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Metals and Alloy- II

Dr. Indika De Silva


Senior Lecturer
Dept. of Materials Science &
Engineering
University of Moratuwa

An alloy, not intentionally contain iron


Properties of non ferrous alloys,
not available in ferrous:

Resistance to corrosion
Ease of fabrication - low melting
points
High electrical and thermal
conductivity
Light weight
Strength at elevated temperatures
high ductility with low yield points
2

Copper and Copper alloys


Copper ores are normally associated with sulphur in which
copper can be extracted from chalcocite Cu 2S, chalcopyrite
CuFeS2 and cuprite Cu2O.
Copper is an industrial metal and widely used in unalloyed and
alloyed conditions- second ranked from steel and aluminum.
Used mostly in building constructions and as electronic and
electrical products.

General properties and


characteristics
Ductile metal highly close packed {111}
planes in FCC crystal structure
excellent electrical conductivity -cloud of
free electrons is uniformly available
Excellent thermal conductivity
Good resistance to corrosion
Good machinability
Can be soldered, brazed and welded
Ease of forming alloys with other
elements like Zn, Sn, Al, Pb, Si, Ni etc.
4

Applications of copper
Only second to silver for electrical conductance
Copper trolley wires

Electronic products

Copper finish parts

Electronic products
5

Copper: working behind the scenes in automotive applications

Approximate Cost Per Unit Volume for Wrought Metals and Alloys

Cast alloys- alloy that is poured as a liquid into


a mold and cooled into a solid shape: ingot

Wrought alloys cast alloy is subjected to;


- forming process like rolling, forging etc.
- heat treatments
Casted copper alloys have high tensile and
compressive strength, good wear qualities.
hardening effects of cold working can easily be
removed- recrystallization temperature less than
2600C.
8

widely used alloys are:


Copper- Zinc Alloys (Brass)
Copper- Tin Alloys (Bronze)
Copper-Nickel Alloys
High Strength Copper
Beryllium Alloys
9

Copper- Zinc Alloys (Brass)

Phase Diagram of the Copper-Zinc Alloys

Further changes on cooling from 400C to room


temperature are so sluggish.
disordered solid solution `- ordered solid solution
10
formed
under very slow cooling.

formation of a series of
solid solutions
Percentage composition
Constituent just below

Constituent after slow

the freezing point

cooling to 400C

Copper

Zinc

100 to 67.5

0 to 32.5

67.5 to 63

32.5 to 37

63 to 61

37 to 39

+ `

61 to 55.5

39 to 45.5

+ `

55.5 to 50

45.5 to 50

50 to 43.5

50 to 56.5

` +

43.5 to 41

56.5 to 59

` +
11

Tensile strength increases with Zn


content
reaches a maximum at a composition
corresponding roughly to equal parts of
and
falls off rapidly at the appearance of

Elongation rises in phase (FCC).


falls considerably with amount of (BCC).
very small in the presence of (complex
structure -brittle).
12

Shock resistance rises in phase.


falls considerably with amount of .
extremely brittle when is present.
Hardness rises in phase.
Alloys containing only phase suitable
for cold working.
+ hot working.
avoided for any mechanical treatment

13

Microstructure of brasses
Annealing twins
Annealing twins can be observed in the grains when the alloy
has been cold worked and followed by annealing.
A pair of grains is said to be twinned when the arrangement of
atoms in one of the grains can be generated from the other
(during recrystallization) by reflection across a common
plane.

Twin plane or boundary

14

The twin-boundaries tend to be flat and the twin as a whole


will have a facetted appearance.
Annealing twins observed in the grains increases with the
Zn contents.

Commercial bronze
(90%Cu-10%Zn)

Cartridge brass
(70%Cu-30%Zn)
15

In cubic close-packed metals such as copper, the major part


of the twin interface is parallel to {111} planes which have
the stacking sequence ..ABCABC.... The stacking sequence
of the {111} planes on the other side of the twin boundary is
a mirror refelction, so that the sequence across the
boundary is ...ABCABACBA....

Stacking faults by themselves are simple two-dimensional defects. They carry a


certain stacking fault energy g; very roughly around a few 100 mJ/m2.
16

C 23000 - Red Brass (85 Cu, 15 Zn)


Better corrosion resistance - not susceptible to
stress corrosion cracking
used for ornaments and for cheap jewellery .
Withstand cold-work and cutting.

C 26000 - Cartridge Brass (70 Cu: 30 Zn)


for tubes, sheets and wires.

After annealing, consists of homogeneous solid


solution, especially suitable for cold-working.

Inclusions (oxides or silicates) lead to failure of


the material during manufacture.
17

Wrought Cartridge brass

Nominal Composition:
Cu 68.5-71.5
Zn 28.38-31.38,
Pb 0.07,
Fe 0.05
18

C 28000 - Muntz Metal (60 Cu: 40 Zn)


The structure in room temp. is mixture of &
Proportion may be controlled to some extent by
the rate of cooling. - - Rapid cooling will suppress
the formation of alpha phase

Cast structure shows dendrites of


alpha (dark) in a matrix of beta (white)

Hot rolled Muntz metal sheet structure of


beta phase (dark) and alpha phase (light)
19

Muntz Metal (60 Cu: 40 Zn)


phase

phase
200X
Air cooled from the all region at 8250C.
Widmanstatten structure - dendrites of phase surrounded by
precipitates.
appears inside the grains and on the grain boundaries.
appears as long, fat needles in a matrix.
much less if this specimen had been quenched.
more and "rounder" if slowly cooled
20

Applications
replacement for copper sheathing placed
on the bottom of boats - anti-fouling
abilities of the pure copper can be
maintained cost effectively
- as it cost around two thirds of the
pure
copper
architectural work
for valve stem and condenser tubes

21

Brazing solder (50 Cu: 50 Zn)


consists of homogeneous solution
in room temp.
increases in amount as the
temperature falls rapidly. it makes
weld joint harder.

22

Copper-Lead alloys (Leaded


brasses)

Leaded brasses has Small amounts of Pb (0.53.0%) which are added to many types of brasses
to improve their machinability.
Essentially pure lead (99.99%Pb) will be distributed
inter-dendritically in the copper as small
globules.
Cold deformation makes elongated Pb globules.
Free-cutting brass extruded rod showing elongated
lead globules with the remained phase

23

Tin Brasses
Increasing Sn contents gives a lighter
coloured microstructure of + multi-phase.

Microstructure of cast and hot rolled tin


brass.
(Cu 59.0-62.0, Zn 36.7-40.0, Sn 0.5-1.0,
Pb 0.20, Fe 0.10)

Increasing Sn content gives a


microstructure of phase (yellow) in
matrix (dark)
24

1% of Sn addition in cartridge brass improve


corrosion resistance in sea water.
0.04% arsenic addition could almost
eliminate dezincification (corrosion condition).
Replacing Sn with Al gives brass a selfhealing protective oxide on its surface.
Called Aluminum brasses
- corrosion resistance used for marine
condensers.

25

Aluminum Bronze
(10Al5Ni5Fe)
phase
phase
kappa coarse
particles

phase breaks down to and kappa in cooling through 9500C to 7500C.


Kappa phase begins to precipitate as coarse particles at about 900.
Kappa - lamellar form,
- variable composition containing Al, Fe, Ni and Mn.
- needle like structure, make dark matrix.
Formation of fine kappa within the phase.

26

Free cutting brass: 61.5Cu- 35.5 Zn - 3Pb


Best machinability plus good mechanical and corrosion resistance
properties.
Used for automatic high speed screw machine parts

Naval brass: 60Cu - 39.25 Zn - 0.75Sn


Also known as TOBIN bronze has increased resistance to salt
water corrosion.
Used for condenser plates, welding rods, propeller shafts, piston
rods and valve stems.

27

Copper- Tin Alloys (Bronze)

Phase Diagram of the Copper-Tin Alloys


28

formation of a series of
solid solutions
Percentage composition

Constituent just below

Constituent after slow

the freezing point

cooling to 400C

Copper

Tin

100 to 87

0 to 13

87 to 86

13 to 14

86 to 78

14 to 22

78 to 74

22 to 26

>( + )

29

solution is the softest ; it can be rolled.


and constituents do not exist in room
temperature.
successive changes occurring at 586C and
520C whereby is resolved into + and
into + .
is extremely hard and brittle like brass.

30

Copper- tin bronzes


Absorption of oxygen during solidification in casting
results in SnO2 ,make it brittle.
P is added as deoxidizing agent to improve castability.
Wrought Cu-Sn bronzes contain about 1.25-10% Sn with
up to 0.1% P; hence usually called phosphor bronzes.
Twinning is a characteristic feature of the cold-worked
and annealed alloy defect.
High Sn (>10%) improve strength unworkable but can
be casting.
Microstructure of phosphor bronze
92%Cu -8%Sn-trace P, showing recrystallised
grains with annealing twins
31

Tin bronze
8-10% Sn 2-4% Zn, remaining copper.
Pressure castings, bushings and bearings

Leaded tin bronze


6-8.5% Sn, 4%Zn,, 0.5-1.5% Pb , remaining copper.
Can be used upto 550 0F.
Pressure castings, bushings, electrical castings, gears ,
pumps etc

High leaded tin bronze:


5-10%Sn, 1-3%Zn,, 7-15%Pb
Bearings operating at high speeds and high pressure and for
corrosion resistant pumps.

32

Gun metal
5-10% Sn, 2-5% Zn, remainder copper.
Originally used for guns
Good tensile strength and resistance to corrosion.
Used for bearings, steam pipe fittings, marine castings,
hydraulic valves and gears.

85:15 Copper-Tin Alloy


Used for bearings and bells.
Sand castings slow cooling - + , hard
structure.
Pressure die castings rapid cooling - + ,
33
less harder.

Cu-10 Sn4Pb

50X

200X

As cast, dendritic microstructure


yellowish-white phase can be seen.
Black areas: shrinkage cavities or lead particles.
each dendrite arm is copper-rich and etches more slowly
than the outside of each dendrite arm.- inner potion is not
seen clearly.

34

Copper-Nickel Alloys
Cu and Ni are both FCC and can form solid
solution throughout.
Microstructure consists of phase- solid
binary system exhibits complete solid
solubility.
Ni (10, 20, 30%) are added to Cu to form
solid solution alloys, called cupronickel.
Ni addition improves strength, oxidation, and
corrosion resistance.
Ni greatly increases electrical resistivity of Cu
Ex:55%Cu-45%Ni used for wire-wound
resistance for electrical instrument.

35

Microstructure of cupronickel
70%Cu-30%Ni
consisting of
recrystallised
grain with twin bands

36

General Applications
Pipe work in chemical plants
Automotive Applications
Extra surface protection is not required
employed for brake, hydraulic suspension systems
and cooling systems

37

Marine Applications
good resistance to biofouling - undesirable
accumulation of microorganisms, plants and algae on
wetted structures.
resistance to sea water corrosion.
cladding for ships hulls, fouling legs of oil rig platforms
and sea water intake screens.
coins, medals
- The copper with 25% nickel with 0.05-0.4%
manganese .
Thermocouples
copper-45% nickel alloy ; develops a high and uniform
EMF when coupled with other metals such as copper and
iron.
Resistance Wire
copper with 45% nickel alloy is used for resistance wire
in high precision resistors.
38

Cu-Al Alloys
(Aluminum Bronzes)
Al forms solid solution in Cu ( phase) up to
9.4% at 565oC.

Annealed microstructure of
Cu-5%Al,showing grains
with twin bands.
39

Aluminium bronzes have high strength,


excellent corrosion and good resistance to
wear and fatigue.
Self-healing surface film of Aluminium oxide excellent corrosion resistance.
Tensile strength increases with increasing
phase while ductility drops off.

40

High Strength Copper Beryllium Alloys


up to about 2 wt%, produce dramatic effects in
several base metals.
In Cu-Ni alloys, Be addition promotes
strengthening through precipitation hardening.
In Al alloys, small addition improves oxidation
resistance, castability and workability.

41

Applications
Electronic components - electronic connectors
high strength, formability, and favorable elastic
modulus.
Electrical equipment - switch and relay blades.
fatigue strength, conductivity, and stress
relaxation
resistance.
Resistance welding systems
hot hardness and conductivity are important
42

Superalloy
Excellent mechanical strength.
High temperature strength through
solid solution strengthening.
Precipitation strengthening Carbides.
Creep resistance at high temperatures.
Good surface stability.
Corrosion and oxidation resistance.
-Protective oxide layer (Al2O3, Cr2O3)
43

Typically have a matrix with an Austenitic face- centered


cubic crystal structure.
Base alloying elements are usually Ni , Fe and Ni and Co.
Applications are in,

Aerospace
Industrial gas turbine
Marine turbine industry
Turbine blades for hot sections of jet Engines- Ni base
super alloys.
Submarines
Nuclear reactors
Military electric motors
Chemical processing vessels, and heat exchanger tubing.
44

45

Types of Superalloys
Hastelloy
Predominant alloying ingredient is Ni.
Other alloying ingredients Mo , Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ti, Zr, Al, C.

Primary functions
Effective survival under high-temperature.
High-stress service in severely corrosive
enviornment.
Pressure vessels of some nuclear reactors,
chemical reactors, and pipes and valves.

46

Composition of various hastelloys


Alloy

Co

Cr

Mo

Fe

Si

Mn

B-2

1*

1*

28

2*

0.1*

1*

0.01*

B-3

3*

1.5

28.5

3*

1.5

0.1*

3*

0.01*

C-4

2*

16

16

3*

0.08*

1*

0.01*

C-2000 2*

23

16

3*

0.08*

0.01*

C-22

2.5*

22

13

0.08*

0.5*

0.01*

C-276

2.5*

16

16

0.08*

1*

0.01*

G-30

2*

30

5.5

2.5

15

1*

1.5*

0.03*

0.2*

16

0.5*

5*

1*

0.8*

0.08*

Ni
Balanc
e
65

Other
s

Al-0.5*,

min.
Ti-0.2*
Balanc
Ti-0.7*
e
Balanc
Cu-1.6
e
Balanc Ve
0.35*
Balanc
V-0.35*
e
NbBalanc
0.8*,
e
Cu-2*
Al+TiBalanc 0.5*,
e

Cu0.35*
47

Balanc

Inconel
Austenitic nickel-chromium-based
superalloys.
Inconel alloys are typically used in high
temperature applications.
Common trade names for Inconel include:
Inconel 625,
Chronin 625,
Altemp 625,
Haynes 625,
Nickelvac 625
Nicrofer 6020.

48

Different Inconels have widely varying compositions

Element (% by mass)
Inconel

Ni

Cr

Fe

Mo

600

72

14-17

6-10

625

58

20-23

718

50

17-21

balance 2.8-3.3 4.5-5.5 1

8-10

Nb

3-4

Co

Mn

Cu

0.5

0.5

0.35

Al

0.4

0.2-0.8 0.65

Ti

Si

0.5

0.15

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.3

0.35

0.08

49

Properties
Inconel alloys are oxidation and corrosion
resistant materials suited for extreme
environments.
When heated, forms a thick, stable,
passivating oxide layer protecting the
surface from further attack.
Retains strength over a wide temperature
range, attractive for high temperature
applications
where aluminum and steel would succumb to
creep.
50

High temperature strength is


developed by
Solid solution strengthening or
Precipitation strengthening
- Small amounts of Nb combine with
Ni to form the intermetallic compound
Ni3Nb, that forms small cubic crystals
inhibit slip and creep effectively
at elevated temperatures.

51

Machining
Inconel is a difficult metal to shape and machine due
to rapid work hardening.
age-hardened Inconels (718) are machined
using an aggressive but slow cut with a hard tool,
minimizing the number of passes required.
Cutting of plate is often done with a water-jet
cutter.
Internal threads can be cut by single point
method on lathe.
New whisker reinforced ceramic cutters are also
used to machine nickel alloys.
52

Applications -

encountered in extreme

environments
Gas turbine blades, seals, combustors, turbocharger
rotors and seals
Pump motor shafts, high temperature fasteners,
chemical processing and pressure vessels, heat
exchanger tubing.
Extensively used in boilers of waste incinerators.

53

Extensively used Inconel alloys


Inconel 600: Solid solution strengthened.
Inconel 625: Acid resistant, good weldability.
Inconel 690: Low cobalt content for nuclear
applications.
Inconel 718: good weldability.
Inconel 751: Increased aluminum content for
improved
rupture strength in
the 1600 F range.
Inconel 939: good weldability.
54

Waspaloy
Age hardening Ni-based superalloy.

Use in gas turbines.


Typical Composition

Nickel 58%,
Chromium 19%,
Cobalt 13%,
Molybdenum 4%,
Titanium 3%
Aluminium 1.4%
55

Properties
Excellent strength up to 760-870C.

good corrosion resistance.


Oxidation resistance - Suited for service
in extreme
environments.
Ex: Gas turbine engine atmospheres
up to 870C.
Creep strength is kept at 620-650C.
56

Refractory metals and


Alloys
Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys
Tungsten carbide (WC)
Physical properties
high melting Pt, 2,870C
extremely hard (Vickers Hardness number =
2242)
Low electrical resistivity (1.72.2107Ohmm)
57

Structure
There are two forms of WC;
Hexagonal form, -WC,
Cubic high temperature form, -WC,
which has the rock salt structure.

-WC, Rock Salt Structure

-WC, Hexagonal form


58

Applications
Machine tools
For materials such as carbon or stainless steel
In situations where other tools would wear away.
Carbide generally produces a better finish on the
part, and allows faster machining.
Carbide tools can also withstand higher
temperatures than standard high speed steel
tools

59

Military
used in armor-piercing ammunition,

Effective neutron reflector used into


nuclear chain reactions for weapons.

60

Domestic
Used for rotating ball in the tips of
ballpoint pens to disperse ink during writing.
Jewellery- The finish is highly resistant to
scratches.

61

Tungsten-ThO2 Alloys
The W-ThO2, alloy contains a dispersed second
phase of 1 to 2% thorium.
The thorium dispersion enhances thermo ionic
electron emission, which in turn improves the
starting characteristics of gas tungsten arc
welding electrodes.
It also increases the efficiency of electron discharge
tubes.
Imparts creep strength to wire at temperatures
above 1400 C

62

Tungsten Heavy-Metal Alloys (WHAs)


Typically contain 90- 98 wt% W.
Most commercial WHAs are two-phase structures:
Principal phase being nearly pure w.

binder phase containing the transition metals plus


dissolved W.
Main properties are high density and high elastic stiffness.
Applications
Damping weights for computer disk drive heads
Balancing weights for helicopter rotors, and for guided
missiles

63

Niobium & Niobium alloys


Its cryogenic ductility and ease of fabrication are
excellent, superior to those of Mo and W.
Ductile and soft metal at elevated temperatures.
Strength can be improved by alloying to make it
competitive with molybdenum alloys.
Lack of oxidation resistance is a major barrier in
using structural applications at elevated
temperatures.
75% of all Nb metal - minor alloying additions in
low-alloy steel.
20 to 25% - additions in nickel-base super alloys
and heat-resisting steels.

64

Molybdenum & Molybdenum alloys


Outstanding electrical and thermal-conducting
capabilities and relatively high tensile strength.
Thermal conductivity is approximately 50% higher
than steel, iron or nickel alloys.
Its electrical conductivity is the highest of all
refractory metals, about (1/3) that of copper.

The major use- alloying agent for ,


alloy tool steels,
stainless steels,
nickel-base or cobalt-base super-alloys
to increase hot strength, toughness and corrosion
resistance.
65

In the electrical and electronic industries


used in cathodes,
Radar devices
magnetron end hats
mandrels for winding tungsten filaments.
Important in the missile industry, hightemperature structural parts, (maximum
1650C) such as
nozzles,
leading edges of control surfaces
support vanes,
heal-radiation shields, turbine wheels, and pumps.
66

TZM Alloy (Titanium, Zirconium,


Molybdenum)
Molybdenum's prime alloy is TZM.
99% Mo, 0.5% Ti and 0.08% Zr.
TZM offers twice the strength of pure Mo at
temperatures over 1300C.
Recrystallization temperature of TZM is
approximately 250C higher than Mo
- better weldability than pure molybdenum.
Finer grain structure and formation of TiC and ZrC in
the grain boundaries inhibit grain growth.

67

Failure of the base metal as a result of


fracturing along grain boundaries.
TZM generally costs around 25% more
than pure Mo but in high heat and
strength applications it can be well worth
TZM is generally available in sheet and
foil.

68

69

Amorphous Metal
Metallic material with a disordered atomicscale structure.

Crystalline atomic structure

Amorphous atomic structure

70

usually an alloy rather than a pure metal.

The alloys contain atoms of significantly


different sizes, leading to low free volume higher viscosity in molten state.
The viscosity prevents the atoms moving
enough to form an ordered lattice.
Much tougher and less brittle than oxide
glasses and ceramics.
stronger than crystalline alloys.
71

Applications
Vitreloy (41.2% Zr, 13.8% Ti, 12.5% Cu, 10% Ni,
and 22.5% Be)
Tensile strength almost twice that of high-grade
titanium.
Ti40Cu36Pd14Zr10 3 times stronger than titanium
Elastic modulus nearly matches bones.
The alloy does not undergo shrinkage on solidification.
Mg60Zn35Ca5
Biomaterial for implantation into bones as screws,
pins, or plates, to fix fractures.
72

Nickel based Alloys


Main properties
Outstanding strength (480-1170 MPa)
Corrosion resistance -particularly at high temp.
can be forged and hot worked, Difficult to
cast.
Welding operations can be performed with little
difficulty.

73

Applicaions
Chemical & food processing industries
- Excellent corrosion resistance.
Resistant to salt water, sulfuric acid, high
velocity and high temperature steam.
Steam turbine blades.
Aircraft gas turbines
Excellent appearance, similar to that of
stainless steel.
Ornamentals, house hold ware.
74

Monel :Copper + 67% nickel+ some iron


Resistant to corrosion and acids
can withstand a fire in pure oxygen
typically much more expensive than stainless
steel.
higher quality musical instruments such as
trumpets, tubas and french horn rotors.
used for kitchen sinks and in the frames of
eyeglasses

75

Three types of Monel,

K-Monel; 3% Al
- Precipitation hardened to a tensile
strength of 1100-1240 MPa.
H-Monel; 3% Si
S- Monel; 4% Si
- Both are used for casting applications
and
can also be precipitation hardened.
76

Nichrome
Ni-Cr alloy (80% Ni, 20% Cr)
- electrical resistors and heating
elements.
Ni-Cr alloy (60% Ni, 16% Cr, 24%Fe)
- Excellent resistance to oxidation while
retaining useful strength at red heats.

77

Shape Memory Alloys


Metallic materials that demonstrate the ability to
return to their previously defined shape when
subjected to the appropriate heating schedule.
The most effective and widely used alloys
- NiTi (50Ni-50Ti),
- CuAlNi,
- CuZnAl
Applications ;
- Robotics
- General Electric Aircraft Engines,
- Hydraulic Fittings (for Airplanes)
- Oil line pipes for industrial applications
78

Some high-temperature Ni based alloys:


Alloy 601.
Lower nickel (61%) content with Al and Si
improved oxidation and nitriding resistance.
Alloy X750.

Aluminum and titanium additions for age hardening .

Alloy 718.
Ti and Nb additions
Overcome strainage cracking problems during welding and
weld repair.
Alloy X (48Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo + W)
High-temperature flat-rolled product for aerospace
applications .

79

Some corrosion-resistant in the Ni-Cr


system
Alloy 625.
9% Mo and 3% Nb
resists pitting and crevice corrosion.
Alloy G3/G30 (Ni-22Cr-19Fe-7Mo-2Cu).
pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.
Alloy C-22 (Ni-22Cr-6Fe-14Mo-4W).
Superior corrosion resistance in
oxidizing acid chlorides, wet chlorine, and
other
severe corrosive environments.
80