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Fluid Mechanics 05

Rotating Flow

In the rotating flow l = r and the


acceleration will be only in the normal
direction.
Where

Example
A cylindrical tank of liquid shown in
the figure is rotating as a solid body at
a rate of 4 rad/s. The
tank diameter is 0.5 m. The line AA
depicts the liquid surface before
rotation, and the line A A shows the
surface profile after rotation has been
established. Find the elevation
difference between the liquid at the
center and the wall during rotation.

Solution

Where P1=P2=Patm=Zero gauge,


r1=0, r2=0.25 m, w=4 rad/s,
=1000Kg/m^3, g=9.81m/s^2

Bernoulli Equation

We apply Bernoulli equation of the


tangent component of acceleration.
Where
Assume the flow is steady then

Example
Piezometric tubes are tapped into a
venturi section as shown in the figure.
The liquid is
incompressible. The upstream
piezometric head is 1 m, and the
piezometric head at the throat is 0.5
m. The velocity in the throat section
is twice large as in the approach
section. Find the velocity in the throat
section.

Solution

Where v2=2*v1, h1=1m, h2=0.5m


v1 = 1.808m/s , v2=3.62m/s

Example
A open tank filled with
water and drains
through a port at the
bottom of the tank. The
elevation of the water
in the tank is 10 m
above the drain. The
drain port is at
atmospheric pressure.
Find the velocity of the
liquid in the drain port.

Solution

Where P1=P2=Patm, v1=zero, z1z2=10m


10
Then

Rate of flow

Discharge (Volume flow rate):General equation


Note that we take only the velocity
component normal to the area.
Laminar flow eqn
Where vav is the average velocity

Mass flow rate


For constant density across the flow

Example
The water velocity in the channel
shown in the accompanying figure
has a distribution across the vertical
section equal to u/umax = (y/d)1/2.
What is the discharge in the channel
if the water is 2 m deep (d = 2 m),
the channel is 5 m wide, and the
maximum velocity is 3 m/s?

Solution

Example
A jet of water discharges into an open
tank, and water leaves the tank through
an orifice in the bottom at a rate of
0.003 m3/s. If the cross-sectional area of
the jet is 0.0025 m2 where the velocity
of water is 7 m/s, at what rate is water

Solution

Example

A 10 cm jet of water issues from a


1 m diameter tank. Assume that
the velocity in the jet is m/s
where h is the elevation of the
water surface above the outlet jet.
How long will it take for the water
surface in the tank to drop from
h0 = 2 m to hf = 0.50 m?

Solution

t= 31.9 s

Example
Water with a density of 1000 kg/m3
flows through a vertical venturimeter
as shown. A pressure gage is
connected across two taps in the
pipe (station 1) and the throat
(station 2). The area ratio
Athroat/Apipe is 0.5. The velocity in
the pipe is 10 m/s. Find the pressure
difference recorded by the pressure
gage.

Solution

Rotation and Irrotation flow

Assume 2-D flow


(x,y)

The rotational rate


If =0 the flow is irrotational.
The rotational rate in terms of
velocity.

Vorticity (w) w=2*