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- Module 9
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- Physics Paper 1 C 1 August PDF
- PHYSICS QUIZ 2.docx
- level
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- Manometro Ametek Xr-series 11-12-12
- Lesson 01 - Measurement.ppt
- Catalogo Instrumentacion Wireless
- CHAP_3_SEC1.PDF
- Stap Dn65-100 en Main
- Pressure+Handbook+2013
- APRE-2200 Level Transmitter
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- Experiiment 1 (Pressure Control)

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statikos= motionless

For a fluid at rest or moving in such a manner that

there is no relative motion between particles there

are no shearing forces present:

Vessel thickness design,

Measurement of pressure,

Separation of fluids with different density,

Hydraulic jack

Design of ship

P = P0 + gd

F=gV

P = F/A

05

Density

is defined as the ratio of the mass of fluid to its

volume. It is denoted by the Greek symbol, .

kgm-3

= m

V

kg

m3

air =1.2kgm-3

incompressible.

If the density varies significantly (eg some gas

flows), the flow is compressible.

(Although gases are easy to compress, the flow may be treated as incompressible if there are no large

pressure fluctuations)

Water

= 1000

=

62.3

kg/m3

lbm/ft3

Mercury

= 13,500

kg/m3

Air

1.22 kg/m3

Density

Densities of liquids are nearly constant (incompressible) for constant

temperature

Specific volume = 1/density

Density (kg/m3)

1000

990

980

970

960

950

0

50

100

Temperature (C)

Specific Weight

g

[ N / m 3 ] or [lbf / ft 3 ]

water

= 9790 N/m3

[= 62.4 lbf/ft3]

air

= 11.8 N/m3

[= 0.0752 lbf/ft3]

densities of different petroleum substances. The API

system of gravity measurement has units called 'Degrees

API' (API). The device used for the measurement of API

and specific gravity is the 'HYDROMETER'.

Brix and specific gravity refer to the amount of

sugar in a water solution. Commonly used in

beer and wine making, the amount of sugar in

the unfermented wort (for beer) or must (for

wine) determine the level of alcohol in the

finished product.

follows: API = (141.5 SG) - 131.5

S.G. = 141.5 (131.5 + 42) = 141.5 173.5 = 0.816 SG

From the above formulae, it is found that pure water (S.G. = 1.000) has an API gravity of 10.

As fluid density decreases, the API gravity increases.

Specific Gravity

Ratio of fluid density to density water at

specified T dan P (e.g., @ 20 oC, 1 atm)

SGliquid

SG gas

Water

Mercury

Air

liquid

water

gas

air

liquid

9790 kg / m 3

gas

1.205 kg / m 3

SGwater = 1

SGHg = 13.6

SGair = 1

TEKANAN

Gaya per satuan luas, dimana gaya tegak lurus luasan.

Nm-2

(Pa)

p=

F

A

N

m2

1 psi = 6895 Pa

Hydrostatic Pressure

Tekanan atas

Pb

F 0

F = gaya dari atas + gaya dari bawah + gaya gravitasi = 0

Pa xy Pb xy gxyz 0

Densitas=

Zb

Pa Pb

g

z

Za

Tekanan bawah

Pa

dP

g

dz

Incompressible fluid

Liquids are incompressible i.e. their density is assumed to

be constant:

P2 P1 g( z 2 z1 )

When we have a liquid with a free surface the pressure P at any depth below the free surface is:

P gh Po

By using gage pressures we can simply write:

P gh

free surface (Po=Patm)

Unit

Definition or

Relationship

1 pascal (Pa)

1 kg m-1 s-2

1 bar

1 x 105 Pa

1 torr

1 / 760 atm

760 mm Hg

1 atm

sq. in. (psi)

1 atm

Hitung tekanan pada kedalaman 35.0 m dibawah

permukaan air.

P Patm dg

P P Patm dg

343 kPa 3.4 atm

hydrostatic

The pressure in a homogeneous, incompressible fluid at

rest depends on the depth of the fluid relative to some

reference plane, and it is not influenced by the size or

shape of the tank or container

Fluid is the same in all containers

How far below the surface of the ocean on Earth do

you need to be to experience the same pressure?

P Patm dg

95 atm 1 atm dg

3

d 950 m

Density of sea water

N/m 2

below the surface

of oil reservoir

that produce oil

with relative

density 0.8 and

wellhead pressure

of 120 kN/m2?

The lock gate of a canal is rectangular, 20 m wide and 10 m high.

One side is exposed to the atmosphere and the other side to the

water. What is the net force on the lock gate?

h

F

linearly with depth: P=gh

For an infinitesimal area dA the normal force due to the

pressure is

dF = p dA

Find resultant force acting on a finite surface by

integration

F P dA gh d Wh gW h dh

For vertical rectangular wall: F = g W H2

Storage Tanks

They are used in a variety

of industries like

Petroleum refining

Chemical

Power

Food & beverage

Pharmaceutical

MAIN COMPONENTS OF

PRESSURE VESSEL

Following are the main components of pressure

Vessels in general

Shell

Head

Nozzle

Support

SHELL

It is the primary component that contains the

pressure.

Pressure vessel shells in the form of different

plates are welded together to form a

structure that has a common rotational axis.

Shells are either cylindrical, spherical or

conical in shape.

SHELL

Horizontal drums have cylindrical shells and

are constructed in a wide range of diameter

and length.

The shell sections of a tall tower may be

constructed of different materials, thickness

and diameters due to process and phase

change of process fluid.

Shell of a spherical pressure vessel is

spherical as well.

HEAD

ends by heads (or another shell section).

Heads are typically curved rather than flat.

The reason is that curved configurations are

stronger and allow the heads to be thinner,

lighter and less expensive than flat heads.

Heads can also be used inside a vessel and

are known as intermediate heads.

These intermediate heads are separate

sections of the pressure vessels to permit

different design conditions.

NOZZLE

A nozzle is a cylindrical component that

penetrates into the shell or head of pressure

vessel.

They are used for the following applications.

Attach piping for flow into or out of the vessel.

Attach instrument connection (level gauges,

Thermowells, pressure gauges).

Provide access to the vessel interior at

MANWAY.

Provide for direct attachment of other equipment

items (e.g. heat exchangers).

SUPPORT

Support is used to bear all the load of

pressure vessel, earthquake and wind loads.

There are different types of supports which

are used depending upon the size and

orientation of the pressure vessel.

It is considered to be the non-pressurized

part of the vessel.

the conditions of loading. The loads to which a process vessel will be subject

Major loads

1. Design pressure: including any significant static head of liquid.

2. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents, under operating conditions.

3. Maximum weight of the vessel and contents under the hydraulic test

conditions.

4. Wind loads.

5. Earthquake (seismic) loads.

6. Loads supported by, or reacting on, the vessel.

As a general guide the wall

thickness of any vessel should not be less than the values given below; the values

include a corrosion allowance of 2 mm:

Vessel diameter (m) Minimum thickness (mm)

The volume V is A x H:

The weight of the water W A is:

This is the pressure in pounds per square feet, one more step is required to get the pressure in pounds per

square inch or psi. There is 12 inches to a foot therefore there is 12x12 = 144 inches to a square foot.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

TECHNIQUES

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Many techniques have been developed for the

measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments

used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges

or vacuum gauges.

A manometer could also be referring to a pressure

measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring

pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is

often used to refer specifically to liquid column

hydrostatic instruments.

A vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a

vacuum

Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a

perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus

atmospheric pressure.

Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient

air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus

atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually

omitted.

Differential pressure is the difference in pressure

between two points.

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE: The pressure of a fluid is

expressed relative to that of vacuum (=0)

GAGE PRESSURE: Pressure expressed as the

difference between the pressure of the fluid and that of

the surrounding atmosphere

Atmospheric pressure is typically about 101.325 kPa or 100

kPa or 30 inHg at sea level, but is variable with altitude and

weather.

pressure of 30 inHg (typical atmospheric pressure) 26 inHg =

4 inHg.

convention

Measurement of Pressure

Manometers are devices in which one or more

columns of a liquid are used to determine the

pressure difference between two points.

U-tube manometer

Inclined-tube manometer

Liquid column

THE U-TUBE MANOMETER.

A manometer

is a U-shaped

tube that is

partially filled

with liquid.

tube are open to the

atmosphere.

manometer is proportional to the pressure difference.

Apply the basic equation of static fluids to both legs of

manometer, realizing that P2=P3.

P2 Pa b g ( Z m Rm )

P3 Pb b g ( Z m ) a gRm

Pa Pb gRm ( a b )

C

Cylinder

of gas

A

B

top of the fluid before the gas

cylinder is connected.

Pc Patm

PB PB'

B

PB ' PB PC gd

PB PC PB Patm gd

Pgauge gd

kg/m3, and the manometric fluid is mercury, with a relative density of 13.6.

What is the gauge pressure if:

a). h1 = 0.4m and h2 = 0.9m?

b) h1 stayed the same but h2 = -0.1m?

Inclined Manometer

To measure small pressure differences need to magnify

Rm some way.

Pa Pb gR1 ( a b ) sin

Measurement of Pressure

The atmospheric pressure can be measured with a barometer.

patm gh p vapor

For mercury barometers atmospheric pressure

(101.33kPa) corresponds to h=760 mmHg (= 29.2 in)

If water is used h = 10.33 m H2O (= 34 ft)

The Bourdon pressure gauge uses the principle that a flattened tube tends to change to be

straightened or larger circular cross-section when pressurized. Although this change in

cross-section may be hardly noticeable, and thus involving moderate stresses within the

elastic range of easily workable materials, the strain of the material of the tube is magnified

by forming the tube into a C shape or even a helix, such that the entire tube tends to

straighten out or uncoil, elastically, as it is pressurized

atmospheric pressure

Stationary parts:

A: Receiver block. This joins the inlet

pipe to the fixed end of the Bourdon

tube (1) and secures the chassis

plate (B). The two holes receive

screws that secure the case.

B: Chassis plate. The face card is

attached to this. It contains bearing

holes for the axles.

C: Secondary chassis plate. It

supports the outer ends of the axles.

D: Posts to join and space the two

chassis plates.

Moving Parts:

Stationary end of Bourdon tube. This communicates

with the inlet pipe through the receiver block.

Moving end of Bourdon tube. This end is sealed.

Pivot and pivot pin.

Link joining pivot pin to lever (5) with pins to allow joint

rotation.

Lever. This is an extension of the sector gear (7).

Sector gear axle pin.

Sector gear.

Indicator needle axle. This has a spur gear that

engages the sector gear (7) and extends through the

face to drive the indicator needle. Due to the short

distance between the lever arm link boss and the pivot

pin and the difference between the effective radius of

the sector gear and that of the spur gear, any motion of

the Bourdon tube is greatly amplified. A small motion of

the tube results in a large motion of the indicator

needle.

Hair spring to preload the gear train to eliminate gear

lash and hysteresis.

Barometers

Schematic drawing of a

simple mercury barometer

with vertical mercury column

and reservoir at base

A barometer is used to measure

the pressure of the atmosphere.

The simplest type of barometer

consists of a column of fluid.

p2 - p1 = gh

pa = gh

examples

water: h = pa/g =105/(103*9.8) ~10m

mercury: h = pa/g =105/(13.4*103*9.8) ~800mm

vacuum

p1 = 0

h

p2 = pa

P gd

Atmospheric pressure is equivalent to a

column of mercury 76.0 cm tall.

COMPRESSIBLE FLUID

Gases are compressible i.e. their density varies with temperature and

pressure

=P M /RT

CONSTANT Temperature

For small elevation changes (as in engineering applications,

tanks, pipes etc) we can neglect the effect of elevation on

pressure

pV nRT

dp

g

dz

M

p

V

RT

for T To const :

p p0 exp

g ( z z0 )

RTo

RT

M

T T0 ( z z 0 )

p

dp

g z

dz

R z0 T0 ( z z 0 )

p0 p

g

T0 ( z z 0 ) R

p ( z ) p0

T0

Atmospheric Equations

Assume constant

p ( z ) p0 e

g ( z z0 )

RT0

Assume linear

g

T0 ( z z 0 ) R

p ( z ) p0

for the U.S. standard atmosphere

Compressible Isentropic

P

P1

constant

Cp

T P

T1 P1

1 y

Cv

P2 P1 1

gMz

RT1

T2 T1 1

gMz

RT1

How it works

GRAVITY DECANTER

Hydrostati c Balance

Z B b Z A1 A Z A 2 A

Z A 2 Z T B

A

Z A1

1 B

A

When BA interface location is very sensitive to height of heavy liquid overflow leg. This leg is often

has adjustable height to give the best separation.

DECANTER

It is proposed to use a gravity decanter to

separate a light petroleum oil (density 50.0

lbm/ft3) from water (density 62.3 lbm/ft3). Its

desire to maintain a total depth of 30 in. in the

vessel and to have exactly equal depth of oil and

water. What should be the height , expressed in

inch of the water discharge leg above the bottom

of the vessel.

Centrifugal decanters

When the density difference between two immiscible liquids is small gravitation forces may be too

weak to separate them in a reasonable time. In this case we can use centrifugal forces to amplify the

forces exerted on the liquids.

Centrifugal separations are important in many food industries such a breweries, vegetable oil

processing, fruit juice processing. They are also used to separate emulsions into their components.

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

in a Centrifugal Field

2 N

Fc mr mr

60

Fg mg

Fc r 2 N

Fg g 60

Hydrostatic Equilibrium

in Centrifugal Field

Force on element dr at r

dF r dm dm 2rb dr

2

dF 2b 2 r 2 dr

dF

dP

2 r dr

2rb

2 2 2

P2 P1

r2 r1

2

Continuous Centrifugal

Decanter

Pi PA Pi PB

Why ?

B

r

rB

ri

1 B

A

2

A

Continuous Centrifugal

Decanter

Consequences:

AB within 3% ri unstable

rB constant rA increased ri

shifted toward bowl wall

rB are usually adjustable

Example

Consider a 90 elbow in a 2 in. pipe. A pipe tap is drilled through the wall of the elbow on the inside

curve, and another though the outer wall directly across from the first. The radius of curvature of the

inside bend is 2 in. and that of the outside of the bend is 4 in. The pipe is carrying water, and a

manometer containing an immiscible oil with S.G. of 0.90 is connected across the two taps. If the

reading of the manometer is 7 in., what is the average velocity of the water in the pipe?

In a fluid confined by solid boundaries, pressure acts

perpendicular to the boundary it is a normal force.

Furnace duct

Pipe or tube

Heat exchanger

(acts perpendicular to surfaces)

It is also called a Surface Force

Dam

Pascals Principle

the Principle of transmission of fluid-pressure

"pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is

transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that

the pressure ratio (initial difference) remains the same

when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined fluid, there is an equal

increase at every other point in the container.

The 1 pound load on the 1 square inch area causes an increase in pressure on the fluid

in the system. This pressure is distributed equally throughout and acts on every square

inch of the 10 square inch area of the large piston. As a result, the larger piston lifts up a

10 pound weight. The larger the cross-section area of the second piston, the larger the

mechanical advantage, and the more weight it lifts.

Gaya force F1

bekerja pada piston A1.

F1 = 500 N

P at point 1 P at point 2

F1

F2

A1 A 2

A2

F1

F2

A1

A2 A1

F2

500 N

10

5000 N

100

50,000 N

Exercises:

cylinder 6 inches in diameter.

Assuming 100% efficiency, find the force exerted by the output piston

when a force of 10 pounds is applied to the input piston.

If the input piston is moved through 4 inches, how far is the output

piston moved?

a. 360 pounds

b. 1/9 inch

Exercises:

respectively 1 cm and 4 cm in diameter. A lever

with a mechanical advantage of 6 is used to apply

force to the input piston. How much mass can the

jack lift if a force of 180 N is applied to the lever and

efficiency is 80%?

1410.6 kg

Design of Ship

When an object is placed in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force we call

the buoyant force.

The buoyant force comes from the pressure exerted on the object by the

fluid. Because the pressure increases as the depth increases, the pressure

on the bottom of an object is always larger than the force on the top - hence

the net upward force.

F1

h1

h2

F2

Buoyancy

The net force due to pressure in the vertical direction is:

FB = F2- F1 = (Pbottom - Ptop) (xy)

The pressure difference is:

Pbottom Ptop = g (h2-h1) = g H

Combining:

FB = g H (xy)

Thus the buoyant force is:

FB = g V

Buoyant Force (FB) weight of fluid displaced

ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

FB = fluidVdisplaced g

Fg = mg = object Vobject g

object sinks if object > fluid

object floats if object < fluid

object floats if fluid = object

Think this

Tub of water + ship

1. A large bathtub filled to the

brim with water.

2. A large bathtub filled to the

brim with water with a

battle-ship floating in it.

3. They will weigh the same.

Tub of water

Overflowed water

Weight of ship = Buoyant force =

Weight of displaced water

16

COBA PIKIRKAN

ice-cube

segelas air, sampai permukaan air rata

pada pinggiran.

Ketika es meleleh maka air di dalam

akan :

1.

2.

3.

water to spill out of

the glass.

Go down.

Stay the same.

CO

RR

Must be same!

B=

W g Vdisplaced

W = ice g Vice W g V

EC

T

ARCHIMEDES EXAMPLE

A cube of plastic 4.0 cm

on a side with density

= 0.8 g/cm3 is floating

in the water.

When a 9 gram coin is

placed on the block,

how much sinks below

water surface?

koin

ARCHIMEDES EXAMPLE

koin

Fb

F=ma

Fb Mg mg = 0

g Vdisp = (M+m) g

Mg mg

Vdisp = (M+m) /

h A = (M+m) /

= 51.2 g

h = (M + m)/ ( A)

= (51.2+9)/(1 x 4 x 4) = 3.76 cm

massanya 3.0105 kg. Panjang 20 m dan lebar 10m,

mengambang diair. Berapa kedalaman wadah masuk ke

dalam air.

F F

FB

w0

FB w

mw g wVw g mb g

wVw mb

w Ad mb

m

d b

w A

3.0 105 kg

1.5 m

3

1000 kg/m 20 m *10 m

FB

dibawah air water. Volume

metal 50.0 cm3 dan SG 5.0.

Hitung percepatan initialnya,

saat v=0 tidak ada gaya drag.

F F

FB

w ma

FB w FB

g

m m m

dipindahkan oleh benda

FB waterVg

waterV

waterVg

a

g g

1

V

objectVobject

object

object

w

water = 1000 kg/m (at 4 C).

3

a g

specific gravity

object

5.0

water

waterV

1

1 g

1 g

1 7.8 m/s 2

objectVobject

S .G.

5.0

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