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CHAPTER 6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY

TERMS

MEANING

ELECTROLYSIS a process whereby a compound is


decomposed into its constituent element
wen electric current passes through an
electrode
ELECTROLYTE

Substance dat can conduct electricity


either in molten or aqueous solution n
undergo chemical changes at electrode

Consist free moving ion coz it is in molten


Process of electrolysis
involves
2 stages;or aqueous
state
movement of ions electrode and discharge of ions

Electrolysis in Molten Compound


Consist only 1 type of cation and 1 type of anion
EXAMPLE: molten lead (II) bromide

observation
products
equation
Overall ionic
equation
observation

cathode

anode

A shiny globule found at bottom


of crucible
lead

A brown gas with pungent smell


is released
Bromine gas

Electrolysis in Aqueous Solution


FACTORS DAT INFLUENCE THE
CHOICE OF IONS TO BE
DISCHARGED
Position of ions in ECS
Concentration of ions in electrolytes
Types of electrode used in electrolysis
-> POSITION + CONCENTRATION + ELECTRODE <-

1. Position of Ion in ECS


Conditions: dilute solution + inert electrode
electropositive cations & electonegative anions in ECS will b discharged
EXAMPLE: THE ELECTROLYSIS OF O.1 MOL DM3 OF CUSO4 SOLUTION USING
CARBON ELECTRODE

Ions presents
CATHODE

ANODE

are attracted to
cathode but only is
discharged as it is lower
than in ECS

.. are attracted to
anode but only is
discharged as it is lower
than in ECS

Ions attracted
Ion discharges
equation
Product
Observation
Explanation

2. Concentration of Ions in Electrolytes

Conditions : inert electrodes + concentrated solution


Only true for hallide ions [Na, Cl, Br ]
Dis factor only affected at anode; cathode use factor position in ECS
concentration of ion = will be discharged
EXAMPLE: ELETROLYSIS OF 2.0 MOL DM-3 NACI USING CARBON ELECTRODE

Ions presents
CATHODE

ANODE

are attracted to
cathode but only is
discharged as it is lower
than in ECS

.. are attracted to
anode but only is
discharged as it is has
concentration than .

Ions attracted
Ion discharges
equation
Product
Observation
Explanation

3. Types of Electrode Used

If use metal electrode (Cu, Ag, Ni)


No ions discharge at anode, however ,metal atom of anode release electron to form
metal ion->metal anode dissolve
Reaction at cathode use metal electrode= use factor position of ion in ECS

Example: electrolysis of 1.0 mol dm-3 CuSO4 solution using Cu electrode

Ions presents
CATHODE

ANODE

r attracted - cathode
but only is discharged as it
is lower than in ECS

Although r attracted
-anode, both r not discharge.
Instead, .. dissolve

Ions attracted
Ion discharges
equation
Product
Observation
Explanation

The intensity of blue CuSO4 unchange coz the concentration unchanged


coz no Cu atoms form CuSO4 at anode = the no of CuSO4 ions form Cu

Extraction of Metals
Reactive metal can be extracted from its ore by electrolysis
Metal formed through the reaction at cathode

Ions presents
CATHODE
Ions attracted
Ion discharged
equation
Product
Overall equation

ANODE

Purification of Metals

Impure metals can be purified using electrolysis


metal is transferred from anode -> anode
After process: mass of anode reduced while cathode increase

Ions presents
CATHODE
Ions attracted
Ion discharges
equation
Product
Observation

ANODE

Electroplating- process used to coat 1


metal wif a layer of another metal

Reasons for electroplating:


Prevent corrosion- electroplated object more resistant to
corrosion
Looks more attractive- have shiny appearance
Condition 4 good electroplating
Object current-small
Object be plated turned steadily
Concentration ion plating metal low
Metal object be plated clean & free from grease

Voltaic/Galvanic Cell
A cell dat produces electrical energy wen chemical reaction occur in it
Further distance of metals b/w ECS, voltage of chemical cell
electropositive
metal

electropositive
metal

Metal atom RELEASE


electron dat will flow
through external
circuit

Metal atom ACCEPT


electro dat flow from
external circuit
Positive ions becomes
atom/molecule

Metal atom becomes


metal ion (corrodes)

- TERMINAL

+TERMINAL

equation
Observation
Explanation

Zn electropositive than Cu.


Cu ions from CuSO
Zn release more electron than receive electron ti form
Cu to form Zn ion
copper metal

Daniel cell (example of voltaic


cell)
2 solution are connected through salt bridge or
porous pot
Function of salt bridge:
Prevent the 2 solutions from mixing
Allow the flow of ions so dat the circuit is
completed

Displacement Reaction
Metal place higher up in ECS are able to displace
metals place below them from its salt solution
Reaction b/w lead and MgSO4

Reaction not occur coz lead electropositive than magnesium


Lead displace Mg from MgSO4
Ionic equation:
Reaction b/w zinc and CuSO4
Reaction occur coz zinc electropositive than copper
zinc displace copper from CuSO4
Ionic equation:
Reaction b/w silver and sulphuric acid
Reaction not occur coz silver electropositive than hydrogen
Ag displace H from H2SO4
Ionic equation:

ElectroChemical Series (ECS)


Arrangement of metals based on the
tendency of each metal atom to release
electrons to form positive ions
Importance:
To determine the terminal of voltaic cells
position= -terminal,, position = +terminal
To determine the standard cell voltage
The further apart the metals are in series, the
bigger the voltage
To determine the ability of a metal to
displace another metal from its salt
solution
More electropositive able to displace less
electropositive metal from its salt solution

COMPARISON
Property

Electrolytic cell

Voltaic cell

Energy
change

Electrical chemical Chemical Electrical

Polarity

Cathode = - terminal
Anode = + terminal

Flow of
electron

+ terminal -terminal -terminal +terminal

Electrode Anode & cathode


may be same or
different

Cathode = +terminal
Anode = - terminal

Anode & cathode


must be different
metals