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Chapter 18- Planar Kinetics of a

Rigid Body: Work and Energy

STATICS and DYNAMICS- 11th Ed.,


R. C. Hibbeler and A. Gupta
Course Instructor: Miss Saman Shahid

Objective:
We will apply work and energy methods to

problems involving force, velocity, and


displacement related to the planar motion of a
rigid body.

Kinetic
Energy
Calculating rigid bodys KE when it is

subjected to
(i) translation,
(ii) rotation about a fixed axis, or
(iii) general plane motion.
Consider the rigid body shown in inertial
x-y plane. An arbitrary ith particle of
the body, having mass dm, is located
at r from the arbitrary point P.
Here I(G) is the moment of inertia for the
body about an axis which is
perpendicular to the plane of motion
and passes through the mass center.

1-Translation
When a rigid body of mass m

is subjected to either
rectilinear or translation, the
KE due to rotation is zero,
since =0
where v(G) is the magnitude

of the translational velocity v


at the instant considered.

2-Rotation About a Fixed


Axis
When a rigid body is rotating about

a fixed axis passing through point


O, the body has both translational
and rotational KE.
The bodys KE may also be

formulated by noting that


v(G)=r(G)
by the Parallel-Axis theorem, the

terms inside the parentheses


represent the moment of inertia
I(O) of the body about an axis
perpendicular to the plane of
motion and passing through point
O.

3-General Plane Motion


When a rigid body is subjected to

general plane motion, it has an angular


velocity and its mass center has a
velocity v(G).
Total KE of the body consists of the

scalar sum of the bodys translational


KE and rotational KE about its mass
center.
The equation can also be expressed in

terms of bodys motion about its


instantaneous center of zero velocity,
Where I(IC) is the moment of inertial of
the body about its instantaneous
center.

Example

The Work of a Force


By
By
By
By

variable force
constant force
weight
a spring force

1) Work of a Variable
Force
If an external force F

acts on a rigid body,


the work done by the
force when it moves
along the path s.
Here is the angle

between the tails of the


force vector and the
differential
displacement.

2) Work of a Constant
Force
If an external force F(c)

acts on a rigid body,


and maintains a
constant magnitude
and constant direction,
while the body
undergoes a translation
s.

3) Work of a Weight
The weight of a body does

work only when the bodys


center of mass G undergoes
a vertical displacement y. If
this displacement is upward,
the work is negative, since
the weight and displacement
are in opposite directions.

4) Work of a
Spring Force
If linear elastic spring is attached to a body,

the spring force F(s)=ks, acting on the body


does work when the spring either stretches or
compresses from s1 to a further position s2.
In both cases, the work will be negative since

the displacement of the body is in the


opposite direction to the force.
Where |s2|>|s1|

Force That Do Not Work


There are some external forces that do not work when

the body is displaced.


There forces can act either at fixed points on the body, or
they can have a direction perpendicular to their
displacement.
Examples:
1- Reactions at a Pin support about which a body

rotates
2- Normal reaction acting on a body that moves along
a fixed surface.
3- Weight of a body when the center of gravity of the
body moves in a horizontal plane.

Explanation:

A frictional force F(f) acting on a round

body as it rolls without slipping over a


rough surface also does no work.
This is because, during any instant of

time dt, F(f) acts at a point on the body


which has zero velocity (instantaneous
center IC) and so the work done by the
force on the point is zero.
In other words, the point is not

displaced in the direction of the force


during this instant. Since F(f) contacts
successive points for only an instant,
the work of F(f) will be zero.

The Work of a Couple


When a body subjected to a couple

undergoes general plane motion,


the two couple forces do work only
when the body undergoes a
rotation.
Consider the body which is
subjected to a couple moment
M=Fr
When the body translates, such
that the component of
displacement along the line of
action of the forces is ds(t).
The positive work of one force
cancels the negative work of the
other.

Contd.

If the body undergoes a differential rotation d

about an axis which is perpendicular to the plane of the


couple and intersects the plane at point O,
Then, each force undergoes a displacement ds()=(r/2)
d in the direction of the force.