transmission of distress alerts on
channel 70 from the position from which the ship is
normally navigated; *and
.1.2 radiotelephony on the frequencies 156.300 MHz
(channel 6), 156.650 MHz (channel 13) and 156.800 MHz
(channel 16);
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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
VDR
Pyrotechnic

Global Maritime Distress and


Safety System (GMDSS)
From 1 February 1999 all passenger vessels and
all cargo ships of 300 gross tonnage and
upwards on international voyages must comply with
the GMDSS, and be fitted with all applicable satellite
and radiocommunications GMDSS equipment
The system is intended to perform the following
functions: alerting (including position determination
of the unit in distress), search and rescue
coordination, locating (homing), maritime safety
information broadcasts, general
communications, and bridge-to-bridge
communications
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VHF
Pyrotechnic

VDR

EPIRB

SART

GMDSS

GMDSS

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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
VDR
Pyrotechnic

GMDSS
The major difference between the GMDSS and its predecessor
systems is that the radio communications equipment to be
fitted to a GMDSS ship is determined by the ship's area
of operation, rather than by its size.
The system divides the world's oceans into 4 areas:
Area A1 lies within range of shore-based VHF coast stations
(20 to 30 nautical miles);
Area A2 lies within range of shore based MF coast stations
(excluding A1 areas) (approximately 100 - 150 nautical miles);
Area A3 lies within the coverage area of Inmarsat
communications satellites (excluding A1 and A2 areas approximately latitude 70 degrees north to latitude 70 degrees
south); and
Area A4 comprises the remaining sea areas outside areas A1,
A2 and A3 (the polar regions).

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VHF
GMDSS
Pyrotechnic

VDR

EPIRB

SART

GMDSS

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SOLAS Chapter IV Reg 5-1


Resolution A.801(19) concerning
provision of radio services for
GMDSS

VHF
Pyrotechnic

VDR

EPIRB

SART

GMDSS

GMDSS

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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
VDR
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Search And Rescue Transponder


(SART)
Life rafts and lifeboats are difficult to see
on radar because of their poor radarreflecting properties.
To overcome this problem, a device (SART)
has been developed that, on receiving a
radio signal, answer by transmitting a
radio signal of the same frequency.
This makes the life raft or lifeboat
visible on radar screen
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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
VDR
Pyrotechnic

When the ship is evacuated,


one individual, indicated on
the Muster list is
responsible for bringing
the SART from the
bridge, to the liferaft or
lifeboat
The SART has a range of
approximately 30 miles
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GMDSS
SART
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EPIRB

SOLAS Chapter III Reg 6.2.2


SOLAS Chapter III Reg 26.2.5

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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
VDR
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EPIRB
The EPIRB is use in case
the Ship is sinking so fast
that the crew does not
have the time to warn the
world of the disaster
As in the case of the life
raft, the water pressure
will activate a hydrostatic
release and the EPIRB will
rise to the surface.
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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
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VDR

As soon as the EPIRB is activated, it


will start to transmit the MMSI
number (Maritime Mobile Ships
identification) of the ship to a satelite
which, in turn, will warn a ground
station.
The ground station then warns the
nearest coast guard station
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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB

Chapter IV (Radiocommunication), Regulation 7.1.6


General
.6 subject to the provisions of regulation 8.3, a satellite
emergency position-indicating radio beacon (satellite EPIRB)
which shall be:
.6.1 capable of transmitting a distress alert either through
the polar orbiting satellite service operating in the 406 MHz
band or, if the ship is engaged only on voyages within
Inmarsat coverage, through the Inmarsat geostationary
satellite service operating in the 1.6 GHz band: !

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.6.2 installed in an easily accessible position


.6.3 ready to be manually released and capable of being
carried by one person into a survival craft
.6.4 capable of floating free if the ship sinks and of being
automatically activated when afloat; and
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.6.5 capable of being activated

VHF
GMDSS
SART

Red Parachute Signal


Hand flares/hand torches
Smoke signal
Line throwing Appliances

Pyrotechnic

VDR

EPIRB

PYROTECHNIC

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VHF
GMDSS
SART
EPIRB
VDR
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Pyrotechnic
Red Parachute Signal
Must be available in or near the wheelhouse
(12) and in each of lifeboat (4).
SOLAS Chapter III Reg 6.3
They are rockets, which can be fired out of
hand, and can be seen from a great distance.
To be fired in the hope somebody notices.
The general meaning is : I need help
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SART
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Hand flares/hand
torches
Hand flares, in lifeboat (6) and rescue
boat (4).
These are very bright burning torches,
which are to be held in the hand.
Used to draw attention, or let know the
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Smoke signal
Smoke signal, in each lifeboat (2).
A tin can, when lit to be put in the
water. They remain afloat and
produce a thick orange smoke,
clearly visible from airplanes

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VHF
GMDSS
SART
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Pyrotechnic
Line throwing Appliances
4 pieces in or near the
wheelhouse.
SOLAS Chapter III Reg 18
These are rockets, which when fired by a gun,
draw a long thin line behind them.
The purpose is to shoot a line to another
ship, as a first step to establish for instance a
towing connection. With the thin line a
somewhat heavier line can be pulled in,
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connected to a hawser

Chapter V, Reg.20.1
to Assist casualty
investigation

VHF
GMDSS
Pyrotechnic

VDR

EPIRB

SART

Voyage Data Recorder


(VDR)

Voyage Data Recorder, or VDR, is a


data recording system designed for all
vessels required to comply with the IMO
's International Convention SOLAS
Requirements (IMO Res.A.861(20)) in
order to collect data from various
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sensors on board
the vessel.
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VDR

EPIRB

SART

GMDSS

VHF

VDR
The information recorded in the unit(s), sometimes also called
Black box for ship, may include the following information:

Position, Date, Time using GPS


Speed log - Speed through water or speed over ground
Gyro compass - Heading
Radar* - As displayed or AIS data if no off-the-shelf converter available
for the Radar video
Audio from the bridge, including bridge wings
VHF radio communications
Echo sounder* - Depth under keel
Main alarms* - All IMO mandatory alarms
Watertight & fire doors* status as indicated on the bridge.
Hull stress* - Accelerations and hull stresses
Rudder* - Order and feedback response
Engine/Propeller* - Order and feedback response
Thrusters* - Status, direction, amount of thrust% or RPM
Anemometer and weather vane* - Wind speed and direction

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