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STRATEGIES ON THE

SURVEILLANCE
TOPIC
Rich Edwards
Baylor University
2015-16 National Policy Topic

Resolved: The United States federal


government should substantially curtail its
domestic surveillance.

THE TERRORIST THREAT


OUTWEIGHS PRIVACY
CONCERNS
Scott Glick, (Prof., Law, Hofstra U.),
INDIANA LAW JOURNAL, 2015, 36.
Fourth Amendment reasonableness
should be viewed contextually and
assessed under particular facts and
circumstances. In the context of the
threatened use of certain WMDs, it is
hard to imagine a governmental
interest more compelling than the
preservation and protection of society
from existential threats, massive
destruction, or catastrophic loss of
life, which is clearly a constitutional
value of the highest order of
magnitude. Indeed, Article IV of the
Constitution imposes an affirmative
obligation on the federal government

BROAD PRESIDENTIAL
POWER TO DEFEND THE
NATION
IS VITAL
John Eastman,
(Prof., Law, Chapman U.),

The President has authority of his own


directly from Article II of the Constitution,
authority that cannot be restricted by an
Act of Congress. The open question is
whether the ability to conduct
surveillance of enemy communications
during time of war, even if one end of
those communications is within the
borders of the United States, is part of
the Presidents constitutional
authority. . . .
Heres the ruling by the highest court to
have considered the issue, directly on
point: We take for granted that the
President does have [inherent authority
to conduct warrantless searches to
lable at: http://www.cato-unbound.org/2010/08/11/john-eastman/surveillance-our-enemies-during-wartime-im-shock
obtain foreign intelligence information],

SOUSVEILLANCE IS THE
PROPER RESPONSE TO
SURVEILLANCE
David Brin, (Ph.D.,
Physics, U. California, San
Diego), DOMESTIC
SURVEILLANCE, 2015, 73.
Those who deride
sousveillance as utopian
ignore one fact: Its what
already worked. The great
enlightenment method of
reciprocal accountability
and adversarially
determined truth
leveling the playing field
by pitting elites against

Panopticon Analogy Is Wrong


Kees Boersma, (Prof., Social Science, VU University,
Amsterdam), INTERNET AND SURVEILLANCE: THE
CHALLENGES OF WEB 2.0 AND SOCIAL MEDIA, 2012, 7.
There are authors who want to demolish the metaphor
of the panopticon and do not find it useful for explaining
contemporary surveillance and networked forms of
surveillance. They argue that surveillance systems such
as the Internet are decentralized forms of surveillance,
whereas the notion of the panopticon assumes
centralized data collection and control. Certainly,
surveillance today is more decentralized, less subject to
spatial and temporal constraints (location, time of day,
etc.), and less organized than ever before by the

People Dont Care


Siva Vaidhyanathan, (Pres., Media Studies, U.
Virginia), THE GOOGLIZATION OF EVERYTHING, 2012,
112. The forces at work in Europe, North America,
and much of the rest of the world are the opposite of
a Panopticon: they involve not the subjection of the
individual to the gaze of a single, centralized
authority, but the surveillance of the individual,
potentially by all, always by many. We have a
cryptopticon (for lack of a better word). Unlike
Benthams prisoners, we dont know all the ways in
which we are being watched or profiled we simply
know that we are. And we dont regulate our
behavior under the gaze of surveillance: instead, we
dont seem to care.

Surveillance May Actually


Promote Creativity
Siva Vaidhyanathan, (Prof., Media Studies, U. Virginia), HEDGEHOG REVIEW, Spr. 2015.
http://www.iasc-culture.org/THR/THR_article_2015_Spring_Vaidhyanathan.php

People will act as they wish regardless of the number of cameras pointed at them. The
thousands of surveillance cameras in London and New York City do not deter the
eccentric and avant-garde. Today, the example of reality television suggests that there
may even be a positive correlation between the number of cameras and observers
watching subjects and their willingness to act strangely and relinquish all pretensions of
dignity. There is no empirical reason to believe that awareness of surveillance limits the
imagination or stifles creativity in a market economy in an open, non-totalitarian state.

People Want to Be Seen


John Gilliom, (Prof., Political Science, Ohio U.), SUPERVISION: AN INTRODUCTION
TO THE SURVEILLANCE SOCIETY, 2013, 49. People use social networking sites to
see and be seen. Rather than being a prisonlike panopticon where trapped people
follow the rules because theyre afraid someone is watching, with Facebook and
similar sites people are probably more afraid that no one is watching, that no one
cares what theyre up to. So, many users discipline themselves in a different way
by divulging as much as possible about their lives and thoughts. In this medium,
being connected means actively and sometimes obsessively participating,
even if the content is shallow or trite.

Synopticon Is a Better
Metaphor
Jack Goldsmith, (Prof., Law, Harvard Law School), POWER
AND CONSTRAINT, 2012, 206. The direction of the
panopticon can be reversed, however, creating a
synopticon in which many can watch one, including
the government. . . . This new media content can be
broadcast on the Internet and through other channels to
give citizens synoptical power over the government a
power that some describe as sousveillance (watching
from below). These and related forms of watching can
have a disciplining effect on government akin to Brins
reciprocal transparency.

Surveillance Limits the Police


State
Caren Morrison, (Prof., Law, Georgia State U.), JOURNAL
OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, Winter
2015, 764. If there were a record of everything that ever
happened, we could know the truth. We could know
what really happened between Trayvon Martin and
George Zimmerman on that night in February 2012. We
would be able to solve all the unsolved shootings and
disappearances and faulty eyewitness identifications.

Surveillance Also
Protects
Lolita Buckner-Inniss, (Prof., Law, Cleveland-Marshall
College of Law), VIDEO SURVEILLANCE AS WHITE
WITNESSES, Sept. 30, 2012. http
://innissfls.blogspot.com/2012/09/video-surveillance-aswhite-witnesses.html
. Contemporary video surveillance video fulfills a similar
valorizing function for people who would be little likely
to be believed in a battle of divergent recollections. This
is perhaps nowhere more clear than in the case of video
surveillance in retail stores. While the presence of such
technology may upset some people, I am oddly
comforted by it. Fairly often I am the object of close
human observation when I enter such stores. I am, more
often than I care to acknowledge (it is embarrassing,
really) followed by store security or subjected to

No Evidence for the


Stultification Thesis
David Sklansky, (Prof., Law, Stanford Law School),
CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW, Oct. 2014, 107. The
widespread acceptance of the stultification thesis owes
something, at least among academics, to its resonance
with Michel Foucaults hugely influential argument that
power is exercised in modern societies through
disciplinary processes modeled consciously or
unconsciously on Jeremy Benthams Panopticon.
Nonetheless, as Neil Richards notes, claims about the
chilling effects of surveillance ultimately are empirical.
And it is striking how little empirical support has been
marshaled for the stultification thesis.

No Evidence for the


Stultification Thesis
David Sklansky, (Prof., Law, Stanford Law School),
CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW, Oct. 2014, 1099. Not only is
empirical support for the stultification thesis limited,
there is some suggestive evidence against it. That
evidence begins with a phenomenon that is all around
us: the sharing of personal information on the Internet,
especially through social media, and especially by the
young.

No Evidence for the


Stultification Thesis
David Sklansky, (Prof., Law, Stanford Law School),
CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW, Oct. 2014, 1099. People
quickly become accustomed to monitoring and then
ignore it. Something similar happens when criminal
suspects are recorded when talking to the police. Law
enforcement officials often oppose the recording of
interrogations, because they fear that it will deter
candor. In practice, though, it has virtually no effect:
minutes after the recording device is turned on, the
suspect forgets about it. And despite Justice Harlans
warning that warrantless, surreptitious recording of
conversations by confidential informants might well
smother [the] spontaneity . . . that liberates daily life,
we have now lived with that practice for four decades,

Government Is Not the Main


Threat
David Sklansky, (Prof., Law, Stanford Law School),
CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW, Oct. 2014, 1099. Digital
natives may think differently about privacy than their
elders. (For one thing, they are likely to worry more
about monitoring by their parents than by the
government or by corporations.) Reasons to doubt the
stultification thesis are not limited to the young, though.
For example, a study of government employees in
Canada suggested that freedom of information laws
contrary to fears do not affect the quantity or the
quality of record-keeping or intra-governmental
communication. That will come as little surprise to
anyone who uses email on a workplace network subject
to employer monitoring: evidence of self-censorship on

Why Blind the


Government?
Stephen Schulhofer, (Prof., Law, Vanderbilt U. Law
School), MORE ESSENTIAL THAN EVER: THE FOURTH
AMENDMENT IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, 2012, 5.
Because Internet browsing and on-line shopping already
expose much of our lives to commercial data banks, in
ways over which we have almost no control, why should
government officials charged with our safety be the only
ones denied access to that information?

Watching the Watchers


David Brin, (Ph.D., Physics, U. California, San Diego),
DOMESTIC SURVEILLANCE, 2015, 72. I do not want to
live in a world where everything I do and say is
recorded, proclaimed Snowden, with unintended irony,
as he ripped veils off those he disliked. But as I held in
The Transparent Society, the answer isnt to cower or
hide from Big Brother, nor to blind our watchdogs. The
solution is to answer surveillance with sousveillance [the
recording of events by their participants], or looking
back at the mighty from below. Holding light
accountable with reciprocal light. Letting our watchdogs
see but imposing choke-chain limits on what they do.
That distinction is crucial. Instead of obsessing on what
the FBI and NSA may know, lets demand fierce tools of

Mass Surveillance Is an
Alternative to Racial Profiling
Caren Morrison, (Prof., Law, Georgia State U.), JOURNAL
OF CIVIL RIGHTS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, Winter
2015, 761-762. If everyone were equally surveilled, it
might achieve what Randall Kennedy suggested some
years ago: rather than burdening particular individuals
with a "racial tax," universal surveillance would increase
taxes across the board. It is the same argument that can
be made in favor of police checkpoints - everyone is a
little bit inconvenienced so that a few don't have to be
singled out and bear the burden for everyone else.

Just and Unjust Laws


Martin Luther King, Jr., LETTER FROM A BIRMINGHAM
JAIL, 1963. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/
Letter_Birmingham.html

Let us consider a more concrete example of just and


unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a numerical or
power majority group compels a minority group to obey
but does not make binding on itself. This is difference
made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that
a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is
willing to follow itself.

The Best Answer to Surveillance Is More


Surveillance
David Brin, (Ph.D., Space Science, U. California at San
Diego), NEW YORK TIMES, July 25, 2013. Retrieved Apr.
13, 2015 from Nexis. It is fallacious to base our freedom
and safety upon blinding of elites. First, can you name
one time in human annals when that actually happened?
When those on top forsook any powers of vision? Forbid,
and you'll drive it underground. As the author Robert
Heinlein said, the chief effect of a privacy law is to
''make the [spy] bugs smaller.'' And smaller they
become! Faster than Moore's Law, cameras get cheaper,
better, more mobile, more numerous and smaller each
year. If laws banish such things, who will be thwarted?
Only normal folk, while elites government, corporate,
wealth, criminal and foreign will have the new

SURVEILLANCE ESSENTIAL
TO STOP CYBER ATTACKS
Nirode Mohanty, (Associate Editor,
International Journal in
Telecommunications and
Networking), RADICALISM IN ISLAM:
RESURGENCE AND RAMIFICATIONS,
2012, 409. In cyberattacks, damage
can range from an individual
computer malfunctioning, to
distorting an entire countrys cell
phone networks, jamming
espionage, communications, and
navigational satellites, or crashing
its electrical grid or air traffic control
systems. In terms of human and

ATTACK IS LIKELY
Roland Heickero, (Prof., Swedish National Defense
College), THE DARK SIDES OF THE INTERNET: ON
CYBER THREATS AND INFORMATION WARFARE, 2013,
13. In a 2003 intelligence report on cyber defence by
the U.S. Navy the following estimate was done: A
group of some thirty hackers, strategically located and
with a budget of less than 10 million U.S. dollars,
could shut down large parts of the critical
infrastructure in the United States in a well coordinated attack.

FIFTEEN MINUTES IS ENOUGH


Richard Clarke, (Prof., Security Studies, Harvard U.),
CYBER WAR: THE NEXT THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY
AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT, 2012, 67-68. Power will not
come back up because nuclear plants have gone into
secure lockdown and many conventional plants have
had their generators permanently damaged. Hightension transmission lines on several key routes have
caught fire and melted. Unable to get cash from ATMs or
bank branches, some Americans will begin to loot
stores. Police and emergency services will be
overwhelmed. In all the wars America has fought, no
nation has ever done this kind of damage to our cities. A
sophisticated cyber war attack by one of several nation-

FIFTEEN MINUTES IS ENOUGH


The Economist, CYBERCRIME, 2014, 142. What will cyber
war look like? In a new book Richard Clarke, a former
White House staffer in charge of counterterrorism and
cybersecurity, envisages a catastrophic breakdown
within 15 minutes. Computer bugs bring down military
e-mail systems; oil refineries and pipelines explode; airtraffic-control systems collapse; freight and metro trains
derail; financial data are scrambled; the electrical grid
goes down in the eastern United States; orbiting
satellites spin out of control. Society soon breaks down
as food becomes scarce and money runs out.

NEW DARK AGE


Paul Day, (IT Specialist & White Hat Hacker/Founder, P/H-UK
Magazine), CYBER ATTACK: THE TRUTH ABOUT DIGITAL
CRIME, CYBER WARFARE AND GOVERNMENT
SNOOPING, 2014, 6. When 94 per cent of the worlds
information is digital, it doesnt take much to tip the balance of
civilization into a New Dark Age. If cyber-criminals bring our
society to a halt through ill-advised use of malware and RATS,
nobody will be able to get any money from the ATMs and
purchasing using a credit card will become impossible.

MASS PANIC
Shane Harris, (Fellow, New America Foundation),
@WAR: THE RISE OF THE MILITARY-INTERNET
COMPLEX, 2014, 141. [Bush adm. Aid, John Mcconnell,
discussing a cyber terror attack]: The trillions of
dollars that sloshed around the world every day did so
through computer networks. The money was really
just data. It was balances in accounts. A distributed
network of electronic ledgers that kept track of who
bought and sold what, who moved money where, and
to whom. Corrupt just a portion of that information, or
destroy it, and mass panic would ensue, McConnell
said. Whole economies could collapse just for lack of

MILITARY SYSTEMS AT RISK


Nirode Mohanty, (Associate Editor, International
Journal in Telecommunications and Networking),
RADICALISM IN ISLAM: RESURGENCE AND
RAMIFICATIONS, 2012, 55-56. Nuclear weapons and
some military installations may not be physically
connected to the territories where terrorists reside,
but even with the best computer security, encryption,
decryption, and firewalls, computers and the Internet
are vulnerable to cybercrimes and hacking. Any
battlefield, business, and financial systems, plus
traffic control, airport security, power generation and
distribution or any other devices that are controlled by

CRIPPLE THE U.S.


Kevin Freeman, (Sr. Fellow, Center for Security Policy),
GAME PLAN: HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF FROM THE
COMING CYBER-ECONOMIC ATTACK, 2014, 16. In
January 2013 the secretary of homeland security,
Janet Napolitano, warned that a cyberattack from
abroad could cripple the United States. She mentioned
the possibility of a cyber 9/11, which she said could
happen imminently and threaten water, electricity,
and gas for Americans.

DRUG SURVEILLANCE
ESSENTIAL TO STOP
TERRORISM
Paul Stockton, (U.S. Undersecretary
of Defense for Homeland Security),
BOOTS ON THE GROUND OR EYES IN
THE SKY, House Hrg., Apr. 17, 2012,
8. Drug trafficking and related
transnational organized crime
presents a significant threat to our
Nation. The movement of large
amounts of drugs across our borders
is the most immediate concern, but
the potential for these drug
smuggling networks to be used for
infiltrating terrorists and weapons of
mass destruction cannot be

FINANCIAL SURVEILLANCE
IS ESSENTIAL TO STOP
TERRORISM
Adam Wallwork, (JD, U. of Chicago
Law School), SOUTHERN
UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW, Fall
2013, 3. Combating terrorist
financing is an essential element
of United States and global
counterterrorism efforts.
International terrorist networks
require funds to support their
infrastructures. It takes money to
recruit and train terrorists, procure
weapons and safe-houses, pay for
travel, support families of so-called
"martyrs," issue propaganda, and

BORDER ENFORCEMENT
ESSENTIAL TO
IMMIGRATION REFORM
Daniel Morales, (Prof., Law,
DePaul U. College of Law),
NORTHWESTERN
UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW
COLLOQUY, July 2013, 36.
Comprehensive immigration
reform law will emerge--if at
all--from the following
bargain: conservatives will
agree to legalize millions of
"illegal" immigrants in
exchange for liberals'
agreement to more robust

TOPICALITY
ARGUMENTS
Rich Edwards
Baylor University
2015-16 National Policy Topic

Resolved: The United States federal


government should substantially reduce its
domestic surveillance.

Likely Topicality
Arguments
Substantially means more than 25% of the
U.S. population
Substantially means without material
qualification
Curtail does not mean abolition
Curtail does not mean self-restraint
Its means the U.S. federal government,
not local police or state welfare agencies
Domestic means not foreign
Surveillance is not supervision
Surveillance watches people, not programs
or resources

CASE RESPONSES
TO PARTICULAR
AFFIRMATIVE CASES
Rich Edwards
Baylor University
2015-16 National Policy Topic
Resolved: The United States federal
government should substantially curtail its
domestic surveillance.

FISA COURT
REFORM

John Bates, (U.S. District Court


Judge & Dir., Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts), LETTER TO
DIANE FEINSTEIN, Jan. 13, 2014.
http
://www.feinstein.senate.gov/publ
ic/index.cfm/files/serve/?File_i
d=3bcc8fbc-d13c-4f95-8aa909887d6e90ed. The participation
of a privacy advocate is
unnecessary and could prove
counterpoductive in the vast
majority of FISA matters, which
involve the application of a
probable cause or other factual
standard to case-specific facts
and typically implicate the

BULK COLLECTION
John Inglis, (Dir., National Security
Agency), STRENGTHENING
PRIVACY RIGHTS AND NATIONAL
SECURITY: OVERSIGHT OF FISA
SURVEILLANCE PROGRAMS,
Senate Judiciary Comm. Hearing,
July 31, 2013, 55. In simple terms,
you are looking for a needle, in
this case a number, in a haystack.
But not just any number. You want
to make a focused query against
a body of data that returns only
those numbers that are
connected to the one you have
reasonable suspicion is connected
to a terrorist group. But unless
you have the haystack in this
case all the records of who called

BIG DATA
Daniel Castro, (Dir., Center for Data
Innovation), BIG DATA STUDY, Mar. 31,
2014, 5.
Fundamentally, data analysis helps people
and organizations make better decisions. In
the private sector, these decisions may
take the form of a company buying from
one vendor instead of another, a farmer
planting at a particular place and time, or a
person at home choosing to bring an
umbrella on an outing. Key decisions in the
government that can be aided with data
analysis include determining which
programs to cut, which companies to audit,
and which business processes to
implement. Government has an important
role to play in encouraging big data use in
fields including health care, education,

PRIVATIZE THE TSA


Bennie Thompson, (U.S. Representative, Mississippi), EXAMINING
TSAS MANAGEMENT OF THE SCREENING PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM,
House Hrg., July 29, 2014, 6.
After 9/11 it was clear to the vast majority of Members of Congress
and the Bush administration that transitioning to a Federal screener
workforce was the right thing to do for the security of our Nation.
And, it worked. There has not been a successful attack against our
aviation system on U.S. soil since 9/11.

FBI INFORMANTS
Beau Barnes, (JD Candidate, Boston U.
Paul Sperry, (Former
School of Law), BOSTON UNIVERSITY LAW
Washington Bureau
REVIEW, Oct. 2012, 1636. The
Chief), INVESTORS
effectiveness of confidential informants in
BUSINESS DAILY, Feb.
homegrown terrorism investigations is
20, 2015, A15. Between
borne out by statistics. One study found
2010 and 2013, the
that approximately sixty-two percent of the
Obama administration
prosecutions in the fifty highest profile
imported almost
300,000 new immigrants terrorist plots since 2001 relied on
confidential informants. Another study
from Muslim nations
examined eighty-nine thwarted domestic
terrorist plots, finding that sixty-six "were
prevented at least in part as a result of the
work of undercover agents and informants,
or tips from the public." Approximately fifty
percent of terrorism prosecutions since
2009 have involved informants.

BORDER
SURVEILLANCE

Sylvia Longmire, (Former U.S. Air Force


Officer & Intelligence Analyst), BORDER
INSECURITY: WHY BIG MONEY, FENCES,
AND DRONES ARENT MAKING US
SAFER, 2014, 134. There is no doubt
that there are many terrorist groups
and their sympathizers who would love
nothing more than to see another 9/11
occur on American soil. There is also
no doubt that members and
sympathizers of some of these groups
have a presence in Latin America, in
Mexico, and in the United States. There
is ample evidence to prove some of
these individuals arrived in the United
States by way of crossing the USMexico border, either legally or
illegally, and the mere presence in our

DRONE
SURVEILLANCE
Chris Schlag, (JD Candidate),
UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH JOURNAL
OF TECHNOLOGY LAW & POLICY, Spr.
2013, 7-8. Drone surveillance features
include technologies such as
automated object detection, GPS
surveillance, gigapixel cameras, and
enhanced image resolution. Due to its
relative cost effectiveness, drone
aerial surveillance has quickly become
the most efficient tool for monitoring
livestock movements, mapping wildlife
habitats, maintaining property
security, performing road patrols, and
combating piracy, among others.

CYBER ATTACKS
Nichol Perlroth, (Staff), NEW YORK TIMES,
Sept. 5, 2013. Retrieved Feb. 13, 2015 from
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/06/us/nsafoils-much-internet-encryption.html?
pagewanted=all&_r=0. The N.S.A., which
has specialized in code-breaking since its
creation in 1952, sees that task as essential
to its mission. If it cannot decipher the
messages of terrorists, foreign spies and
other adversaries, the United States will be
at serious risk, agency officials say. Just in
recent weeks, the Obama administration
has called on the intelligence agencies for
details of communications by leaders of Al
Qaeda about a terrorist plot and of Syrian
officials messages about the chemical
weapons attack outside Damascus. If such
communications can be hidden by

GEOLOCATION
SURVEILLANCE
Stephanie Pell, (Prof., Cyber
Ethics, U.S. Military Academy at
West Points Cyber Institute),
HARVARD JOURNAL OF LAW &
TECHNOLOGY, Fall 2014, 54.
Passive interception technology
that once cost tens of thousands
of dollars can now be built at
home for as little as $15.
Similarly, whereas cellular
interception was once a black art
practiced by those in the
intelligence community, today,

FAMILIAL DNA
Colin McFerrin, (JD Candidate,
Texas Wesleyan School of Law),
TEXAS WESLEYAN LAW REVIEW,
Spr. 2013, 973. The cases of the
Bind, Torture, Kill (BTK)
serial killer and the Grim
Sleeper killer are two prolific
examples of law enforcement
and prosecutors using DNA
evidence to identify and
eventually convict suspects. In
both cases, however, law
enforcement identified their
suspects using familial
searching.

CENSUS
SURVEILLANCE

American Association of Public


Opinion Research, THE PROS AND
CONS OF MAKING THE CENSUS
BUREAUS AMERICAN COMMUNITY
SURVEY VOLUNTARY, House
Oversight and Government Reform
Comm. Hearing, Mar. 6, 2012, 34. In
addition, the Voting Rights Act relies
on ACS data to make determinations
under section 203, which requires
jurisdictions with a high percentage
of people who are not English
language proficient to offer bilingual
voting materials. Both the
government and business sector
rely on ACS data to help ensure
appropriate employment

WELFARE
SURVEILLANCE
Michelle Gilman, (Prof.,
Law, U. Baltimore School
of Law), BROOKLYN LAW
REVIEW, Summer 2012,
1391. Welfare
administration is highly
devolved in that states
and localities have great
discretion in how they
structure their welfare
programs.

IRS SURVEILLANCE
U.S. Internal Revenue Service, Restriction of
Political Campaign Intervention by Section
501(c)(3) Tax-Exempt Organizations, Jan. 6,
2016.
http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/CharitableOrganizations/The-Restriction-of-Political-Campaign-In
tervention-by-Section-501%28c%29%283%29-Tax-ExemptOrganizations.

Under the Internal Revenue Code, all section


501(c)(3) organizations are absolutely
prohibited from directly or indirectly
participating in, or intervening in, any political
campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to)
any candidate for elective public office.
Contributions to political campaign funds or
public statements of position (verbal or
written) made on behalf of the organization in

EDUCATIONAL
SURVEILLANCE
Bill Hammond, (Staff), NEW YORK DAILY
NEWS, July 9, 2014, 28. Channeling Tea
Party paranoia, [Rob Astorino] frames the
whole thing as a Washington plot: "You
can't tell me it's not the federal
government's long arm into education,
here. It truly is." No, it truly is not. In fact,
the Common Core was created by officials
from 48 states - through the National
Governors Association and the Council of
Chief State School Officers. Microsoft
tycoon Bill Gates supported the project,
financially and politically. But committees
of educators and experts did the nitty-

MUSLIM CHARITIES
Sam Adelsberg, (JD Candidate), HARVARD
NATIONAL SECURITY JOURNAL, 2013, 288.
While Humanitarian Law Project highlighted
the government's broad authority to
prosecute under the material support
statute, a survey of cases filed against
defendants who have allegedly provided
material support to foreign terrorist
organizations suggests that the
government does not pursue all individuals
within the reach of this statute. Instead, the
general pattern of prosecution indicates
that the government typically targets
individuals who satisfy three more
restrictive criteria: (1) they provide direct,
often physical, support to terrorist activity;

DRUG
SURVEILLANCE

Jonathan Caulkins, (Prof., Public Policy,


Carnegie Mellon U.), MARIJUANA
LEGALIZATION: WHAT EVERYONE
NEEDS TO KNOW, 2012, 114-115.
Making a drug legal does not entirely
eliminate the law-enforcement problem.
Any regulation or any tax strict enough
or high enough to actually restrict or
change behavior will face defiance and
require enforcement. About a million
and a half arrests are made each year
on the charge of driving under the
influence of alcohol: nearly twice as
many as for all marijuana violations
combined. That's in addition to arrests
for sales to minors, possession by

SURVEILLANCE OF
ATTORNEY-CLIENT
CONTACT

Michelle Malkin, (Analyst, Independent Institute), THE


LEFTS VALENTINE TO DEFIANT JIHAD-ENABLER LYNNE
STEWART, Feb. 7, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2015 from

http://michellemalkin.com/2014/02/07/the-lefts-valentine-to-defiant-jihad-enable
r-lynne-stewart/
. Stewart was convicted in 2005 of helping terrorist Omar

Abdel Rahman the murderous Blind Sheik smuggle


coded messages of Islamic violence to outside followers in
violation of an explicit pledge to abide by her clients
court-ordered isolation. Rahman, Stewarts political
client, had called on Muslims to destroy the West,
burn their companies, eliminate their interests, sink their
ships, shoot down their planes, kill them on the sea, air or
land. He issued bloody fatwas against U.S. infidels that