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Norm- Referenced Tests &

Criterion-Referenced Tests
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Introduction of Norm- Referenced Tests &

Criterion-Referenced Tests
A norm-referenced test (NRT) is a type of test,
assessment, or evaluation which yields an estimate of
the position of the tested individual in a predefined
population, with respect to the trait being measured.
Critics of criterion-referenced tests point out that judges
set bookmarks around items of varying difficulty without
considering whether the items actually are compliant with
grade level content standards or are developmentally

Compare NRT & CRT

Norm-Referenced Tests

Criterion-referenced test

Provide information on how the

performance of an individual
compares with that of others.

Provide information on how the

individual preformed on some standard
of objective.

Individuals standing is
compared with that of a know

Allow users to interpret what an

individual can do without considering
the performance of others.

Percentile rank is obtained to

Designed to measure the results of
determine the relative standing in instruction.
a norm group.
Emphasize the discrimination
among individuals.

An individuals performance on a specific

behavioral or instructional objective
Emphasizes description of performance.

NRT & CRT common characteristics

*Require a relevant and representative sample of
test items
*Require specification of the achievement domain
to be measured
*Use the same type of test items
*Use the same rules for item writing
*Judged by the same qualities (validity and
*Useful in educational measurement

Advantages and disadvantages of


Advantages and disadvantages of


They easy for instructors to use
They work well in situations requiring rigid
differentiation among students
They are generally appropriate in large

Advantages and disadvantages of

An individual's grade is determined not
only by his/her achievements, but also by
the achievements of others.

Advantages and disadvantages of


Students are not competing with each
Students are thus more likely to actively
help each other learn.
A student's grade is not influenced by the
caliber of the class.

Advantages and disadvantages of

It is difficult to set a reasonable standard for
Most experienced faculty set criteria based
on their knowledge of how students usually
Criterion-referenced systems often become
fairly similar to norm-referenced systems.

Background of GEPT & TOEFL

The GEPT (General English Proficiency Test) was
sponsored by the Taiwan Ministry of Education
(MOE) and was developed at The Language
Training and Testing Center (LTTC).
It is designed to measure English language skills
including listening, reading, writing and speaking to
individuals whose mother tongue is not English.
Since the first test launched in 1990, the GEPT has
come one of the most recognized and popular
tests for evaluating English proficiency levels in

Statistic shows more than 1.74 million people

would have taken the test by September 2005.
According to the reports by the LTTC, most
examinees are students who would use the test
score as one of the criteria to be accepted for
further education in Taiwan or as a method of
passing the benchmark requirements of English
studied in schools.
Recently GEPT test takers have included many
business corporations and government officials.
Though a new rule stipulated in 2006 indicates
children under 12 are prohibited from taking the
test in fear of the negative psychological effects
that might occur if they do not perform well on
the test.

The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)
evaluates the potential success of an individual to use
and understand academic English at a college level. It is
required for non-native applicants at many Englishspeaking colleges and universities. Additionally,
institutions such as government agencies, businesses,
or scholarship programs may require this test. A TOEFL
score is valid for two years and then is deleted from the
official database. Colleges and universities usually
consider only the most recent TOEFL score.
The TOEFL test is a registered trademark of Educational
Testing Service (ETS) and is administered worldwide.
The test was first administered in 1964 and has since
been taken by nearly 20 million students.