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TWO APPROACHES IN

VALUES EDUCATION

HILBERT S. NARCISO

1. TRADITIONAL MODEL OF
VALUES EDUCATION
It placed greater emphasis on the content of values
instead of on the valuer, the one choosing and acting on
the values. The approach is more teacher-centred,
where the educator is seen as both the possessor of
knowledge (an expert) and the model of values (an
idol). The responsibility therefore, largely rests on the
educator. The learner simply adopts a more passive
role, merely absorbing the material being handed down.

THE HUMANISTIC MODEL OF


VALUES EDUCATION
The stress is from content- to process based, values- to
valuer-focused and teacher- to student-centred
orientation. The greater part of the learning this time
will involve the valuing process where a dynamic
interaction within the individual learner and between
each other occurs.

VALUING PROCESS
This is achieved by
by looking
looking inward
inward to
to the
the inner
inner self
self and
to examine how
how the
the various
various systems
systems of
of which
which you
you are
are a
a
part,
part, have
have had
had an
an influence
influence on
on your
your development
development of
of
values.
values. These systems include the family unit, the
school, the Church, the workplace,
workplace, the
the community,
community, the
the
nation, the world
world and
and even
even cosmic
cosmic realities,
realities, i.e.
i.e. the
the
experience
experience of
of a
a higher
higher power.
power.

This means that the


values you profess
in the cognitive
level will be filtered
down to the
affective as well as
the behavioral,
thereby making
them authentic
persons who are
true to themselves
and becoming fully
human.

This also involves an effort


at finding some form of
consistency between what
one personally upholds as
values with the values
that ones external
realities promote, i.e.
cultural norms, societys
expectations, roles
undertaken, and others.

IT IS NOT WHAT WE KNOW THAT WE DO. IT IS WHAT


WE WANT THAT WE DO.

ACCORDING TO LOUIS RATHS, VALUING IS


COMPOSED OF SEVEN SUB-PROCESSES:

Prizing ones
beliefs and
behaviors

Choosing ones
beliefs and
behaviors

1. Prizing and
cherishing

3. Choosing from
alternatives

2. Publicly
affirming,
when
appropriate

4. Choosing after
consideration of
consequences
5. Choosing
freely

Acting on
ones beliefs
6. Acting
7. Acting with
a pattern,
consistency
and repetition

IMPLICATIONS OF THE VALUING


PROCESS
Ultimately, the ownership and decision of a value lies with the
learner. Values cannot be forced, even if conveyed with good
intentions.
The lesson in a valuing process context is about life itself.
Above all, the learner exposed to the valuing process begins to
master the art of discernment. This means that the learner will
be more able to live consciously and responsibly.
Valuing is definitely a complex process.
The essence of valuing lies in helping the learner ask the
why? and what for? in life.