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Issues in Green Manufacturing and its


Presented by


Various fields with issues
Conclusion and recommendations
Comments and Discussions

Wide diffusion of consumer goods and shortening
of product lifecycles have caused there to be an
increasing quantity of used products being
In the world the municipal solid waste (MSW)
generated by 3 billion residents is about 1.2 kg per
person per day (1.3 billion tonnes per year).
By 2025 this will likely increase to 4.3 billion urban
Facing this environmental problem, both the
government and industrial companies are making
more strict regulations to promote environmentally
friendly products and technology.

Products affect the environment at many

points in their lifecycles.
it is necessary to support the design function
with tools and methodologies that enable an
assessment of the environmental
consequences (such as emissions, exposure,
and effects) in each phase.
Environmentally conscious manufacturing
(ECM) is a view of manufacturing that includes
the social and technological aspects of the
design, synthesis, processing, and use of
products in continuous or discrete
manufacturing industries

Green manufacturing (GM) have recently
received much attention when we are facing
many environmental problems.
Industries and manufacturing units are
creating pollution and consuming our natural
resources with very high rate.
This article gives the review of issues in green
manufacturing that affect the adaptation and
implementation of GM.

These issues are widely spread in the

industries and these issues are
related to the product life cycle
remanufacturing, recovery,
disassembly, material selection and
many more.
The paper ends with some
recommendations and conclusions
that need in this field.

Following areas are studied and a

detailed review and issues are given
Life Cycle Analysis or Assessment
Design for Environment

Remanufacturing as an industrial
process in which worn-out products
are restored to like-new condition.

Parameters for remanufacturable products

1. the intrinsic value, the market value of
the product being reprocessed;
2. the re-constructability, the ease of
disassembly a product and then its
assembly at the end of recovery process;
3. the evolution rate, the speed at which
new variants of the product are launched
on the market

The companies, involved in remanufacturing activities, have to
face a series of problems that limit the efficiency of their
production process.
In 7literature, several technical and management issues have
been identified

difficulties in disassembly of the product;

uncertainty about the quality of returns;
difficulties in matching of the parts;
uncertainty in working cycles and processing times;

5. the lack of correlation between returns and demand;

6. uncertainty in quantities and timing of returns;
7. configuring and managing a reverse logistics network.

Life Cycle Analysis or

Assessment (LCA)
It is defined in ISO 14040 as Compilation
and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and
the potential environmental impacts of a
product system throughout its life.

A problem with LCA is that there is no general
consensus on a standard metric for measuring
environmental impact, and thus a wide variety of
interpretations are possible.
common criticisms regarding LCA are that it is not
tied to business perspectives, too academic, too
vague, difficult to perform, etc.
Key, of course, is lack of data. data availability is a
key issue in implementing this component of
environmentally benign manufacturing.
There is also a challenge in implementing LCA
impact assessment will be integration of the
scientific method with judgmental decisions.

Gaudette and Giuntini consider this
practice as the most evolved form of
recycling: "It Conserves not only
the raw material content but also
much of the value added during the
processes required to manufacture
new products.

Recycling is simply the process of

reusing the items from which utility
can still be derived.
It is important to recycle waste so
that you can at least converse some
of our natural resources for our
generations to come.

Some recycled raw materials are more
expensive than their virgin counterparts,
Quality control is made more difficult when
the range of material properties is greater
due to contaminants and varying feed
Finally, the recycling process can also create
its own environmental impact, resulting from
transportation, facilities construction,
facilities operations and waste generation.

Brennan, Gupta, and Taleb defined it as
"the process of systematic removal of
desirable constitute parts from an
assembly while ensuring that there is no
impairment of the parts due to the
It has been recognized that disassembly of
used products is necessary to make
recycling economically viable in the current
state of the art of reprocessing technology.

Some of the design problems that need specific
attention are:
Ease of separation: - Design for ease of separation,
handling, and cleaning of all product components .
Low energy usage: - Design should aim at reducing
energy usage for assembly as well as disassembly.
Technical problems with existing products: Manufacturers may not be willing to redesign
successful products completely and will only try to
comply with disassembly constraints in their newer

Design for Environment

Design for the environment is a global
movement targeting design initiatives and
incorporating environmental motives to
improve product design in order to
minimize health and environmental
The key focus of DFE is to minimize the
environmental-economic cost to
consumers while still focusing on the lifecycle framework of the product.

It aims to "improve the product use

experience both for consumers and
producers, while minimally impacting
the environment".

There is a issue in DFE i.e. organizational
inertia (lack of understanding, fear of cost,
"Don't mess with success") management fear
of the changes that will come with the DFE.
Organizations have limited databases they
dont what to do and how it will be achieved?
(In the dark just dont know) Organizations
generally distracted by small issues like lack
of budget. (Good intention but misdirected)

With the DFE there will be new

processes that need new equipments
and there will be extra cost for this.

Conclusion and
As we know that remanufacturing is
a appreciable environmental practice
and it have some issues also that can
be resolved only by the proper
planning in the organization as well
as for the reverse logistics.
The second most pressing need is
standardization of life-cycle analysis.

Recycling should be considered as the last

option in the environmental practices
because it needs new facilities for its
initiation and which requires virgin resources.
In disassembly management should know
how far it should be done because it requires
skilled workers and extra cost.
DFE requires management commitment and
organization should have capabilities to adopt

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