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AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF

TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION BY


FAULT DETECTION with LINEMAN
SAFETY
Submitted By

V.R.Ragavi (962612105017)
Anuja .S.Nair
(962612105303)
Nisha.P.S(962612105320)
Shilpa.K.S (962612105324)

Project guide
Mrs.Senthil Rema(HOD
EEE)

ABSTRACT
This project describes about the detection of
line fault on the transmission lines with exact
location & will automatically shuts down the
distribution section.
Also ensure the protection of lineman
working in the transmission line.

EXISTING SYSTEM

There are 2 primary types of Detectors


1. Mobile system using a direction and a
sense antenna in the same location.
2. Space based system.
. Mobile systems estimate distance using
signal frequency and attenuation.

LIMITATIONS
The mobile detectors sometimes mistakenly
indicate a weak lightning flash nearby as a
strong one further away, or vice versa.
There is no special protection system for line
man.

Proposed system objective


The proposed system encloses the idea of
line man safety and fault detection on
transmission lines.

OVERVIEW

DEV 2

DISTRIBUTION SECTION

POST SECTION

REQUIREMENTS
HARDWARE
ATMEGA
MICROCONTROLLER
GSM MODEM
LCD
FINGER PRINT SENSOR
ZIGBEE MODULE
RELAY
TRANSFORMER
REGULATOR
RELAY

SOFTWARE TOOLS
ARDUINO IDE v1.6.7
CADSOFT EAGLE v 7.2.0

ATMEGA 2560
8-Bit Microcontroller
135 Powerful Instructions Most Single Clock Cycle
Execution
32 8 General Purpose Working Registers
Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16MHz
64K/128K/256KBytes of In-System Self-Programmable
Flash
4Kbytes EEPROM
8Kbytes Internal SRAM
Write/Erase Cycles:10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
Data retention: 20 years at 85C/ 100 years at 25C
ATmega2560V/ATmega2561V:
0 - 2MHz @ 1.8V - 5.5V, 0 - 8MHz @ 2.7V - 5.5V

Pin Diagram

Atmega 328

High Performance, Low Power AVR


8-Bit Microcontroller
Advanced RISC Architecture
131 Powerful Instructions Most Single Clock Cycle
Execution
32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
4/8/16/32K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable
Flash progam
256/512/512/1K Bytes EEPROM
512/1K/1K/2K Bytes Internal SRAM
Operating Voltage: 1.8 - 5.5V for ATmega328P
Speed Grade: 0 - 20 MHz @ 1.8 - 5.5V
Low Power Consumption at 1 MHz, 1.8V, 25C

Pin Diagram

WIRELESS MODULE

2.4 GHz Carrier Frequency

RS232 UART interface with variable baud rate

Input supply voltage: 5V to 12V

255 possible Channels frequencies (0 to 255)

Programmable Device Address

Variable Packet length (0 to 40 bytes)

Standard configuration baud rate of 9600

User friendly GUI for setting up RF Module

Compact Size, Out of Box: Plug and Play


On Board EEPROM for saving settings

FINGERPRINT SENSOR
Finger print sensor module with TTL UART interface. The user can
store the finger print data in the module and can IT for identifying
the person. The finger print module can directly interface with 3v3
or 5v Microcontroller. A level converter (like MAX232) is required for
interfacing with PC.
Power DC : 3.6V-6.0V
Interface : UART (TTL logical level)/ USB 1.1
Working current : 100mA
Peak Current : 150mA
Baud rate (9600*N)bps
Character file size: 256 bytes
Image acquiring time : <0.5s
Storage capacity: 120
Security level : 5 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5(highest))
Average searching time: < 0.8s (1:880)

LCD DISPLAY
Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers
are 16x2 and 20x2 displays.
This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20
characters per line by 2 lines, respectively.

LCD BACKGROUND
If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11 data
lines , (3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus)
The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW
EN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are sending it
data)
RS=Register Select
(When RS is low (0), data is treated as a command)
(When RS is High(1), data being sent is text data )
R/W=Read/Write
(When RW is low (0), the data
written to the LCD) (When RW is high (1), the data
reading to the LCD)

GSM MODEM
A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem
which accepts a SIM card, and operates over a
subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile
phone.
From the mobile operator perspective, a GSM modem
looks just like a mobile phone.
When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this
allows the computer to use the GSM modem to
communicate over the mobile network.
While these GSM modems are most frequently used
to provide mobile internet connectivity, many of them
can also be used for sending and receiving SMS and
MMS messages.

RELAY
Arelayis anelectricallyoperatedswitch. Many relays
use anelectromagnetto mechanically operate a switch,
but other operating principles are also used, such
assolid-state relays.
Relays are used where it is necessary to control a
circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
isolation between control and controlled circuits), or
where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.
Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and
sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect
electrical circuits from overload or faults

FUTURE SCOPE
The project is designed to send in an alert
message as soon as there is a fault. In this model
we predict the place of fault using a distance
from pole to pole. In future we can have a GPS
attached to it that would exactly send the
location in terms of longitude and latitude.

CONCLUSION
Here, in this project we have designed a GSM
based transmission line monitoring and
indication system that send information of
the same to electricity board via SMS .Also
protect the lineman who works under the
transmission lines.

REFERENCES

1. Power system analysis and design by


B.R.GUPTA.
2. The 8051 microcontroller and embedded
systems using assembly and C by
Muhammad Ali Mazidi/Janice Gillispe
Mazidi/Rolin D/Mc Kinlay.
3. www.google.com
4. www.wikipedia.com
5. www.nskelectro.com