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Fluid Statics

The word statics is derived from Greek word


statikos= motionless
For a fluid at rest or moving in such a manner that
there is no relative motion between particles there
are no shearing forces present:

Rigid body approximation

STATIC FLUID APPLICATION


Vessel thickness design,
Measurement of pressure,
Separation of fluids with different density,
Hydraulic jack
Design of ship

Principle of Fluid Static


P = P0 + gd
F=gV

P = F/A

05

Density
is defined as the ratio of the mass of fluid to its
volume. It is denoted by the Greek symbol, .

kgm-3

= m
V

kg
m3

water= 998 kgm-3


air =1.2kgm-3

If the density is constant (most liquids), the flow is


incompressible.
If the density varies significantly (eg some gas
flows), the flow is compressible.
(Although gases are easy to compress, the flow may be treated as incompressible if there are no large
pressure fluctuations)

Mass per unit volume (e.g., @ 20 oC, 1 atm)


Water

= 1000
=
62.3

kg/m3
lbm/ft3

Mercury

= 13,500

kg/m3

Air

1.22 kg/m3

Density

Densities of gasses increase with pressure


Densities of liquids are nearly constant (incompressible) for constant
temperature
Specific volume = 1/density

Density (kg/m3)

1000
990
980
970
960
950
0

50
100
Temperature (C)

Specific Weight
g

[ N / m 3 ] or [lbf / ft 3 ]

Weight per unit volume (e.g., @ 20 oC, 1 atm)


water

= (998 kg/m3)(9.807 m2/s)


= 9790 N/m3
[= 62.4 lbf/ft3]

air

= (1.205 kg/m3)(9.807 m2/s)


= 11.8 N/m3
[= 0.0752 lbf/ft3]

API gravity is an alternative method of comparing the


densities of different petroleum substances. The API
system of gravity measurement has units called 'Degrees
API' (API). The device used for the measurement of API
and specific gravity is the 'HYDROMETER'.

Specific gravity = {Brix/(258.6-[Brix/258.2]*227.1)}+1


Brix and specific gravity refer to the amount of
sugar in a water solution. Commonly used in
beer and wine making, the amount of sugar in
the unfermented wort (for beer) or must (for
wine) determine the level of alcohol in the
finished product.

API gravity is calculated from the Specific Gravity as


follows: API = (141.5 SG) - 131.5

Example 2: An oil has an API gravity of 42.0. Calculate its S.G.


S.G. = 141.5 (131.5 + 42) = 141.5 173.5 = 0.816 SG
From the above formulae, it is found that pure water (S.G. = 1.000) has an API gravity of 10.
As fluid density decreases, the API gravity increases.

Specific Gravity
Ratio of fluid density to density water at
specified T dan P (e.g., @ 20 oC, 1 atm)
SGliquid
SG gas

Water
Mercury
Air

liquid
water
gas
air

liquid
9790 kg / m 3

gas
1.205 kg / m 3

SGwater = 1
SGHg = 13.6
SGair = 1

TEKANAN
Gaya per satuan luas, dimana gaya tegak lurus luasan.

Nm-2
(Pa)

p=

F
A

N
m2

patmosfir= 1.013X105 Nm-2Pa (Pascal)


1 psi = 6895 Pa

Hydrostatic Pressure
Tekanan atas
Pb

F 0
F = gaya dari atas + gaya dari bawah + gaya gravitasi = 0

Pa xy Pb xy gxyz 0
Densitas=

Zb

Pa Pb
g
z

Za

Tekanan bawah
Pa

dP
g
dz

Incompressible fluid
Liquids are incompressible i.e. their density is assumed to
be constant:

P2 P1 g( z 2 z1 )
When we have a liquid with a free surface the pressure P at any depth below the free surface is:

P gh Po
By using gage pressures we can simply write:

P gh

Po is the pressure at the


free surface (Po=Patm)

Units for Pressure


Unit

Definition or
Relationship

1 pascal (Pa)

1 kg m-1 s-2

1 bar

1 x 105 Pa

1 atmosphere (atm) 101,325 Pa


1 torr

1 / 760 atm

760 mm Hg

1 atm

14.696 pounds per


sq. in. (psi)

1 atm

Tekanan pada permukaan air danau adalah 105 kPa.


Hitung tekanan pada kedalaman 35.0 m dibawah
permukaan air.

P Patm dg
P P Patm dg

1000 kg/m 3 9.8 m/s 2 35 m


343 kPa 3.4 atm

Kerapatan air segar

hydrostatic
The pressure in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid at
rest depends on the depth of the fluid relative to some
reference plane, and it is not influenced by the size or
shape of the tank or container
Fluid is the same in all containers

Pressure is the same at the bottom of all containers

Tekanan di permukaan planet Venus adalah 95 atm.


How far below the surface of the ocean on Earth do
you need to be to experience the same pressure?

P Patm dg
95 atm 1 atm dg

dg 94 atm 9.5 10 6 N/m 2

1025 kg/m 9.8 m/s d 9.5 10


3

d 950 m
Density of sea water

N/m 2

KEDALAMAN OIL RESERVOIR

What the depth


below the surface
of oil reservoir
that produce oil
with relative
density 0.8 and
wellhead pressure
of 120 kN/m2?

water = 1000 kg/m3, and p atmosphere = 101kN/m2.

Vertical plane surfaces


The lock gate of a canal is rectangular, 20 m wide and 10 m high.
One side is exposed to the atmosphere and the other side to the
water. What is the net force on the lock gate?

h
F

Vertical rectangular wall (wall width = W)

Here the pressure varies


linearly with depth: P=gh

Vertical plane surfaces


For an infinitesimal area dA the normal force due to the
pressure is
dF = p dA
Find resultant force acting on a finite surface by
integration

F P dA gh d Wh gW h dh
For vertical rectangular wall: F = g W H2

Storage Tanks
They are used in a variety
of industries like
Petroleum refining
Chemical
Power
Food & beverage
Pharmaceutical

MAIN COMPONENTS OF
PRESSURE VESSEL
Following are the main components of pressure
Vessels in general

Shell
Head
Nozzle
Support

SHELL
It is the primary component that contains the
pressure.
Pressure vessel shells in the form of different
plates are welded together to form a
structure that has a common rotational axis.
Shells are either cylindrical, spherical or
conical in shape.

SHELL
Horizontal drums have cylindrical shells and
are constructed in a wide range of diameter
and length.
The shell sections of a tall tower may be
constructed of different materials, thickness
and diameters due to process and phase
change of process fluid.
Shell of a spherical pressure vessel is
spherical as well.

HEAD

All the pressure vessels must be closed at the


ends by heads (or another shell section).
Heads are typically curved rather than flat.
The reason is that curved configurations are
stronger and allow the heads to be thinner,
lighter and less expensive than flat heads.
Heads can also be used inside a vessel and
are known as intermediate heads.
These intermediate heads are separate
sections of the pressure vessels to permit
different design conditions.

NOZZLE
A nozzle is a cylindrical component that
penetrates into the shell or head of pressure
vessel.
They are used for the following applications.
Attach piping for flow into or out of the vessel.
Attach instrument connection (level gauges,
Thermowells, pressure gauges).
Provide access to the vessel interior at
MANWAY.
Provide for direct attachment of other equipment
items (e.g. heat exchangers).

SUPPORT
Support is used to bear all the load of
pressure vessel, earthquake and wind loads.
There are different types of supports which
are used depending upon the size and
orientation of the pressure vessel.
It is considered to be the non-pressurized
part of the vessel.

structure must be designed to resist deformation and collapse under all


the conditions of loading. The loads to which a process vessel will be subject

Major loads
1. Design pressure: including any significant static head of liquid.
2. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents, under operating conditions.
3. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under the hydraulic test
conditions.
4. Wind loads.
5. Earthquake (seismic) loads.
6. Loads supported by, or reacting on, the vessel.
As a general guide the wall
thickness of any vessel should not be less than the values given below; the values
include a corrosion allowance of 2 mm:
Vessel diameter (m) Minimum thickness (mm)

The cross-sectional area is pi times the diameter squared divided by 4.

The cross-sectional area of tank A is:


The volume V is A x H:
The weight of the water W A is:

The pressure p at the bottom of tank A in psi is:

Therefore the pressure is:


This is the pressure in pounds per square feet, one more step is required to get the pressure in pounds per
square inch or psi. There is 12 inches to a foot therefore there is 12x12 = 144 inches to a square foot.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
TECHNIQUES

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
Many techniques have been developed for the
measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments
used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges
or vacuum gauges.
A manometer could also be referring to a pressure
measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring
pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is
often used to refer specifically to liquid column
hydrostatic instruments.
A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a
vacuum

ABSOLUTE, GAUGE AND DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURES


Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a
perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus
atmospheric pressure.
Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient
air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus
atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually
omitted.
Differential pressure is the difference in pressure
between two points.

ABSOLUTE AND GAGE PRESSURE


ABSOLUTE PRESSURE: The pressure of a fluid is
expressed relative to that of vacuum (=0)
GAGE PRESSURE: Pressure expressed as the
difference between the pressure of the fluid and that of
the surrounding atmosphere

Pabs Patm Pgage

atmospheric pressures, deep vacuum pressures must be absolute


Atmospheric pressure is typically about 101.325 kPa or 100
kPa or 30 inHg at sea level, but is variable with altitude and
weather.

a vacuum of 26 inHg gauge is equivalent to an absolute


pressure of 30 inHg (typical atmospheric pressure) 26 inHg =
4 inHg.

Tire pressure and blood pressure are gauge pressures by


convention

Measurement of Pressure
Manometers are devices in which one or more
columns of a liquid are used to determine the
pressure difference between two points.
U-tube manometer
Inclined-tube manometer

Liquid column
THE U-TUBE MANOMETER.

A manometer
is a U-shaped
tube that is
partially filled
with liquid.

Both ends of the


tube are open to the
atmosphere.

The difference in fluid height in a liquid column


manometer is proportional to the pressure difference.

Measurement of Pressure Differences


Apply the basic equation of static fluids to both legs of
manometer, realizing that P2=P3.

P2 Pa b g ( Z m Rm )
P3 Pb b g ( Z m ) a gRm
Pa Pb gRm ( a b )

A container of gas is connected to one end of the U-tube

C
Cylinder
of gas

A
B

Point A is the original location of the


top of the fluid before the gas
cylinder is connected.

Pc Patm
PB PB'

B
PB ' PB PC gd
PB PC PB Patm gd
Pgauge gd

THE U-TUBE MANOMETER.

Using a u-tube manometer to measure gauge pressure of fluid density 700


kg/m3, and the manometric fluid is mercury, with a relative density of 13.6.
What is the gauge pressure if:
a). h1 = 0.4m and h2 = 0.9m?
b) h1 stayed the same but h2 = -0.1m?

Inclined Manometer
To measure small pressure differences need to magnify
Rm some way.

Pa Pb gR1 ( a b ) sin

Measurement of Pressure
The atmospheric pressure can be measured with a barometer.

patm gh p vapor
For mercury barometers atmospheric pressure
(101.33kPa) corresponds to h=760 mmHg (= 29.2 in)
If water is used h = 10.33 m H2O (= 34 ft)

The Bourdon pressure gauge


The Bourdon pressure gauge uses the principle that a flattened tube tends to change to be
straightened or larger circular cross-section when pressurized. Although this change in
cross-section may be hardly noticeable, and thus involving moderate stresses within the
elastic range of easily workable materials, the strain of the material of the tube is magnified
by forming the tube into a C shape or even a helix, such that the entire tube tends to
straighten out or uncoil, elastically, as it is pressurized

Bourdon tubes measure gauge pressure, relative to ambient


atmospheric pressure

Stationary parts:
A: Receiver block. This joins the inlet
pipe to the fixed end of the Bourdon
tube (1) and secures the chassis
plate (B). The two holes receive
screws that secure the case.
B: Chassis plate. The face card is
attached to this. It contains bearing
holes for the axles.
C: Secondary chassis plate. It
supports the outer ends of the axles.
D: Posts to join and space the two
chassis plates.

Moving Parts:
Stationary end of Bourdon tube. This communicates
with the inlet pipe through the receiver block.
Moving end of Bourdon tube. This end is sealed.
Pivot and pivot pin.
Link joining pivot pin to lever (5) with pins to allow joint
rotation.
Lever. This is an extension of the sector gear (7).
Sector gear axle pin.
Sector gear.
Indicator needle axle. This has a spur gear that
engages the sector gear (7) and extends through the
face to drive the indicator needle. Due to the short
distance between the lever arm link boss and the pivot
pin and the difference between the effective radius of
the sector gear and that of the spur gear, any motion of
the Bourdon tube is greatly amplified. A small motion of
the tube results in a large motion of the indicator
needle.
Hair spring to preload the gear train to eliminate gear
lash and hysteresis.

Barometers

Schematic drawing of a
simple mercury barometer
with vertical mercury column
and reservoir at base

Measuring Pressure Barometers


A barometer is used to measure
the pressure of the atmosphere.
The simplest type of barometer
consists of a column of fluid.
p2 - p1 = gh
pa = gh
examples
water: h = pa/g =105/(103*9.8) ~10m
mercury: h = pa/g =105/(13.4*103*9.8) ~800mm

vacuum

p1 = 0

h
p2 = pa

P gd
Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to a
column of mercury 76.0 cm tall.

COMPRESSIBLE FLUID
Gases are compressible i.e. their density varies with temperature and
pressure
=P M /RT

Temperature variation with altitude for the U.S. standard atmosphere

CONSTANT Temperature
For small elevation changes (as in engineering applications,
tanks, pipes etc) we can neglect the effect of elevation on
pressure
pV nRT

dp
g
dz

M
p

V
RT

for T To const :

p p0 exp

g ( z z0 )
RTo

RT
M

Linear Temperature Gradient

T T0 ( z z 0 )
p

dp
g z
dz

R z0 T0 ( z z 0 )
p0 p
g

T0 ( z z 0 ) R
p ( z ) p0

T0

Atmospheric Equations
Assume constant

p ( z ) p0 e

g ( z z0 )

RT0

Assume linear
g

T0 ( z z 0 ) R
p ( z ) p0

Temperature variation with altitude


for the U.S. standard atmosphere

Compressible Isentropic
P
P1
constant

Cp

T P


T1 P1

1 y

Cv

P2 P1 1

gMz


RT1

Application: bottom hole conditions in gas wells

T2 T1 1

gMz


RT1

Separation of fluid with different densiti


How it works

GRAVITY DECANTER

Hydrostati c Balance
Z B b Z A1 A Z A 2 A

Z A 2 Z T B
A

Z A1
1 B
A

When BA interface location is very sensitive to height of heavy liquid overflow leg. This leg is often
has adjustable height to give the best separation.

DECANTER
It is proposed to use a gravity decanter to
separate a light petroleum oil (density 50.0
lbm/ft3) from water (density 62.3 lbm/ft3). Its
desire to maintain a total depth of 30 in. in the
vessel and to have exactly equal depth of oil and
water. What should be the height , expressed in
inch of the water discharge leg above the bottom
of the vessel.

Centrifugal decanters
When the density difference between two immiscible liquids is small gravitation forces may be too
weak to separate them in a reasonable time. In this case we can use centrifugal forces to amplify the
forces exerted on the liquids.

Centrifugal separations are important in many food industries such a breweries, vegetable oil
processing, fruit juice processing. They are also used to separate emulsions into their components.

Hydrostatic Equilibrium
in a Centrifugal Field
2 N
Fc mr mr

60

Fg mg

Fc r 2 N

Fg g 60

Typically N1000 and r1m. Fc/Fg110. Neglect g.

Hydrostatic Equilibrium
in Centrifugal Field
Force on element dr at r
dF r dm dm 2rb dr
2

dF 2b 2 r 2 dr
dF
dP
2 r dr
2rb
2 2 2
P2 P1

r2 r1
2

Continuous Centrifugal
Decanter

Pi PA Pi PB
Why ?

B
r
rB

ri

1 B
A
2
A

Continuous Centrifugal
Decanter

Consequences:

AB within 3% ri unstable
rB constant rA increased ri
shifted toward bowl wall

In commercial units rA and


rB are usually adjustable

Example
Consider a 90 elbow in a 2 in. pipe. A pipe tap is drilled through the wall of the elbow on the inside
curve, and another though the outer wall directly across from the first. The radius of curvature of the
inside bend is 2 in. and that of the outside of the bend is 4 in. The pipe is carrying water, and a
manometer containing an immiscible oil with S.G. of 0.90 is connected across the two taps. If the
reading of the manometer is 7 in., what is the average velocity of the water in the pipe?

Design of hydraulic jack

Direction of fluid pressure on boundaries


In a fluid confined by solid boundaries, pressure acts
perpendicular to the boundary it is a normal force.

Furnace duct

Pipe or tube
Heat exchanger

Pressure is a Normal Force


(acts perpendicular to surfaces)
It is also called a Surface Force
Dam

Pascals Principle
the Principle of transmission of fluid-pressure
"pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is
transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that
the pressure ratio (initial difference) remains the same

when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal
increase at every other point in the container.

The 1 pound load on the 1 square inch area causes an increase in pressure on the fluid
in the system. This pressure is distributed equally throughout and acts on every square
inch of the 10 square inch area of the large piston. As a result, the larger piston lifts up a
10 pound weight. The larger the cross-section area of the second piston, the larger the
mechanical advantage, and the more weight it lifts.

Gaya force F1
bekerja pada piston A1.
F1 = 500 N

P at point 1 P at point 2
F1
F2

A1 A 2
A2
F1
F2
A1

A2 A1

F2

500 N

10

5000 N

100

50,000 N

Exercises:

A hydraulic press has an input cylinder 1 inch in diameter and an output


cylinder 6 inches in diameter.
Assuming 100% efficiency, find the force exerted by the output piston
when a force of 10 pounds is applied to the input piston.
If the input piston is moved through 4 inches, how far is the output
piston moved?
a. 360 pounds
b. 1/9 inch

Exercises:

The input and output pistons of a hydraulic jack are


respectively 1 cm and 4 cm in diameter. A lever
with a mechanical advantage of 6 is used to apply
force to the input piston. How much mass can the
jack lift if a force of 180 N is applied to the lever and
efficiency is 80%?
1410.6 kg

Design of Ship

The buoyant force


When an object is placed in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force we call
the buoyant force.
The buoyant force comes from the pressure exerted on the object by the
fluid. Because the pressure increases as the depth increases, the pressure
on the bottom of an object is always larger than the force on the top - hence
the net upward force.

F1

h1

h2

F2

Buoyancy
The net force due to pressure in the vertical direction is:
FB = F2- F1 = (Pbottom - Ptop) (xy)
The pressure difference is:
Pbottom Ptop = g (h2-h1) = g H
Combining:
FB = g H (xy)
Thus the buoyant force is:
FB = g V
Buoyant Force (FB) weight of fluid displaced

ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

FB = fluidVdisplaced g
Fg = mg = object Vobject g
object sinks if object > fluid
object floats if object < fluid
object floats if fluid = object

Think this
Tub of water + ship

Which weighs more:


1. A large bathtub filled to the
brim with water.
2. A large bathtub filled to the
brim with water with a
battle-ship floating in it.
3. They will weigh the same.

Tub of water

Overflowed water
Weight of ship = Buoyant force =
Weight of displaced water
16

COBA PIKIRKAN

ice-cube

Sebuah balok es mengambang diatas


segelas air, sampai permukaan air rata
pada pinggiran.
Ketika es meleleh maka air di dalam
akan :
1.

2.
3.

Go up, causing the


water to spill out of
the glass.
Go down.
Stay the same.
CO
RR

Must be same!

B=

W g Vdisplaced

W = ice g Vice W g V
EC
T

ARCHIMEDES EXAMPLE
A cube of plastic 4.0 cm
on a side with density
= 0.8 g/cm3 is floating
in the water.
When a 9 gram coin is
placed on the block,
how much sinks below
water surface?

koin

ARCHIMEDES EXAMPLE
koin

Fb

F=ma
Fb Mg mg = 0

g Vdisp = (M+m) g
Mg mg

Vdisp = (M+m) /
h A = (M+m) /

M = plastic Vcube = 0.8x4x4x4


= 51.2 g

h = (M + m)/ ( A)
= (51.2+9)/(1 x 4 x 4) = 3.76 cm

Wadah segi 4 berdasar datar diisi dengan coal,


massanya 3.0105 kg. Panjang 20 m dan lebar 10m,
mengambang diair. Berapa kedalaman wadah masuk ke
dalam air.

F F

FB

w0

FB w

mw g wVw g mb g

wVw mb
w Ad mb
m
d b
w A

3.0 105 kg

1.5 m
3
1000 kg/m 20 m *10 m

FB

Sepotong logam dilepaskan


dibawah air water. Volume
metal 50.0 cm3 dan SG 5.0.
Hitung percepatan initialnya,
saat v=0 tidak ada gaya drag.

F F

FB

w ma

FB w FB

g
m m m

FB adalah berat fluida yang


dipindahkan oleh benda

FB waterVg

waterV

waterVg
a
g g
1
V

objectVobject
object
object

w
water = 1000 kg/m (at 4 C).
3

a g

specific gravity

object
5.0
water

waterV
1

1 g
1 g
1 7.8 m/s 2
objectVobject
S .G.
5.0