Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 151

Selection of Materials for

Engineering Applications

Selection of a suitable material for a particular engineering


application is an important responsibility of an engineering
designer.
Materialization of a design is a process;
prototype

final detailed construction

Selection of materials is a
-continues and iterative process,
which should proceed throughout the development of
engineering products,
by an effective teamwork realized by Designer/Materials
Engineer combination.

In the process of material selection the following aspects


have to be considered;
Properties of the material
Every useful material must possess a combination of
properties.
Exact combination required will depend upon the given
application (Table 1.1).
Certain types of materials can be broadly generalized as
possessing certain combinations of properties (Table 1.2).
Property characteristics of various kind of materials
(Table 1.3).

Failure in Service
Manufacturer should ensure that failure does not
occur in service.
Failure occurs either mechanically or by corrosive
attack.
Three main failure mechanisms:
(a) Ductile failure: If the applied static stress is higher than
the yield stress of a ductile material ,this failure can be
occurred.
(b) Brittle failure: If the crack propagation in an unstable and
rapid manner, this type of failure can proceed.

(c) Fatigue failure: If the components are under dynamic stress


conditions then the materials are failing under particular type of
cracks (crack initiation, crack propagation and brittle failure).
Typical corrosion mechanisms, which influence the failure:
Pitting corrosion in chemical plants- Downward propagation
of small pits & holes.

Stress-corrosion in forgings - Stress & corrosion work together

at crack

tips.

Fuel ash corrosion in gas turbines


Boiler damage in high-temperature areas. The corrosion is caused
principally by complex oxide-slag [sodium vanadyl vanadate, Na 2O.V2O4- 5V2O5)]
with low melting points. These liquid melted salts are strongly corrosive for
stainless steel and other alloys. progresses rapidly between 1100 and 1650F.

Surface durability
The resistance to corrosion, surface wear and
penetration.
can be gained by the composite materials
i.e. a bulk material can be coated with a corrosion
resistant or abrasion resistant layer.
Chemically treated in such a way the surface
stability is enhanced.

Special physical properties


In applications such as electrical, electronic and
nuclear engineering special physical properties
have to be taken into account.
electrical conductors and components for
measuring instrumentation special properties like
resistivity, thermal expansion coefficients etc.
have to be considered.

Cost and availability


The total cost of the materials is depending upon;
material cost
- machining cost
- cost for storage

- basic

basic material cost has to be calculated according to the


ratio ;

Pm = Price per unit mass


If the price is given in price per unit volume, Pv then;

Timber and concrete are sold in terms of volume


Other materials are sold in units of weight

Recycling and environmental aspects


Selected materials should have following properties;
- Non toxic
- Easier to recycle
- Lighter
- Less energy intensive in extraction
This should be achieved optimizing the product
quality and cost.

Decision making process for the selection


of materials
Can be initiated,
(a) To introduce a new product.
(b) To improve an exciting product in terms of better
quality and cost.
(c) Due to a failure of a product (component).

Introducing a new product

important steps are;


- proper definition of the product.
- the results from the market research.
- designed, prototyped and manufactured
within a limited time frame.
high level of risk, whether the product will be a
successful one.
Risk can be reduced by,
- quality of the knowledge base.
- efficiency of the decision making process.
- good teamwork.

In the points (b) and (c) the risk level is fairly low
but
the responsibility of a materials engineer
is high.
Therefore thoroughly analyze the;
- Existing function of the product compared to the new
requirements.
- The reasons for the failure.

Decision making in selection of materials is


categorized in four principal attributes.
Function
Manufacturing method
Appearance
Cost
Figure
Function - Should be clearly defined.
Manufacturing method
Design synthesis, the knowledge and the experiences of the
experts will be used to finalize stress system acting on the
components
manufacturing facilities, financial resources have to be
considered.

Criteria for the Selection of Materials


(a) Criteria determined by the application.
(b) Criteria determined by the properties of the material.
(a) Criteria determined by the application.
Stress Condition
Level (amount)
Type
-static
-dynamic, Impact
-abrasion

Service Temperature
Room Temperature
Elevated Temperature
Below Room Temperature
Fluctuating temperatures

Working Atmosphere
Normal atmosphere
Aggressive atmosphere
Other Special Requirements
Special physical properties
- Electrical, magnetic, Thermal etc.
Special chemical properties
- Nuclear, Environmental etc.

Geometrical Dimensions of the component

Shape of the raw product(s)


- Plate. Rod, wire etc.

Shape of the finish product.

Weight

Better strength weight ratio

Appearance

(b) Criteria determined by the properties of the


material.
Mechanical Properties

Strength
- static strength
- Dynamic (fatigue) strength
- creep strength

Toughness

Stiffness
Surface durability

Corrosion resistance

Wear resistance

Processing of the Material


Processing of raw material
Manufacturing method of the semi-finished and finished
product

Recycling Possibilities

Total Cost

Cost of the raw material


Cost for the manufacturing process

Strength of materials
Static Strength
Static strength of metals
(I) Low strength: low carbon steels, AI and Cu alloys
- Good workability, cheap
- ys < 250 MPa
(ii) Medium strength: medium carbon steels, AI and Cu alloys
- Heat treatable
- Moderate workability
- 250 < ys < 750 MPa

(iii) High strength: medium and high carbon steels, Ti alloys,


high alloy steels.
- Heat treatable
- Low workability
- Low ductility
- Expensive
- 750 < ys <1500 MPa
(iv) Ultra-high strength: high alloyed steels with Ni, Cr, Mo, and
V, maraging steels.
- Very low workability
- Very low ductility
- Expensive
- ys > 1500MPa

Static strength of thermoplastics

Strength is time dependant


Strength is very sensitive for the service temperature
The failure is depend on the type of plastic
Better strength / weight ratio

Static strength of structural ceramic (Al2O3, ZrO2, SiC,


Si3N4. etc.)
- high at elevated temperature
- measured by using 3 or 4 point bending
- very low ductility
- very poor workability
- high creep resistance
- special design concepts are needed (not advisable to
stressed in tensile direction)

Static strength of fibre-reinforced composites


Importance is high strength-to-weight ratio aero space
applications, bicycles, sail-boats.
The strength is depends on
- relative properties of the matrix and fibre.
- relative proportion of the fibre and matrix in the composite.
- length of the individual fibre particles.
- geometrical arrangement of fibre within the composite
(higher strength in unidirectional fibre in polyester-glass
fibre composite)
Strength is depend on the direction of the stress applied on it
.
Type of fibre (carbon, glass, boron. ceramic) influence the
mechanical properties.

Hybrid composites - combination of two types of fibres


(carbon fibre in glass fibre body- Ford GT 40 racing car)
- Stiffness of glass fibre will be combined with the impact
resistance of carbon fibre (Aero spatial SA 360
Helicopter, rotor blades)
glass and carbon fibre frame work as honey-comb core
covered with a carbon fibre skin)

Honey-comb core
A honeycomb shaped structure
provides an object with a high
stiffness relative to its weight.

Sandwich layers

Static strength of cement and concrete


Weak in tension and bending and particularly strong in
impact loads.
Depends upon water-cement ratio.
Strength increase with the curing duration.
Reinforced by steel bars (better tensile properties)
- Steel and concrete having similar coefficient of
thermal expansion
- Passivating effect of concrete inhibits the corrosion
of steel
More strength by pre-pressing the concrete.
Good strength-weigh ratio.

Static strength of wood

Maximum strength of wood is developed parallel to the grains.


Low compression strength
High toughness
Limitations in engineering applications because of its extreme
"anisotropy, (direction dependence of the properties)
Good workability
Sensitive to water, fungal attack and swelling & warping.

Fatigue strength

close-up view of the fracture surface.


The blue arrow points to the fracture origin at a brittle
intergranular zone.
Fatigue arrest marks and oxidation are noted in fatigue
zone 2.
Final torsional fracture.

Fatigue fracture can occur at load much lower than failure


by static loading.
For ultimate fracture, it takes long duration and failure
occurs without any external indications.
Assessment of fatigue resistance can be done by;
- Stress-Life relationship (S-N curve)
- Rate of fatigue crack propagation (FCP)
can be increased by cold working, case hardening.
can be decreased by surface softening (decarburisation,
plating with Ni, Cr, etc, cladding with soft AI on high strength
AI alloy)

Fatigue strength of polymers dependence on;

Molecular weight
Degree of cross linking
Crystallinity (lowest in crystalline polymers)

Fatigue strength of fibre-reinforced plastics is


depending on;
Proportion of reinforcing fibres
Morphology of reinforcement (random, woven, cross-ply etc)
nature of the resin.

Creep strength
Following factors influence the creep strength of metals;
Melting point (metals with lower melting point also used as the
basis for creep resistant alloys).
- for metals, T>0.4Tm, crack propagation occurs.
Solid solution strengthening .
Cold work.
Precipitation hardening .

Cost basis for selection


Process of selecting a list of materials for a given application
will be carried out initially in terms of required properties.
But final decision will be taken on cost factor.
Placing a product on the market involves risk because the
aim is earning profit within a certain period.
Increase in costs from superior materials has to be offset by
improvement in performance.
Interaction between performance and cost;
Performance oriented products
- Advanced armaments (e.g. atomic submarines)
- Space vehicles.

- Considerations of cost will be subordinate.


- Funding may be politically controlled and external sales
may not be involved.
Cost-oriented products
minimum acceptable performance at reduced price
that public can bear.
Manufacturer does not provide the maximum level of
performance.
E.g- motor car , washing machine, Refrigerator.

Cost-effectiveness and value analysis


Value - extent to which the appropriate performance criteria
are satisfied.
Cost- what has to be paid to achieve a particular level of value.
Cost effective the extent of dispensing with in the interests of
reducing costs.
Civil engineer will not regard toughness as a cost-effective
property when designing a bridge.For a bridge toughness is concerned as a significant
property.
For a motor car, corrosion resistant is considered as a costeffective property.It takes long time for rusting of the body.

Materials engineer should have the ability to distinguish


between material-sensitive and design-sensitive
properties.
material-sensitive- tough material is one that is resistant to
the initiation and propagation of cracks.
design-sensitive- tough design is one that is free from
notches and stress-raisers.
It may be expensive to obtain tough material for a critical
application .
But relatively cheap to free a design from stress-raisers.

Analysis of Cost
Fig 3.1

Design and Evolution of the Vacuum Cleaner


Need Device to remove dust from a carpets in the home
Concepts
to suck the dust from the carpet with a vacuum
to blow it out with compressed air
to draw it out electrostatically
to trap it with an adhesive belt
to brush it out
All have been tried at one time.
After a review, vacuum method is selected and a function
structure is devised.

it consist
- power source,
- vacuum pump,
- filter to catch the dust,
- tube to direct the action of the pump to the carpet.
Embodiment Stage
- detailed calculations of flow rates
- pump design
- form of the filter
- diameter and length of the tube
- How they all fit together

Layout diagram with approximate dimensions


Estimates of power, weight and performance.
Decide the shape, texture and color Industrial
designer.

Reciprocating Engine

Rotary Engine

Selection of Materials for Engines for Power


Generation (A case study )
Back ground information for Engines and Power
generation system
Source of Energy

Method of
energy release

(i) Fossil fuel

Internal
combustion
External
combustion

(ii) Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fusion

(iii) Hydraulic power Capture of


potential energy
(iv) Wind power

Kinetic energy

(v)
40 Solar power

Thermal energy

Out put machinery


Reciprocating
Petrol engine
Oil engine (diesel)
Steam engine

Rotary
Gas turbine
Wankel engine
Steam turbine
Steam turbine

Wave engine

Tide mill
Water turbine

Factors influenced by application


Machinery

Condition
Critical parts are of the
Size of the
subjected to
working
part are
atmosphere

Very high
Internal
temperature
combustion
(700-1000 oC)
type gas turbine (Diesel engine
2000 oC)

Aggressive

Steam turbine

High temperature
(500-600 oC)

Aggressive

Water turbine

Normal atmosphere
temperature (20 oC)

Less
aggressive

41

Relative small

Fairly large

Fairly large

Thermal efficiency of a engine is proportional to


Where
T1- Entry temperature

T2- Exhaust temperature


=> Efficiency if T1 and T2

Size of the components (power unit for small modern


aircrafts, lawn movers, compressors, power tools, cargo ships)
Size - Manufacturing and treatment difficulties
Weight - Centrifugal stress
Moment of inertia

Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine


Cylinder block is bolted to the cylinder head - Joint is
sealed by gasket.
Most engines operate on the four-stroke auto-cycle
(i) Induction stroke (fuel-air mixture will be sucked into the
cylinder-piston closed volume)
(ii) Compression stroke (compression of the fuel-air mixture)
(iii) Power stroke (ignition of the mixture, work is done on the
piston by the explosion)
(iv) Exhaust stroke (combustion products are expelled from the
cylinder)
One working stroke for every two revolution of the
crankshaft.

Materials for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine


Cylinder block
Factors determined by the application
Strength
Rigidity
Good thermal conductivity (cooling is necessary)
Low density
Good resistance to abrasion, wear and corrosion
Low thermal expansion

Material selection for the cylinder block


All requirements (except density) satisfied with flake
graphite cast iron.
Al - as a replacement since the cylinder block is lightly
stressed and increase the power-weight ratio.
Al has advantages.
- Low density
- Die casting ability
Disadvantages are
- Low abrasion resistance.
- Relatively high thermal expansion coefficient.
- Expensive.

Maximizing the difference in hardness between piston and


bore minimize wear.
- either bore must be harder than the piston or vice-versa.
Using pre-finished cylinder-liners can solve the problem
with low abrasion resistance.
Wear is at worst similar materials rub together.
-But flake graphite cast iron can be used for Piston and
Cylinder lubricating effect.
Another cheaper and easier method is to hard chromium
plating of the piston.

Possible Al alloys for the engine block


Alloy

Cu%

Si%

LM2

0.7-2.5

9.0-11.5

rem

LM24

3.0-4.0

7.5-9.5

rem

10.0-13.0

0.2-0.6

rem

16.0-18.0

0.4-0.7

rem

6.5-7.5

0.2-0.45

rem

LM9
LM30

4.0-5.0

LM25

Mg%

Al%

Cylinder head
This part is in fairly low stress condition.
special requirements;
- matching thermal expansion coefficient with
cylinder block.
- low heat resistance.
Material may be cast iron, Al-alloy or Mg-alloy.
Produced by sand casting

Crank case
Structural support for the crankshaft.
Mechanical requirements are;
- strength and rigidity.
Casted with the materials: Cast iron, Cast Al-alloy
(AI-7Si-O.35Mg or Al- 0.45Mg,6-7Si)
Sump
pressed from Low carbon steel sheet.
Continuous castings with non-heat treatable Aluminium.

Piston
Requirements from the application;
High temperature strength.
Low thermal expansion coefficient,
Al piston , 19-25x10-6 C,
Ferrous 11x 10-6 C
Good abrasion and corrosion resistance.
Low weight and low inertia.
Made out of
Generally Aluminium - cast or forged (specially for fast
engines)
Ferrous piston is used low thermal expansion coefficient.
but Al posses high thermal conductivity , lightness.

Multi metallic (Al piston with steel inserts to limit thermal


expansion).
Al , 2.25% Cu, 1.4% Mg, 0.9% Fe, 1% Ni will be used in
racing cars.

Crankshaft
Highly stressed component (high strength).
Complex shape (problems in machining and heat treatment -residual
stress, stress concentration) .
Should have a low weight.
Abrasion resistance in some places.
Shock resistance .
High fatigue strength .

Materials for crankshaft

Forged steel (medium carbon) as vastly used material- usually for


Diesel engine
Generally used steel types
- 0.3%C
- 0.5%C
- 0.6% C, 15% Mn
- 0.4%C, 1.5%Mn, 0.25% Mo

Cast crankshafts are made from spheroidal graphite cast


iron- for high performance engine.( capacity > 1.0 liter)
- flake graphite is not permitted.
- very soft and very hard constituents, such as ferrite and
cementite is limited.
Nitriding steels are suitable for racing engines (high
hardness and fatigue strength).

Connecting Rod
Highly stressed and other requirements as crankshaft.
Materials for connecting rod
Spheroidal graphite cast iron (for motor cars)
Non heat treatable Al alloy (Al; 3.5% Cu; 8.5% Si) for low
duty engines
hardened and tempered carbon manganese steel - cars up
to 2 litres
0.4%C, l.2%Cr, 0.3%Mo steel for high performance
engines

Selection of Materials for Aircraft


Structures (Case Study)
Principal Characteristics of aircraft structures

Wings
subjected to the highest levels and most complex variation
of stresses.
When plain is on the ground, wings hang down due to;
- self weight
- weight of fuel stored
- weight of engines (if wing mounted)
- upper wing surfaces tension
- lower surfaces Compression
Largest forces on the wings occur when plain is airborne.
- wings must support the whole weight of Aircraft
- wings bends upwards.
- upper wing surfaces Compression
- lower surfaces tension

Critical requirments are;


- Resistance to fatigue
- Resistance to stress corrosion
plates must be thick, and heat treated to make free from
residual stresses.
- need stiffness to resist bending and buckling.

Stress corrosion cracking of an aircraft component

Fuselage
Carries the whole of the payload (net carrying capacity).
Load acting vertically downwards, supported by wings at
nearly mid length position. fuselage subjected to bending.
When aircraft roll fuselage subjected torsion.
When aircraft fly at large heights - fuselage subjected
additional longitudinal and circumferential tension.
Critical requirments are;
- static tensile strength
- Fracture toughness
- low cycle fatigue resistance; (pressurization and de
pressurization occurs.)

Landing gears
Functions once per flight as the weight of the whole
aircraft hits the ground.
Critical requirments are;
- static tensile strength
- Fracture toughness
- low cycle fatigue resistance
- Resistance to stress corrosion
heat treated forgings are used

Materials for wings


Consider a panel in the upper surface of a wing,
Stressed in compression and subject to failure by buckling or plastic
crushing.
Efficiency of the structure is given by,

P Load which structure can support


W weight of the structure
E stiffness modulus
b width
is the material selection criterion.

Materials used for an aeroplane wings


Yield Stress E (GPa )
(Mpa)

Density
(tonnes/m3)

Stainless steel,
FV 520

1081

215

7.83

0.765

Titanium alloy,
Ti-6Al-4V

830

110

4.43

1.08

Aluminium alloy
7075-T6

470

72

2.80

1.48

Materials for landing gears


Ultra-high-strength steels are most appropriate.
Al alloys largely abandoned in large civil craft.
Ti alloys for military crafts, because cost is less important factor - American
B1 bomber.
Table

Control surfaces : Rudder and Elevator

Rudder is attached to the back of the vertical stabilizer.


During flight, it is used to move the nose left and right.
Elevator attached to the back of the horizontal stabilizer.
used to move the nose up and down.

Materials for Control surfaces


Resistance to large deflections Adequate stiffness
Materials

C- fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP)


- Multi-directional lay-up allows control of anisotropy
- Significant weight savings.
Glass-carbon reinforced epoxy give the stiffness
required at any particular point in a structure.

Requirements for high-speed flight


In flight aircraft skin is heated due to stagnant layer of air
contiguous with the surface.
Surfaces on the wing and at the nose heating effect is
greater - successive pockets of air become sharply
compressed.
Thermal stresses are developed outside skin of the
aircraft heats up whilst the internal structure stays cool.

Candidate materials for Aircraft structures


Magnesium

Low weight (two thirds that of aluminium)


High strength to weight ratio
Excellent corrosion resistance
High temperature mechanical properties

RZ5 alloy has been extensively used specially for gearbox


casings
Mg 94.05, Zn 5.62, Zr 0.19, Ce 0.10, Nd 0.03

Mg-14Li-1.25Al for outer space shuttles.


Alloy containing Neodymium and Praseodymium (Pr)
used as castings for aircraft components.
Mg casting alloy MSR-B(DTD 5035), containing Zr, Ag,
and rare earths,
- For Nose wheel fork in the Anglo-French Jaguar

Aluminium Alloys

Major Material for airframe construction .


Strength /density ratio is superior to steel. Though not to Ti.
Stiffness is better than both Steel and Ti.
Other properties
High toughness
fatigue resistance
Corrosion resistance stress corrosion
exfoliation corrosion

Table
Precipitation hardening alloys duralumin, 2024.
Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, strongest Al alloys 7075 widely used.

The concorde alloy


Concorde, Turbojet-powered supersonic passenger
airliner.
Nose temp. - 1280C,
leading edge of the wing - 1050C
fuselage surface exceeds 90 0C
Dia 15.8
2xxx and 7xxx series not suitable lose mechanical
properties above 1000C.
X2020- alloy containing Cu, Cd and Li.
keep properties up to 130 0C.
RR56- Al alloy, keep properties up to 175 0C.
Good creep resistance at 175-250 0C.

RR 56
Al- 93.7%
Cu - 2.0%
Ni- 1.3%
Fe - 1.4%
Si- 0.7%
Mg - 0.8%
Ti - 0.1%
Melting point 635C

Titanium alloys
High strength to weight ratio.
capable of operating at temperatures from sub zero to 600C.
For aero-engines - blades, shafts and casings from the front
fan to the last stage of the high pressure
compressor.
Air-frames Ti Alloys with strength up to 1200MPa.
- landing gears and large wing beams.

Table

Composites
Generally consist of a matrix of epoxy-resin reinforced by
fibers of ;
- Boron
- Carbon
- Aromatic polyamide (Kevlar)
Heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.
Chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so
the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited.

Kevlar chemical structure

For cabin floors, lightly loaded parts


- plastic-glass honey comb core between glass-fibre
facing sheets.
The most advanced use of composites so far is to be
found in the McDonnell Douglas AV8B Advanced Harrier.
- wing is manufactured entirely from carbon-fibreepoxy.
- 150 kg weight savings.
Impact properties of carbon fibre composites, improved by
glass fibers.
Stiffness of GFRP may be increased by the addition of
carbon fibers.

BIOMATERIALS- INTRODUCTION
A
biomaterial
is
defined
as
any
systemically,
pharmacologically inert substance or combination of
substances utilized for implantation within or incorporation with
a living system to supplement or replace functions of living
tissues or organs.

Requirements of Biomaterials
A biomaterial must be:

Inert or specifically interactive


Biocompatible
Mechanically and chemically stable
Biodegradable
Processable (for manufacturability)
Sterilizable (ability of material to make it completely
clean and free from bacteria)

Biocompatibility is the ability of material to perform


within an appropriate host response in a specific
application.
in other words is the quality of not having toxic or injurious
effects on biological systems.

Internal Medicine

Metal (originally stainless steel) femoral component.


Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) acetabular
component.
bone cement and screws - Poly(methyl methacrylate)
(PMMA): transparent thermoplastic
Acrylic bone cement is the only material currently used to
fill the irregular space between artificial joint (prosthesis)
and bone during total hip replacements (THR). Its main
function is to transfer body weight and service loads from
the metal prosthesis to the bone and/or increase the load
carrying capacity of the prosthesis- bone cement- bone
system

Plate for fracture fixation

Stainless steel
cobalt-chromium alloy

Bio Materials Applications in Dentistry


Dental Implant

A dental implant is essentially a substitute for a natural root


made from medical and dental grade titanium. The amazing
thing with a titanium dental implant is that the body does not
recognise it as a foreign object and so completely integrates.

abutments are connected to the dental implants via a


screw. This screw needs to be tightened to a predetermined
torque, in order to avoid screw loosening during chewing,
which can often create a counter-clockwise torque on the
implant-abutment interface, encouraging the abutment
screw to come loose. This can largely be prevented with
proper screw design and torquing of the abutment.
nickel, stainless steel, Gold, Zirconia

dental crowns Some common materials used for are;


nickel, chromium, Gold, Ceramic and porcelain

Cardiovascular system

Heart valve - Stainless steel, carbon

Blood vessel - Teflon, Dacron, Polyurethane

Catheter is a thin, flexible tube that can be inserted into a body.


Functionally, they allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases,
access by surgical instruments, and also perform wide variety of other
tasks depending on the type of catheter.

Silicone rubber, Teflon, polyurethane

Artificial Kidney
Cellulose, polyacrylonitrile, Silicon membrane
membrane is a thin, film-like structure that
separates two fluids.

Artificial Heart - Polyurethane

Heart Lung Machine - Silicone rubber

Materials selection for ship structures


Shape & characteristics are determined by;
- Liquid and solid cargo
- Passengers
- Temperature
Ship surface operate at the interface between two media of
differing density (water &air).
- determination of suitable shape is complicated.
Two main parts: - Hull
- Superstructure
Hull - watertight body of a ship
Superstructure - structure consisting of the part of a ship
above the main deck.

Construction of a Hull

Superstructure

Hull is constructed by plates, which are flat or curved,


- Provide required buoyancy.
- Shape ensure good stability and handling.
- Joists are attached to plates, which confer
stiffness and resistance to buckling.

When ship in equilibrium, two sorts of forces:


- downward-acting forces due to total mass.
- upthrusts from the water due to the buoyancy of
the immersed parts.
In total, these two forces are equal.
But their distribution along the length of the hull are not.
- floating hull bends longitudinally like a beam.
- bending stresses are resisted by the deck and bottom
structures.

Hogging is the stress a ship's hull experiences that causes


the center of the hull bends upward.
Sagging is the stress , when the hull is in the trough of two
waves -hull bends downward.

Hogging

Sagging

Materials for ship hulls


One of the parameters used in ship design is the ratio L/D.
- L, length of the ship
- D, depth: distance between top and bottom
structures.
Greater the L/D ratio, larger the deflections ().
If L/D ratio is larger, top and bottom sections need to be
provide stiffness.
Table 16.1

Al alloy
Al alloy hulls exhibit deflections than steel.
Cost of Al has prevented its use in large cargo vessels.
Al, use for smaller vessels and special-purpose craft such as hydrofoils low density

Sailing spars

hydrofoil

Used in sheet for all-metal hulls, and


structural members - sailing spars
Al is difficult to weld- requires heat treatments such as
precipitation strengthening.

Mild Steel
Conventional material for large ship construction.
Generally standard steel posses,
- Yield strength of around 220 to 250 MPa.
- Tensile strength over 340 Mpa.
Other properties:

corrosion resistance gained by covering of paint lead


paint (Pb3O4).
do not get brittle at low temperatures (below freezing)
since many ships are at sea during in winter time.
enough toughness at low temperature otherwise tends
to develop cracks and sink.

ABS (American Bureau of Shipping) Steels


Ordinary-strength ABS shipbuilding steel comes in a number of
grades, A, B, D & E.
Yield strength - 200 to 250 MPa
Tensile strength - 350 to 550 Mpa
Higher-strength ABS
AH32, DH32, EH32, AH36, DH36, and EH36
32 grades: Yield strength 315 MPa,
Ultimate tensile strength 440-590 MPa.
36 grades: Yield strength 355 MPa,
Ultimate tensile strength 490-620 MPa.

Fatigue limit, below which any quantity of stress load


cycles will not cause cracks/failures.
Ship design criteria generally assume that all normal loads
on the ship should be below the fatigue limit.
assume that the ship will regularly operate fully loaded, in
heavy weather and strong waves.

Cu-Ni Alloys
Extensively used alloys are

CuNi5Fe

CuNi10Fe1Mn

CuNi20Fe
Good resistance to corrosion and macro fouling
- savings in fuel; friction due to developed rough layers
- savings in hull maintenance time and cost
Constructing hulls using different product forms of Cu-Ni:
- hull from Cu-Ni alloy plate onto steel or Cu-Ni frames.
- Cladding a fibreglass, wood or steel hull with Cu-Ni
alloy sheet or foil

Composites
higher stiffness and strength/weight ratio.
lighter weight keeps fuel costs down.
Can achieve high speedJet Rider, which operates in Norway and carries
244 passengers at 48 mph.
Cost effective relative to metal crafts.

Composite Fishing Boats

Deflections for GFRP hulls are impossibly large.


- Required to increase material thickness.
GFRP is not used for large cargo vessels.
- used for fishing boats up to 30 m.
In longitudinal structures, low elastic modulus of GFRP
causes panel type buckling.
countered by; - enlarging longitudinal stiffeners
- decreasing the spacing between panels

Materials selection for Bearings


(Case study)

Friction is caused by two surfaces resisting movement


between them sliding .
If however two surfaces can contact each other by rolling
then friction problems are significantly reduced.
Bearings reduce friction either by using hard smooth balls or
rollers.
Balls or rollers "bear" any loads, allowing the bearing to
rotate smoothly.

Good bearing design involves three fundamental


elements:
understanding the service environment.
designing for proper lubrication.
selecting the best bearing material for the job.

Service conditions: Major areas of consideration are:


Load - steady and impact
Speed at design load
Corrosive environments
Dirty environments and/or lubricants
Temperature,

Ball bearings are dealing with two kinds of loading


condition;
radial load and thrust load
Depending on the type of application the bearing is used
radial load only,
thrust load only or
combination of both.

Tapered roller bearings connected to car wheel.

Ball bearings

most common type


They are found in from washing machines to PC hard
drives.
usually found in applications where the load is light to
medium and is constant in nature -not shock loading.
capable of taking both radial and thrust loads.

Roller Bearing
used in heavy duty applications such as conveyer belt rollers
- must hold heavy radial loads.
contact between the inner and outer race is not a point (like
the ball bearing above) but a line.
spreads the load out over a larger area, allowing to handle
much greater loads than a ball bearing.
cannot handle thrust loads

Taper roller bearing


Tapered roller bearings are designed to support large radial
and large thrust loads.
These loads can take the form of constant loads or shock
loads.
used in many car hubs, mounted in pairs facing opposite
directions This gives them the ability to take thrust loads in
both directions.

Materials for Bearings


Tin Bronzes:
Alloy Nos. C90300, C90500, C90700.
principal function of Sn is to strengthen the alloys.
Zn also adds strength, but more than about 4% zinc
reduces anti-frictional properties.
Strong, hard and very high ductility gives them;
- high load-carrying capacity.
- good wear resistance.
- ability to withstand pounding.
Corrosion resistance in seawater.
operate better with grease lubrication.

Leaded Tin Bronzes


Alloy Nos. C92200, C92300, C92700
contain small amounts of Pb.
main function of Pb is to improve machinability.
contain small % Zn - strengthen the alloys at a
lower cost than Sn.

High-Leaded Tin Bronzes


Alloy Nos. C93200, C93400, C93500, C93700, C93800,
C94300.
Alloy C93200, more often specified, than all other bearing
materials.
Strengths and hardnesses are somewhat lower than those
of the tin bronzes.
but posses excellent anti-friction and machining properties.
Alloy C93700
Corrosion resistance to acidic water, and to mineral water.
Wear resistance is good at high speeds and under
high-load, shock and vibration conditions.

Fair casting properties, to be considered when large or


complex bearing shapes must be produced.
The lead addition makes these alloys easy to machine.
Alloys C93800 and C94300
low strength, superior lubricity - containing 15-25 % Pb.
should not be specified for use under high loads or in
applications where impacts can be anticipated.

Aluminum Bronzes
Alloy Nos. C 95300,, C 95400, C 95400-HT, C 95500, C
95500-HT, C 95510.
The strongest copper-based bearing alloys.
Al content provides most of their high strength (up to 68,000
psi yield and 120,000 tensile).
Only bearing bronzes capable of being heat treated.
excellent corrosion resistance - ideally suited for such
applications as marine propellers and pump impellers.
Superior elevated temperature strength only bearing
material operate at temperatures exceeding 50O F.

Manganese Bronzes
Alloy Nos. C86300, C86400.
Modifications of the Muntz metal-type alloys (60%Cu 40%Zn)
containing small additions of Mn, Fe, Al & Pb.
very high strength with excellent corrosion resistance.
can operate at high speeds under heavy loads.

Sn based white metal


88% Sn, rest of composition is Sb, Cu and Cd.
Pb content is considered as impurity deteriorates fatigue
strength.
Used in crank bearings, cross head bearings, camshaft
bearings and thrust bearings.

crank bearings

camshaft bearings

Sn-Al Bearings
20% of Sn added to Al to improve seizure resistance.
Cold working and annealing helps to prevent brittleness.
Advantages;
- corrosion resistance
- high thermal conductivity
- high fatigue strength.
Disadvantages
- Moderate embedding properties
- High coefficient of thermal expansion

Al based engine bearings have bi-metal structure consisting of


two layers:
a steel back and an Al-tin alloy of about 0.01 (0.25 mm)
thick.

Materials selection for Armor Systems


(Case study)

LIGHT-WEIGHT CERAMIC ARMOR


Military vehicles have traditionally been manufactured from
high strength armor plate steel.
Modern ceramic composites have largely replaced steel due
to;
its significantly lower areal weight which allows weight
savings of more than 50% over conventional steel.
Ceramic materials used for ballistic protection are:
- Alumina (Al2O3)
- Silicon carbide (SiC)
- Boron carbide (BC)
Alumina is the prominent ceramic armor material for
vehicular applications - excellent price-efficiency ratio

Only when an extremely low weight is required (e.g. for


personal protection or for helicopters),
- silicon and boron carbide
Other ceramic materials used for ballistic protection

Silicon nitride (SN)


Titanium boride (TiB2)
Aluminium nitride (AlN)
SIALON (Silicon aluminium oxynitride)
Fibre-reinforced ceramic (e.g. C-SiC)
Ceramic-metal composite materials (CMC)

CERAMIC POLYMER ARMOR SYSTEMS

Construction of light-weight composite system is based on


four main components:
Spall foil

Ceramic

Composite substrate

Adhesive

Spall protection is applied on the front side of the ceramic


glass fiber laminates are preferably used for this
purpose.
ceramic is normally placed on the strike face, preferably
perpendicular to the expected threat.
Hard ceramic layer reduces the speed of the projectile and
micronises the projectile.

Reduced kinetic energy of these residual fragments, is


completely absorbed by the elastic/plastic deformation in
the composite backing.
Composite backing is formed by polyaramide,
polyethylene or polypropylene fibers.
The stiffening and structural enhancement of the
individual polymer layers is achieved by impregnation and
subsequent curing of the adhesive
: rubber, polyurethane or epoxies
This chemical bond between
- ceramic and composite substrate
- individual polymer layers
is the key significance for the performance of the
entire system.

ALUMINA ARMOR MATERIALS

ALOTEC 96 SB
The Al2O3 content is 96%.
Glass forming silicates are used as sintering additives which
cause a lowering of the sintering temperature and regulate
the grain growth.

ALOTEC 98 SB
Higher rigidity and hardness values are achieved through the
reduction of the glass phase.
The microstructure is similar to that of ALOTEC 96 SB.

ALOTEC 99 SB
Lack of glass-forming substances.
Consolidation is achieved not by liquid phase sintering but
by solid-state sintering.
Uncontrolled grain growth is avoided by adding around
400 ppm of MgO.
The high proportion of Al2O3 enhances the mechanical
properties - increase in ballistic efficiency.

ALOCOR 100
Al2O3 content of above 99.95%.
An ultrafine-grained microstructure with grain sizes < 1m
can be generated by applying a two-step sintering process.
Extremely high mechanical properties and increased
ballistic efficiency.

CARBIDE ARMOR MATERIALS

SICADUR F (SSiC)
produced by solid-state-sintering.
Sintering additives, boron carbide and carbon, lie at 1%.
nearly nonporous; hardness lies in the range of 25 GPa,
though the fracture toughness is slightly lower than that of
LPSSiC.
SICADUR T (LPSSiC)
Liquid-phase-sintered SiC is a highly consolidated material
with a density of = 3.23 g/cm3 and a fine microstructure.
Sinter additives are Al2O3 , Y2O3 in quantities of approx.10%.
The material has high fracture toughness and fracture
strength.

BOCADUR
Hot-pressed boron carbide is the lightest, hardest, but also
most expensive material being used today in series of
ballistic protection.
The emphasis of its application is on personal protection as
inserts for armor vests.

Penetration mechanism
Dwell effect
When the projectile impacts the surface of the ceramic, its
kinetic energy is greatly reduced without penetrating the
ceramic.
This is caused by the dwell effect. In that phase the
projectile experiences a highly ductile deformation.
EK due to dwell is to approximately 35%.

Erosion
After approx.15 to 20 s, the projectile actually penetrates
the ceramic body.
kinetic energy of the projectile is reduced further by erosion.
EK by erosion is approximately 50%.

Backing
Shattered fragments of the projectile completely penetrate
the ceramic after approx.30 s.
The residual energy of these fragments can be fully absorbed
by the backing.
EK by backing is approximately 15%.

Required properties of ceramics used in armor


systems
defined microstructure with high grain size stability combined
with high homogeneity.
high hardness and high sonic velocity are necessary for
ballistic efficiency.
High modulus of elasticity and high relative density are
the prerequisites for high sonic velocity.
mechanical strength (pressure, bend and shear strength)
and fracture resistance.

Body Armors
helps absorb the impact from fired projectiles and from
explosions.
Metal or ceramic plates can be used for soft vest, providing
additional protection from rifle attacks.
Kevlar - high tensile strength-to-weight ratio.
- 5 times stronger than steel on an equal weight basis
Kevlar is the registered trademark for a para-aramid
synthetic fiber.
fiber has : tensile strength of about 3,620 Mpa
: relative density of 1.44.
high strength gained by inter-molecular hydrogen bonds
form between the carbonyl groups and NH centers.

Molecular structure of Kevlar:


- bold represents a monomer unit,
- dashed lines indicate hydrogen bonds.

At higher temperatures the tensile strength is immediately


reduced.
At 160C (320F) about 10% reduction
At 260C (500F) about 50% reduction

Safety glass
Quench hardening (Thermal tempering)
made from annealed glass via a thermal tempering process.
heat it up to softening pt. then rapidly cooled by injecting air
while the inner portion remains free to flow for a short time.
Initially the rapid cooling tends to induce tensile stress on the
surface. This is reversed in the latter stages of cooling
resulting in compressive stresses on the surface.
This compressive stress tends to close surface flaws.
surface compressive stress should exceed 100 Mpa, for
safety glass.

Viscosity (poise)

Description
Melting Point (make the glass melt

101-102
103-104

homogeneous)
Working Point (pressing, blowing, gob forming)

107-108
Softening Point (glass retains its own shape )
1011-1012

Glass Transition Temperature, Tg


(become high viscous, no rearrangement of
atoms below Tg )

1012-1013

Annealing Point (Stress is relieved within a


several minutes)

1013.5-1014.5

Strain Point (Stress is relieved within several


hours, below this, glass can be cooled rapidly.)

Temperature dependence of Viscosity

greater the surface stress, the smaller the glass particles


which are shattered into small fragments instead of sharp
pieces.
Applications
- Vehicle windows
- glass doors and tables
- refrigerator trays
- as a component of bulletproof glass
- for diving masks

Schematic representation of the stress profile in toughened


glass

Ion Exchange
When a large ion is exchange for smaller ion, at
temperature below Tg a compressive stresses build up in
the exchange region (by immersing soda lime silica glass
in molten KNO3 at 400 C)

Addition of Crystalline particles


addition of second phase particles increase the strength
due to pinning (making obstacles) of the propagation
cracks.
These constituents required higher energy for fracture
Eg: Composites of glass and alumina