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# Hydraulics:

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION
REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

## CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS

VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRODUCTION:

WHAT IS OPEN CHANNEL FLOW?

## Open channel flow:

characterised by having
free water surface:
at which the

pressure
is atmospheric

&
across which

shear forces
are negligible

## OPEN CHANNELS: BASIC DEFINITIONS

If we look @ the Longitudinal profile:
free surface defines the
(shown below)

Q
Water surface &

## OPEN CHANNELS: BASIC DEFINITIONS

Commonly used geometric properties of open channel flow are:
Water surface

h1

y1
y2

Datum
X-section 1

h2

X-section 2

Depth y :

## The vertical distance from free surface to

lowest point of the channel bed at any given channel section.

Stage h :

## OPEN CHANNELS: BASIC DEFINITIONS

SURFACE WIDTH, B

AREA, A

P
Area A :
The cross sectional area of flow
(i.e. perpendicular to the direction of flow)

## Wetted Perimeter P : The length of the wetted channel surface

(i.e. perpendicular to the direction of flow)
Surface Width B :
Width of the channel section,
(i.e. perpendicular to the direction of flow at free surface)

SURFACE WIDTH, B

AREA, A

R= A/P

Dm = A / B

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

## REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

## FLOW STATE - REVISION

In Previous Lectures:
You looked at flow classification

Vd
Re

## Where Reynolds Number, Re, for pipe flow

Laminar flow : Re(pipe) < 2000
Turbulent flow : Re(pipe) > 4000

## FLOW STATE - REVISION

TYPES OF FLOW STATE

Most open
channel
flow
-turbulent

## FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL

How are these two flows different?
Constant inflow

ow
s

ta

Con
s

tan
t

infl

s
Con

w
nflo
nt i

OUTFLOW

OUTFLOW

## FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL

4 classifications used for open channel flows:

DEPTH

Uniform

Flow:

Flow:

Flow:

## FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL

1.) Steady Uniform Flow:
Depth is constant w.r.t. both time & distance.
Gravity forces are in equilibrium with resistance forces.

Constant
Uniform =
Constant

## FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL

2.) Unsteady Uniform Flow:

Very rare.
Not constant
Uniform =
Constant

## FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL

3.) Steady Non-uniform Flow:
Depth varies with distance but not with time.

infl
ow
s

tan

constant

Con
s

tan
t

s
Con

flow
t in

OUTFLOW

Non uniform =
not constant

## FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL

3.) Steady Non-uniform Flow:
Flow may be gradually varied or rapidly varied.

u/s

d/s
Pier
DAM

Stilling Basin

## FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL

4.) Unsteady Non-uniform Flow:
Depth varies with both time and distance

Not constant

Non uniform =
not constant

## The Severn Bore. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ol9ogW-4bPQ&feature=fvw

It is a large tidal surge wave that can be seen in the estuary of the River Severn,
where the tidal range is the 2nd highest in the world,
being as much as 50 feet (approx. 15.4m).

## Steady Uniform Flow:

Depth is constant with respect to
both time & distance.

## Steady Non-uniform Flow:

Depth varies with distance but not with time.

## Unsteady Non-uniform Flow:

Depth varies with both time and distance.

Vary rare.

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

## REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

## REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

REVISON: Reynolds Number, Re
We know that for pipe flow
Laminar flow : Re(pipe) < 2000
Turbulent flow : Re(pipe) > 4000

Re Channel
Where:

RV

## R is the hydraulic radius

is the absolute coeff of viscosity
V is velocity
is density of water (1000 kgm3)

R= A/P

## LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

It can be shown that:
(For further details see blue module book &
Chadwick and Morfett, Chapter 5):

Re (Channel ) Re ( Pipe ) / 4
For Pipe flow
Laminar flow : Re(pipe) < 2000
Turbulent flow : Re(pipe) > 4000

## Hence, for open channels:

Laminar flow : Re(channel) < 500
Turbulent flow : Re(channel) > 1000
(In practice, the lower limit for turbulent
flow is taken as Re > 2000)

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

## REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

## FOR STEADY UNIFORM FLOW

It is possible to adapt
equations such as:
Darcy-Weisbach
&/or
Colebrook-White
for use with
open channel flows

## FOR STEADY UNIFORM FLOW

However these approaches are:
complex &
open to question

## Due to the effect that:

free surface has on
velocity distributions

## FOR STEADY UNIFORM FLOW

BUT most open channel flow occurs
in the rough turbulent zone:

it is possible to develop
easier formulae
NB: Where we assume
Turbulent flow : Re > 2000

## THE CHEZY EQUATION

For steady uniform flow in open channels,
Chezy developed the following equation:

V C ( RS o )
So is the bed slope
C is the chezy coefficient:
(i.e. which depends on Reynolds number Re
& Boundary roughness -> friction factor)
R is hydraulic radius

R= A/P

Mannings Equation

## Many equations have been developed to

derive the chezy coefficient, C

## The most significant approach is that derived by

Manning (an Irish engineer / accountant)

16

where :
n = Mannings n,

R
C
n

## which depends on surface roughness & channel alignment

R is hydraulic radius
.

R= A/P

## Mannings Equation cont.

Combining the Chezy equation
with Manning

Gives

V C ( RS o )
R1 6
C
n

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R So
n

Since:

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R So
n
5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP

Then:

channel shape So

## ** APPLICATION OF MANNINGS EQUATION **

- Most applications of Mannings Eq
are w.r.t. steady uniform flow
& therefore quite straight-forward

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

## REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

Velocity Distributions
In Earlier Lectures:
when using velocity to calculate pipe flows :
we assumed an average velocity

## In the case of a circular pipeline:

the velocity distribution is complex
but relatively predictable
(i.e. being of a symmetrical form)

## Open channel flow,

with its free surface, is much less predictable.

In a rivers cross-section
where would you find
the max velocities?

## that max velocity would be at the surface

i.e. due to lack of significant shear forces across the free surface

## But this, is not the case:

the surface velocity affected by secondary currents
that circulate from the channel sides

## The actual velocity distribution is likely to be

of the form shown below.

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

## REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

Compound Channels
Some open channels:
may vary considerably across its section
For example:
where a river overflows to a contained flood plain.

Figure needed

## divide the River cross-section into several sub-sections

and apply different Mannings n values to each.

NB:

## the exact liquid interface between different sections is fairly arbitrary

as shear stresses between them are very small compared
to the shear stresses at the channel boundaries

coefficient

the momentum

## used with the:

energy equation:
& momentum equation:

P V 2

z constant
g 2 g

F Q (V2 x V1x )

## to account for irregular velocity distributions across a channels section

x
e.g. For turbulent pipe flow:
(energy coefficient) =1.06
(momentum coefficient) = 1.02

## For turbulent flow in regular channel :

(energy coefficient) rarely exceeds 1.15
(momentum coefficient) rarely exceeds 1.05

## And hence generally ignored (considered to =1)

Further details Section 2.4 Hydraulics in Civil & Environmental Eng, Chadwick & Morfett

## BUT for irregular channels:

the value of the energy coefficient
cant be assumed to approx = 1

## It may well approach (or even exceed) 2

& must be included in when using the energy equation
(Bernoulli equation)

To calculate

Then:

Where :

## V13 A1 V23 A2 V33 A3

3

V ( A1 A2 A3 )

Q V1 A1 V2 A2 V3 A3
V
A
A1 A2 A3

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

## REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

## Partially Full Circular Pipes

Another common problem is:
when circular pipes run partially full, thus
acting as an open channel rather than
as a pipeline

## Consider a full pipe with: Velocity Vfull

Discharge Qfull
It is worth noting:
1.) At a proportional depth of 0.5:
V0.5 = Vfull
Q0.5 = 0.5 Qfull

## 2.) At proportional depths slightly below D:

both proportional velocity & discharge

Hence,

Content

## OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS

FLOW STATE AND CLASSIFICATION
REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

## CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS

VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

## LAB (Some pointers)

* Further Study:
Complete Tutorial Sheet Number 8.

## Tutorial Sheet Number 8

Question 1)
Open channel of trapezoidal section:
is 2.5m wide at base &
slides inclined at 60 degrees to horizontal &
bed slope of 1 in 500
It is found that when :
the flow is 1.24 m3/s the corresponding
water depth (in the channel) is 350mm

## a.) Is the flow laminar or turbulent?

(take coeff of viscosity as 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms)
b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,
calculate the flow rate when the depth is 500mm

Re Channel
Where:

RV

## R is the hydraulic radius

is the absolute coeff of viscosity
V is velocity
is density of water (1000 kgm3)

## And, for open channels:

Laminar flow : Re(channel) < 500
Turbulent flow : Re(channel) > 1000
(In practice, the lower limit for turbulent
flow is taken as Re > 2000)

## Open channel of trapezoidal section:

is 2.5m wide at base &
slides inclined at 60 degrees to horizontal &
bed slope of 1 in 500
When: the flow is 1.24 m3/s the corresponding
water depth (in the channel) is 350mm
a.) Is the flow laminar or turbulent?
(take coeff of viscosity as 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms)

Re Channel
What terms do we already know?

RV

## is density of water = 1000 kgm3

is absolute coeff of viscosity = 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms

R=
V=

Velocity

## We know Hydraulic Radius R = A / P

So we must consider the geometry of trapezoidal section
i.e. in order to calculate A and P
x

350 mm

30o
y

60o
2.5 m

= x / 0.35

= 0.2 m

=

x/ y

= 0.4 m

## To find R (hydraulic radius)

2.9 m

0.2m

60o

350 mm

m
0.4

30o

2.5 m

A=

We know
Hydraulic Radius R = A / P

2

## P = 2.5 + (2 x 0.4) = 3.3 m

So

R = A / P = 0.945 / 3.3 =

0.286 m

Re Channel

RV

## is density of water = 1000 kgm3

is the absolute coeff of viscosity = 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms

R=
V=

Velocity

To find Velocity
0.2m

0.4

350 mm

A = 0.945 m2
m

2.5 m

## We know that when flow is 1.24 m3/s

the corresponding water depth in the channel is 350mm

Q = AV

V=Q/A
V = 1.24 / 0.945
V = 1.312 m /s

Re Channel

RV

We now know:
is density of water
is the absolute coeff of viscosity
R is hydraulic radius
V is Velocity

Re Channel

=
=
=
=

1000 kgm3
1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms
0.286 m
1.312 m/s

## 1000 0.286 1.312

329150
3
1.14 10

(In practice, the lower limit for turbulent flow is taken as Re > 2000)

## Open channel of trapezoidal section

is 2.5m wide at base and slides inclined at 60 degrees to horizontal
and has bed slope of 1 in 500
It is found that when the flow is 1.24 m3/s
the corresponding water depth in the channel is 350mm
b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,
calculate the flow rate (Q) when the depth is 500 mm

## We need to use the

Manning equation:

5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP
What terms do we already know?
So = bed slope = 1 in 500

## So we need to find values for:

n=
Mannings coeff
A (Area) & P (Wetted perimeter)
(N.B. due to new depth of 0.5m instead of 0.35m now different channel geometry)

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R So
n

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
n R So
V

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
n R So
V
We know:

## So (bed slope) = 1 in 500 = 0.002

And for the previous part of the question we had calculated:

V = 1.312 m/s
R = 0.286 m
NOTE:
We are assuming that mannings coeff has not changed
(i.e. we are calculating n for a channel flow depth of 0.35m
And will reapply it to the same channel with a new flow depth of 0.5m
Plug in values

1
2/3
1/ 2
0.286 0.002
n
1.312
n = 0.01483

## b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,

calculate the flow rate (Q) when the depth is 500 mm

## We need to use the

Manning equation:

5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP
What terms do we already know?
So = bed slope = 1 in 500
n=
Mannings coeff = 0.01483
So we need to find values for:

## A (Area) & P (Wetted perimeter)

(N.B. due different depth there is now different channel geometry)

## To find new values for A & P

Recalculate channel geometry for a flow depth of 500mm
we need to reconsider the geometry of trapezoidal section
x

60o

500 mm

30o

2.5 m

From trig:

## Tan (30o) = x / 0.5

Sin (30o) = x / y

## x = 0.5 * Tan (30o)

= 0.286 m
y = 0.286 / Sin (30o)
= 0.571 m

## To find R (hydraulic radius)

3.071 m

0.286m

60o

500 mm

m
71
0.5

30o

2.5 m

We know
Hydraulic Radius R = A / P

## b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,

calculate the flow rate (Q) when the depth is 500 mm

## We need to use the

Manning equation:

5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP
we now know:
So = bed slope = 1 in 500
n=
Mannings coeff = 0.01483
A (Area) = 1.393 m2
P (Wetted perimeter) = 3.642 m

1
1.393
1/ 2
3
0.002 2.2m / s
Q
2/3
0.01483 3.642
5/3