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Hydraulics:

Fundamentals of open channel flow

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION
REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS


VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRODUCTION:


WHAT IS OPEN CHANNEL FLOW?

Open channel flow:


characterised by having
free water surface:
at which the

pressure
is atmospheric

&
across which

shear forces
are negligible

OPEN CHANNELS: BASIC DEFINITIONS


If we look @ the Longitudinal profile:
free surface defines the
hydraulic gradient
(shown below)

Q
Energy Gradient
Water surface &
Hydraulic gradient

OPEN CHANNELS: BASIC DEFINITIONS


Commonly used geometric properties of open channel flow are:
Water surface

h1

y1
y2

Datum
X-section 1

h2

X-section 2

Depth y :

The vertical distance from free surface to


lowest point of the channel bed at any given channel section.

Stage h :

Vertical distance from the free surface to an arbitrary datum

OPEN CHANNELS: BASIC DEFINITIONS


SURFACE WIDTH, B

AREA, A

P
Area A :
The cross sectional area of flow
(i.e. perpendicular to the direction of flow)

Wetted Perimeter P : The length of the wetted channel surface


(i.e. perpendicular to the direction of flow)
Surface Width B :
Width of the channel section,
(i.e. perpendicular to the direction of flow at free surface)

OPEN CHANNELS: BASIC DEFINITIONS


SURFACE WIDTH, B

AREA, A

Hydraulic Radius

R= A/P

Hydraulic Mean Depth

Dm = A / B

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

FLOW STATE - REVISION


In Previous Lectures:
You looked at flow classification

Vd
Re

Where Reynolds Number, Re, for pipe flow


Laminar flow : Re(pipe) < 2000
Turbulent flow : Re(pipe) > 4000

FLOW STATE - REVISION

Laminar flow in a pipe:


http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=KqqtOb30jWs&feature=related

Turbulent flow in a pipe:


http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=NplrDarMDF8&feature=related

FLOW STATE - REVISION


TYPES OF FLOW STATE

Most open
channel
flow
-turbulent

FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL


How are these two flows different?
Constant inflow

ow
s

ta

Con
s

tan
t

infl

s
Con

w
nflo
nt i

OUTFLOW

Steady, uniform flow

OUTFLOW

Steady non-uniform flow

FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL


4 classifications used for open channel flows:

DEPTH
1.) Steady

Uniform

Flow:

2.) Unsteady Uniform

Flow:

3.) Steady Non-uniform

Flow:

4.) Unsteady Non-Uniform Flow:

FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL


1.) Steady Uniform Flow:
Depth is constant w.r.t. both time & distance.
Gravity forces are in equilibrium with resistance forces.

Steady =
Constant
Uniform =
Constant

FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL


2.) Unsteady Uniform Flow:

Very rare.
Unsteady =
Not constant
Uniform =
Constant

FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL


3.) Steady Non-uniform Flow:
Depth varies with distance but not with time.

infl
ow
s

tan

Steady =

constant

Con
s

tan
t

s
Con

flow
t in

OUTFLOW

Non uniform =
not constant

FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL


3.) Steady Non-uniform Flow:
Flow may be gradually varied or rapidly varied.

u/s

d/s
Pier
DAM

Stilling Basin

FLOW CLASSIFICATION OPEN CHANNEL


4.) Unsteady Non-uniform Flow:
Depth varies with both time and distance

Unsteady =
Not constant

Non uniform =
not constant

The Severn Bore. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ol9ogW-4bPQ&feature=fvw


It is a large tidal surge wave that can be seen in the estuary of the River Severn,
where the tidal range is the 2nd highest in the world,
being as much as 50 feet (approx. 15.4m).

FLOW CLASSIFICATION SUMMARY

Steady Uniform Flow:


Depth is constant with respect to
both time & distance.

Steady Non-uniform Flow:


Depth varies with distance but not with time.

Unsteady Non-uniform Flow:


Depth varies with both time and distance.

Unsteady Uniform Flow:


Vary rare.

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


REVISON: Reynolds Number, Re
We know that for pipe flow
Laminar flow : Re(pipe) < 2000
Turbulent flow : Re(pipe) > 4000

To calculate Reynolds Number for open channels:

Re Channel
Where:

RV

R is the hydraulic radius


is the absolute coeff of viscosity
V is velocity
is density of water (1000 kgm3)

R= A/P

LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


It can be shown that:
(For further details see blue module book &
Chadwick and Morfett, Chapter 5):

Re (Channel ) Re ( Pipe ) / 4
For Pipe flow
Laminar flow : Re(pipe) < 2000
Turbulent flow : Re(pipe) > 4000

Hence, for open channels:


Laminar flow : Re(channel) < 500
Turbulent flow : Re(channel) > 1000
(In practice, the lower limit for turbulent
flow is taken as Re > 2000)

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

FOR STEADY UNIFORM FLOW


It is possible to adapt
equations such as:
Darcy-Weisbach
&/or
Colebrook-White
for use with
open channel flows

FOR STEADY UNIFORM FLOW


However these approaches are:
complex &
open to question

Due to the effect that:


free surface has on
velocity distributions

FOR STEADY UNIFORM FLOW


BUT most open channel flow occurs
in the rough turbulent zone:

it is possible to develop
easier formulae
NB: Where we assume
Turbulent flow : Re > 2000

THE CHEZY EQUATION


For steady uniform flow in open channels,
Chezy developed the following equation:

V C ( RS o )
So is the bed slope
C is the chezy coefficient:
(i.e. which depends on Reynolds number Re
& Boundary roughness -> friction factor)
R is hydraulic radius

R= A/P

Mannings Equation

Many equations have been developed to


derive the chezy coefficient, C

The most significant approach is that derived by


Manning (an Irish engineer / accountant)

16

where :
n = Mannings n,

R
C
n

which depends on surface roughness & channel alignment

R is hydraulic radius
.

R= A/P

Mannings Equation cont.


Combining the Chezy equation
with Manning

Gives

V C ( RS o )
R1 6
C
n

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R So
n

Mannings Equation cont.


Since:

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R So
n
5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP

Then:

This is known as the Manning equation

This equation can be applied to any

channel shape So

n values have been developed for a range of situations

** APPLICATION OF MANNINGS EQUATION **


- Most applications of Mannings Eq
are w.r.t. steady uniform flow
& therefore quite straight-forward

However, several points are worth considering:

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

Velocity Distributions
In Earlier Lectures:
when using velocity to calculate pipe flows :
we assumed an average velocity

despite the actual velocity distribution being quite complex

In the case of a circular pipeline:


the velocity distribution is complex
but relatively predictable
(i.e. being of a symmetrical form)

Open channel flow,


with its free surface, is much less predictable.

In a rivers cross-section
where would you find
the max velocities?

Unpredictability of open channel flow

It might be assumed that

that max velocity would be at the surface

i.e. due to lack of significant shear forces across the free surface

But this, is not the case:


the surface velocity affected by secondary currents
that circulate from the channel sides

The actual velocity distribution is likely to be


of the form shown below.

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

Compound Channels
Some open channels:
may vary considerably across its section
For example:
where a river overflows to a contained flood plain.

For compound Channels


Figure needed

divide the River cross-section into several sub-sections


and apply different Mannings n values to each.

NB:

the exact liquid interface between different sections is fairly arbitrary


as shear stresses between them are very small compared
to the shear stresses at the channel boundaries

Compound Channels - REVISION

In Lecture 1 you looked at :

coefficient

the energy coefficient &

the momentum

used with the:

energy equation:
& momentum equation:

P V 2

z constant
g 2 g

F Q (V2 x V1x )

to account for irregular velocity distributions across a channels section


x
e.g. For turbulent pipe flow:
(energy coefficient) =1.06
(momentum coefficient) = 1.02

For turbulent flow in regular channel :


(energy coefficient) rarely exceeds 1.15
(momentum coefficient) rarely exceeds 1.05

And hence generally ignored (considered to =1)


Further details Section 2.4 Hydraulics in Civil & Environmental Eng, Chadwick & Morfett

BUT for irregular channels:


the value of the energy coefficient
cant be assumed to approx = 1

It may well approach (or even exceed) 2


& must be included in when using the energy equation
(Bernoulli equation)

For compound channels

To calculate

(overall channel section)

Assume that for each smaller section of channel equals 1


Then:

(overall channel section)

Where :

V13 A1 V23 A2 V33 A3


3

V ( A1 A2 A3 )

Q V1 A1 V2 A2 V3 A3
V
A
A1 A2 A3

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE & CLASSIFICATION

REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW


CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

Partially Full Circular Pipes


Another common problem is:
when circular pipes run partially full, thus
acting as an open channel rather than
as a pipeline

Consider a full pipe with: Velocity Vfull


Discharge Qfull
It is worth noting:
1.) At a proportional depth of 0.5:
V0.5 = Vfull
Q0.5 = 0.5 Qfull

2.) At proportional depths slightly below D:


both proportional velocity & discharge

Are higher than Qfull & Vfull

Partially Full Circular Pipes

The depth of flow is referred to as the proportional depth, d


Hence,

d is expressed as the ratio d / D

Content

OPEN CHANNELS: INTRO & BASIC DEFINITIONS


FLOW STATE AND CLASSIFICATION
REYNOLDS No, LAMINAR & TURBULENT FLOW

CHEZY & MANNING EQUATIONS


VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS
COMPOUND CHANNELS
PARTIALLY FULL CIRCULAR PIPES

WORKED EXAMPLE

LAB (Some pointers)

* Further Study:
Complete Tutorial Sheet Number 8.

Tutorial Sheet Number 8


Question 1)
Open channel of trapezoidal section:
is 2.5m wide at base &
slides inclined at 60 degrees to horizontal &
bed slope of 1 in 500
It is found that when :
the flow is 1.24 m3/s the corresponding
water depth (in the channel) is 350mm

a.) Is the flow laminar or turbulent?


(take coeff of viscosity as 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms)
b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,
calculate the flow rate when the depth is 500mm

a.) Is the flow laminar or turbulent? (NEED TO CHECK REYNOLDS No)

We know that for open channels Reynolds Number is given by:

Re Channel
Where:

RV

R is the hydraulic radius


is the absolute coeff of viscosity
V is velocity
is density of water (1000 kgm3)

And, for open channels:


Laminar flow : Re(channel) < 500
Turbulent flow : Re(channel) > 1000
(In practice, the lower limit for turbulent
flow is taken as Re > 2000)

Open channel of trapezoidal section:


is 2.5m wide at base &
slides inclined at 60 degrees to horizontal &
bed slope of 1 in 500
When: the flow is 1.24 m3/s the corresponding
water depth (in the channel) is 350mm
a.) Is the flow laminar or turbulent?
(take coeff of viscosity as 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms)

Re Channel
What terms do we already know?

RV

is density of water = 1000 kgm3


is absolute coeff of viscosity = 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms

So we need to find values for:


R=
V=

hydraulic radius
Velocity

We know Hydraulic Radius R = A / P


So we must consider the geometry of trapezoidal section
i.e. in order to calculate A and P
x

350 mm

30o
y

60o
2.5 m

Tan (30o) = opp / adj


= x / 0.35

x = 0.35 * Tan (30o)


= 0.2 m

Sin (30o) = opp / hyp


=

x/ y

y = 0.2 / Sin (30o)


= 0.4 m

To find R (hydraulic radius)


2.9 m

0.2m

60o

350 mm

m
0.4

30o

2.5 m

A=

We know
Hydraulic Radius R = A / P

2.5 2.9 0.35 0.945m 2


2

P = 2.5 + (2 x 0.4) = 3.3 m


So

R = A / P = 0.945 / 3.3 =

0.286 m

Re Channel

RV

What terms do we already know?

is density of water = 1000 kgm3


is the absolute coeff of viscosity = 1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms

So we need to find values for:


R=
V=

hydraulic radius = 0.286 m


Velocity

To find Velocity
0.2m

0.4

350 mm

A = 0.945 m2
m

2.5 m

We know that when flow is 1.24 m3/s


the corresponding water depth in the channel is 350mm

Q = AV

V=Q/A
V = 1.24 / 0.945
V = 1.312 m /s

Re Channel

RV

We now know:
is density of water
is the absolute coeff of viscosity
R is hydraulic radius
V is Velocity

Re Channel

=
=
=
=

1000 kgm3
1.14 x 10-3 kg/ms
0.286 m
1.312 m/s

1000 0.286 1.312

329150
3
1.14 10

(In practice, the lower limit for turbulent flow is taken as Re > 2000)

Open channel of trapezoidal section


is 2.5m wide at base and slides inclined at 60 degrees to horizontal
and has bed slope of 1 in 500
It is found that when the flow is 1.24 m3/s
the corresponding water depth in the channel is 350mm
b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,
calculate the flow rate (Q) when the depth is 500 mm

We need to use the


Manning equation:

5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP
What terms do we already know?
So = bed slope = 1 in 500

So we need to find values for:


n=
Mannings coeff
A (Area) & P (Wetted perimeter)
(N.B. due to new depth of 0.5m instead of 0.35m now different channel geometry)

To establish a value for Mannings coeff, n

We know from lecture:

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
V R So
n

Rearrange to calculate mannings number

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
n R So
V

To establish a value for Mannings coeff, n

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
n R So
V
We know:

So (bed slope) = 1 in 500 = 0.002


And for the previous part of the question we had calculated:

V = 1.312 m/s
R = 0.286 m
NOTE:
We are assuming that mannings coeff has not changed
(i.e. we are calculating n for a channel flow depth of 0.35m
And will reapply it to the same channel with a new flow depth of 0.5m
Plug in values

1
2/3
1/ 2
0.286 0.002
n
1.312
n = 0.01483

b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,


calculate the flow rate (Q) when the depth is 500 mm

We need to use the


Manning equation:

5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP
What terms do we already know?
So = bed slope = 1 in 500
n=
Mannings coeff = 0.01483
So we need to find values for:

A (Area) & P (Wetted perimeter)


(N.B. due different depth there is now different channel geometry)

To find new values for A & P


Recalculate channel geometry for a flow depth of 500mm
we need to reconsider the geometry of trapezoidal section
x

60o

500 mm

30o

2.5 m

From trig:

Tan (30o) = x / 0.5

Sin (30o) = x / y

x = 0.5 * Tan (30o)


= 0.286 m
y = 0.286 / Sin (30o)
= 0.571 m

To find R (hydraulic radius)


3.071 m

0.286m

60o

500 mm

m
71
0.5

30o

2.5 m

We know
Hydraulic Radius R = A / P

A = 2.5 3.071 0.5 1.393m 2

P = 2.5 + (2 x 0.571) = 3.642 m

b.) Assuming the validity of Mannings equation,


calculate the flow rate (Q) when the depth is 500 mm

We need to use the


Manning equation:

5/3

1 A
1/ 2
Q
S
2/3 o
nP
we now know:
So = bed slope = 1 in 500
n=
Mannings coeff = 0.01483
A (Area) = 1.393 m2
P (Wetted perimeter) = 3.642 m

1
1.393
1/ 2
3
0.002 2.2m / s
Q
2/3
0.01483 3.642
5/3