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Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

The Lathe
Section 11
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Permission required for reproduction or display.

History
Lathe forerunner of all machine tools
First application was potter's wheel
Rotated clay and enabled it to be formed into
cylindrical shape

Very versatile (many attachments)


Used for turning, tapering, form turning, screw
cutting, facing, drilling, boring, spinning,
grinding and polishing operations
Cutting tool fed either parallel or right angles

Special Types of Lathes


Engine lathe
Not production lathe, found in school shops,
toolrooms, and jobbing shops
Basic to all lathes

Turret lathe
Used when many duplicate parts required
Equipped with multisided toolpost (turret) to
which several different cutting tools mounted
Employed in given sequence

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Krar Gill Smid

Engine Lathe Parts


Unit 45
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.

Engine Lathe
Accurate and versatile machine
Operations
Turning, tapering, form turning, threading,
facing, drilling, boring, grinding, and polishing

Three common
Toolroom
Heavy-duty
Gap-bed

Lathe Size and Capacity


Designated by largest work diameter that
can be swung over lathe ways and generally
the maximum distance between centers
Manufactured in wide range of sizes
Most common: 9- to 30- in. swing with
capacity of 16 in. to 12 feet between centers
Typical lathe: 13 in. swing, 6 ft long bed, 36 in.
Average metric lathe: 230-330 mm swing and
bed length of 500 3000 mm

Lathe Size

Indicated by the swing


and the length of the bed

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Parts of the Lathe


Headstock

Tailstock

Bed

Quick
Change
Gearbox

Carriage
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Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Permission required for reproduction or display.

Setting Speeds on a Lathe


Speeds measured in revolutions per minute
Changed by stepped pulleys or gear levers

Safety
Belt-driven
lathe
Note!!
NEVER change speeds
Various speeds obtained by changing flat belt
when
lathe
is
running.
and back gear drive

Geared-head lathe
Speeds changed by moving speed levers into
proper positions according to r/min chart
fastened to headstock

Shear Pins and Slip Clutches


Prevents damage to feed mechanism from
overload or sudden torque
Shear pins
Made of brass
Found on feed rod, lead screw, and end gear train

Spring-loaded slip clutches


Found only on feed rods
When feed mechanism overloaded, shear pin will
break or slip clutch will slip causing feed to stop

Shear pin in end gear


train prevents damage
to the gears in case
of an overload
Spring-ball clutch
will slip when too
much strain is
applied to feed rod

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Krar Gill Smid

Lathe Accessories
Unit 46

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46-15

Lathe Accessories
Divided into two categories
Work-holding, -supporting, and driving devices
Lathe centers, chucks, faceplates
Mandrels, steady and follower rests
Lathe dogs, drive plates

Cutting-tool-holding devices
Straight and offset toolholders
Threading toolholders, boring bars
Turret-type toolposts

46-16

Lathe Centers
Work to be turned between centers must
have center hole drilled in each end
Provides bearing surface

Support during cutting


Most common have
solid Morse taper shank
60 centers, steel with carbide tips
Care to adjust and lubricate occasionally
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46-17

Chucks
Used extensively for holding work for
machining operations
Work large or unusual shape

Most commonly used lathe chucks


Three-jaw universal
Four-jaw independent
Collet chuck

46-18

Three-jaw Universal Chuck


Holds round and hexagonal work
Grasps work quickly and accurate within
few thousandths/inch
Three jaws move
simultaneously when
adjusted by chuck wrench
Caused by scroll plate into
which all three jaws fit

Two sets of jaw: outside chucking and


inside chucking
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46-19

Four-Jaw Independent Chuck


Used to hold round, square, hexagonal, and
irregularly shaped workpieces
Has four jaws
Each can be adjusted independently by chuck
wrench

Jaws can be reversed to hold work by inside


diameter

46-20

Headstock Spindles
Universal and independent chuck fitted to
three types of headstock spindles
1. Threaded spindle nose

Screws on in a
clockwise direction

2. Tapered spindle nose

Held by lock nut


that tightens on chuck

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46-21

Headstock Spindles
3. Cam-lock spindle nose

Held by tightening cam-locks using T-wrench


Chuck aligned by taper
on spindle nose

Registration lines on spindle nose


Registration lines on cam-lock
Cam-locks
Cam-lock mating stud on
chuck or faceplate
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46-22

Collet Chuck
Most accurate chuck
Used for high-precision work
Spring collets available to hold round,
square, or hexagon-shaped workpieces
Each collet has range of only few
thousandths of an inch over or under size
stamped on collet

46-23

Collet Chuck

Special adapter fitted into taper of headstock spindle,


and hollow draw bar having internal thread inserted
in opposite end of headstock spindle. It draws collet
into tapered adapter causing collet to tighten on workpiece.
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46-24

Types of Lathe Dogs


Standard bent-tail lathe dog
Most commonly used for round
workpieces
Available with square-head
setscrews of headless setscrews

Straight-tail lathe dog


Driven by stud in driveplate
Used in precision turning
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46-25

Types of Lathe Dogs


Safety clamp lathe dog
Used to hold variety of work
Wide range of adjustment

Clamp lathe dog


Wider range
than others
Used on all shapes
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46-26

Left-Hand Offset Toolholder


Offset to the right
Designed for machining work close to
chuck or faceplate and cutting right to left
Designated by letter L

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46-27

Right-Hand Offset Toolholder


Offset to the left
Designed for machining work close to the
tailstock and cutting left to right
Also for facing operations

Designated by letter R

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46-28

Straight Toolholder
General-purpose type
Used for taking cuts in either direction and
for general machining operations
Designated by letter S

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46-29

Toolholders for Indexable


Carbide Inserts
Held in holder by cam action or clamps
Types available
Conventional
Turret-type
Heavy-duty toolposts

46-30

Cutting-Off (Parting) Tools


Used when work must be grooved or
parted off
Long, thin cutting-off blade locked
securely in toolholder by either cam lock or
locking nut
Three types of parting toolholders
Left-hand
Right-hand
Straight

46-31

Threading Toolholder
Designed to hold special form-relieved
thread-cutting tool
Has accurately ground 60 angle
Maintained throughout life of tool
Only top of cutting surface sharpened when
becomes dull

46-32

Super Quick-Change Toolpost

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Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Cutting Speed,
Feed, and Depth
of Cut
Unit 47

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47-34

Cutting Speed
Rate at which point on work circumference
travels past cutting tool
Always expressed in feet per minute (ft/min)
or meters per minute (m/min)
Important to use correct speed for material
Too high: cutting-tool breaks down rapidly
Too low: time lost, low production rates

47-35

Lathe Cutting Speeds in Feet and Meters per


Minute Using High-Speed Steel Toolbit
Turning and Boring
Rough Cut Finish Cut Threading
Material

ft/min

m/min

ft/min

m/min
11

Machine steel

90

27

100

30

35

Tool steel

70

21

90

27

30

Cast iron

60

18

80

24

25

Bronze

90

27

100

30

25

Aluminum 200

61

300

93

60

18

47-36

Calculating Lathe Spindle Speed


Given in revolutions per minute
Cutting speed of metal and diameter of
work must be known
Proper spindle speed set by dividing
CS (in/min) by circumference of work (in)

CS x 12 CS x 4
r/min

D
D

47-37

Example:
Calculate r/min required to rough-turn 2 in. diameter
piece of machine steel (CS 90):

CS x 4
r/min
D
90 x 4
r/min
180
2
CS x 320
r/min
Metric Formula
D

47-38

Lathe Feed
Distance cutting tool advances along length
of work for every revolution of the spindle
Feed of engine lathe dependent on speed of
lead screw for feed rod
Speed controlled by change gears in
quick-change gearbox

47-39

Two Cuts Used to Bring


Diameter to Size
Roughing cut
Purpose to remove excess material quickly
Coarse feed: surface finish not too important
.010- to .015-in. (0.25- to 0.4-mm)

Finishing cut
Used to bring diameter to size
Fine feed: Produce good finish
.003- to .005-in (0.07- to 0.012-mm)

47-40

Feeds for Various Materials


(using high-speed steel cutting tool)
Rough Cuts
Material

in.

Machine steel

Finish Cuts
mm

in.

.010.020 0.250.5

.003.010 0

Tool steel

.010.020 0.250.5

.003.010 0.070

Cast iron

.015.025 0.40.65

.005.012 0.130

Bronze

.015.025 0.40.65

Aluminum .015.030 0.40.75

.003.010 0

.005.010 0.130

47-41

Depth of Cut
Depth of chip taken by cutting tool and onehalf total amount removed from workpiece
in one cut
Onlyoneroughingandonefinishingcut
Roughingcutshouldbedeepaspossibleto
reducediametertowithin.030to.040in.(0.76
to1mm)ofsizerequired
Finishingcutshouldnotbelessthan.005in.

47-42

Example: Depth of cut on a lathe

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47-43

Factors Determining Depth of


Rough-Turning Cut
Condition of machine
Type and shape of cutting tool used
Rigidity of workpiece, machine, and cutting
tool
Rate of feed

47-44

Inch System
Circumference of crossfeed and compound
rest screw collars divided into 100-125
equal divisions
Each has value of .001 in.
Turn crossfeed screw clockwise 10 graduations,
cutting tool moved .010 in. toward work
Lathe revolves, so .010 depth of cut taken from
entire work circumference reducing diameter .020 in.

Check machine for its' graduations

47-45

On machines where the workpiece revolves,


the cutting tool should be set in for only half
the amount to be removed from the diameter.

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47-46

On machines where the workpiece does not


revolve, the cutting tool should be set in for
the amount of material to be removed.

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47-47

Hints on Graduated Collar Use


1. Make sure collar is secure before setting a
depth of cut
2. All depths of cut must be made by feeding
cutting tool toward workpiece
3. If graduated collar turned past desired
setting, must be turned backward half-turn
and fed into proper setting to remove
backlash
4. Never hold graduated collar when setting
depth of cut

47-48

5. Graduated collar on compound rest can be


used for accurately setting depth of cut

Shoulder turning

Facing

Compound rest set at 90 to cross-slide


Lock carriage in place
Spacing of shoulders to within .001 in. accuracy
Compound rest swung to 30, amount removed from
length of work = amount of feed on collar

Machining accurate diameters

Set compound rest to 8416' to the cross-slide


.001 in movement = .0001-in. infeed movement

47-49

The compound rest is set at 8416' for


making fine settings.

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Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Lathe Safety
Unit 48

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48-51

Safety
Be aware of safety requirements in any area
of shop
Always attempt to observe safety rules
Failure results in:
Serious injury
Resultant loss of time and pay
Loss of production to company

48-52

Safety Precautions
Lathe hazardous if not operated properly
Important to keep machine and surrounding
area clean and tidy
Accidents usually caused by carelessness

48-53

Safety Precautions
Always wear approved safety glasses
Rollup sleeves, remove tie and tuck in loose
clothing
Never wear ring or watch

48-54

Safety Precautions
Do not operate lathe until understand controls
Never operate machine if safety guards
removed
Stop lathe before measure work or clean, oil
or adjust machine
Do not use rag to clean work or machine
when in operation
Rag can get caught and drag in hand

48-55

Safety Precautions
Never attempt to stop a lathe chuck or
driveplate by hand
Be sure chuck or faceplate mounted securely
before starting
If loose, becomes dangerous missile

Always remove chuck wrench after use


Fly out and injure someone
Become jammed, damaging wrench or lathe

48-56

Safety Precautions
Move carriage to farthest position of cut and
revolve lathe spindle one turn by hand
Ensure all parts clear without jamming
Prevent accident and damage to lathe

Keep floor around machine free from grease,


oil, metal cuttings, tools and workpieces
Oil and grease can cause falls
Objects on floor become tripping hazards

48-57

Safety Precautions
Avoid horseplay at all times
Always remove chips with brush
Chips can cause cuts if use hands
Chips become embedded if use cloths

Always remove sharp toolbit from


toolholder when polishing, filing, cleaning,
or making adjustments

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Mounting,
Removing, and
Aligning Lathe
Centers
Unit 49
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Permission required for reproduction or display.

49-59

Objectives
Mount and/or remove lathe
centers properly
Align lathe centers by visual, trialcut, and dial-indicator methods

49-60

Lathe Centers
Work machined between centers turned for
some portion of length, then reversed, and
other end finished
Critical when machining work between
centers that live center be absolutely true
Concentric work

49-61

To Mount Lathe Centers


Remove any burrs from lathe spindle,
centers, or spindle sleeves
Clean tapers on lathe centers and in
headstock and tailstock spindles
Partially insert cleaned center in lathe spindle
Force center into spindle
Follow same procedure when mounting
tailstock center
Check trueness of center

49-62

To Remove Lathe Centers


Live center
Use knockout bar pushed through headstock
spindle (slight tap)
Use cloth over center and hold to prevent damage

Dead center
Turn tailstock handwheel to draw spindle back
into tailstock
End of screw contacts end of dead center, forcing it out
of spindle

49-63

Alignment of Lathe Centers

Parallel diameter produced when lathe


center aligned
Three common methods
used to align
1. Aligning centerlines
on back of tailstock
with each other

Only a visual check


and not too accurate

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49-64

Alignment of Lathe Centers


2. Using the trial-cut
method where small
cut taken from each
end of work and
diameters measured with a micrometer
3. Using parallel test bar and dial indicator

Fastest and most accurate method

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

49-65

To Align Centers by Adjusting


the Tailstock
1. Loosen tailstock clamp nut or level
2. Loosen on of the adjusting screws,
depending on direction tailstock must be
moved and tighten other until line on top
aligns with line on bottom half
3. Tighten screw to lock both halves in place
4. Make sure tailstock lines still aligned
5. Lock tailstock clamp nut or lever

49-66

To Align Centers by
Trial-Cut Method
1. Take a light cut (~.005 in.) to true
diameter from section A at tailstock end
for .250 in. long
2. Stop feed and note reading on graduated
collar of crossfeed handle
3. Move cutting tool away from work with
crossfeed handle
4. Bring cutting tool close to headstock end

49-67

To Align Centers by
Trial-Cut Method
5. Return cutting tool to same graduated
collar setting as at section A
6. Cut a .500-in (13 mm) length at section B
and stop lathe
7. Measure both diameters with micrometer

49-68

To Align Centers by
Trial-Cut Method
8. If both diameters not same size, adjust
tailstock either toward or away from
cutting tool difference of two readings
9. Take another light cut at A and B at same
crossfeed graduated collar setting.
Measure diameters and adjust tailstock.

49-69

To Align Centers Using Dial


Indicator and Test Bar
1. Clean lathe and work center, mount test
bar
2. Adjust test bar snugly between centers and
tighten tailstock spindle clamp
3. Mount dial indicator on toolpost or lathe
carriage

Indicator plunger should be parallel to lathe


bed and contact point set on center

49-70

To Align Centers Using Dial


Indicator and Test Bar
4. Adjust cross-slide

Indicator registers approximately .025 in at


tailstock, indicator bezel to 0

5. Move carriage by hand so indicator


registers on diameter at headstock end and
not indicator reading
6. If both indicator readings not same, adjust
tailstock with adjusting screws until
indicator registers same at both ends

49-71

To Align Centers Using Dial


Indicator and Test Bar
7. Tighten adjusting screw that was loosened
8. Tighten tailstock clamp nut
9. Adjust tailstock spindle until test bar snug
between lathe centers
10. Recheck indicator readings at both ends
and adjust tailstock, if necessary

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Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Grinding Lathe
Cutting Tools
Unit 50
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50-73

Grinding Lathe Cutting Tool


Wide variety of cutting tools for lathe
All have certain angles and clearances regardless
of shape
Shape and Dimensions of General-purpose Lathe Toolbit

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50-74

To Grind a
General-Purpose Toolbit
1. Dress face of grinding wheel
2. Grip toolbit firmly, supporting hands on grinder
toolrest
3. Hold toolbit at proper
angel to grind cutting
edge angle

Tilt bottom of toolbit


toward wheel and
grind 10 side relief
or clearance angle

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50-75

Cutting edge ~ In long and extend


over width of toolbit
10 side relief or
clearance angle

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50-76

4. While grinding, move toolbit back and


forth across face of wheel

Prevents grooving wheel

5. Toolbit must be cooled frequently during


grinding

Never overheat toolbit!


Never quench stellite or cemented-carbide
tools
Never grind carbides with aluminum oxide
wheel

50-77

6. Grind end cutting edge so it forms angle of


a little less than 90 with side cutting edge

Hold tool so that end cutting edge angle and


end relief angle of 15 ground at same time

70 to 80 Point Angle

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50-78

7. Using toolbit grinding gage, check amount


of end relief when toolbit is in toolholder

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50-79

8. Hold top of toolbit approximately 45 to


axis of wheel and grind side rake to
approximately 14

Do not grind below top of toolbit

Creates a chip trap

Side rake ground the length


of the cutting edge

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50-80

9. Grind slight radius on point of cutting


tool, being sure to maintain same front
and side clearance angle
10. With oilstone, hone cutting edge of toolbit
slightly

Lengthen life of toolbit


Enable it to produce better surface finish on
workpiece

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Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Machining
Between Centers
Unit 52
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Permission required for reproduction or display.

52-82

Machining Between Centers


Training programs (schools)
Remove and replace work in lathe many times
before completed
Need assurance that machined diameter will run
true with other diameters
Machining between centers saves time in setting up

Common operations
Facing, rough and finish-turning, shoulder
turning, filing and polishing

52-83

Setting Up a Cutting Tool


1. Move toolpost to the left-hand side of the T-slot
in the
compound
rest
2. Mount toolholder in
toolpost so
setscrew in
toolholder 1 in.
beyond toolpost
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52-84

Heavy Cuts: Set toolholder at right


angles to work

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52-85

Setting Up a Cutting Tool: cont.


3. Insert proper cutting tool into toolholder,
having tool extend .500 in. beyond
toolholder and never more than twice its
thickness
4. Set cutting-tool point to center height

Check it against lathe center point

5. Tighten toolpost securely to prevent it


from moving during a cut

52-86

Purposes of a Trial Cut

Produce accurate turned diameter

Measured with micrometer

Set cutting-tool point to the diameter

Set crossfeed micrometer collar to the


diameter

52-87

Procedure to Take a Trial Cut


1. Set up workpiece and cutting tool as for
turning
2. Set proper speeds and feed to suit material
3. Start lathe and position toolbit over work
approximately .125 in. from end
4. Turn compound rest handle clockwise
of a turn to remove any backlash

52-88

5. feed toolbit into work by turning crossfeed


handle clockwise until light ring appears
around entire circumference of work
6. Do NOT move crossfeed handle setting
7. Turn carriage handwheel until toolbit
clears end of workpiece by about .060 in.
8. Turn crossfeed handle clockwise about .
010 in. and take trial cut .250 in. along
length of work
9. Disengage automatic feed and clear toolbit
past end of work with carriage handwheel

52-89

10. Stop the lathe


11. Test accuracy of micrometer by cleaning
and closing measuring faces and then
measure trial-cut diameter
12. Calculate how much material must still be
removed from diameter of work
13. Turn crossfeed handle clockwise
amount of material to be removed

52-90

14. Take another trial cut .250 in. long and


stop the lathe
15. Clear toolbit over end of work with
carriage handwheel
16. Measure diameter and readjust crossfeed
handle until diameter is correct
17. Machine diameter to length

52-91

Rough Turning
Removes as much metal as possible in
shortest length of time
Accuracy and surface finish are not
important in this operation
.020- to .030-in. feed recommended

Work rough-turned to
Within .030 in. of finished size when removing
up to .500 in. diameter
Within .060 in. when removing > .500 in.

52-92

Procedure for Rough Turning


1. Set lathe to correct speed for type and size
of material being cut
2. Adjust quick-change gearbox for a .010to .030-in. feed

Depends on depth of cut and condition of


machine

3. Move toolholder to left-hand side of


compound rest and set toolbit height to
center

52-93

4. Tighten toolpost securely to prevent


toolholder from moving during machining
5. Take light trial cut at right-hand end of
work for a .250 in. length
6. Measure work and adjust toolbit for
proper depth of cut
7. Cut along for .250 in., stop lathe, and
check diameter for size
1. Diameter .030 in. over finish size

8. Readjust depth of cut, if necessary

52-94

Finish Turning
Follows rough turning
Produces smooth surface finish and cuts
work to an accurate size
Factors affecting type of surface finish
Condition of cutting tool
Rigidity of machine and work
Lathe speeds and feeds

52-95

Procedure For Finish Turning


1. Make sure cutting edge of toolbit free
from nicks, burrs, etc.
2. Set toolbit on center; check it against lathe
center point
3. Set lathe to recommended speed and feed

52-96

4. Take light trial cut .250 in. long at righthand end of work

Produce true diameter


Set cutting tool to diameter
Set graduated collar to diameter

5. Stop lathe and measure diameter


6. Set depth of cut for half amount of
material to be removed
7. Cut along for .250 in., stop lathe, check
8. Readjust depth of cut and finish-turn

52-97

Filing in a Lathe
Only to remove small amount of stock,
remove burrs, or round off sharp corners
Work should be turned to within .002 to .003
in. of size
For safety, file with left hand so arms and
hands kept clear of revolving chuck
Remove toolbit from toolholder before filing
Cover lathe bed with paper before filing

52-98

Procedure to File in a Lathe


1. Set spindle speed to twice that for turning
2. Mount work between centers, lubricate,
and carefully adjust dead center in work
3. Move carriage as far to right as possible
and remove toolpost
4. Disengage lead screw and feed rod
5. Select 10- or 12-in. mill file or long-angle
lathe file

52-99

6. Start lathe
7. Grasp file handle in left hand and support
file point with fingers of right hand

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Permission required for reproduction or display.

52-100

8. Apply light pressure and push file forward


to its full length; release pressure on
return stroke
9. Move file about half width of file for each
stroke and continue filing until finished

Use 30-40 strokes per minute

10. Safety precautions

Roll sleeves above elbow


Remove watches and rings
Never use file without properly fitted handle
Never apply too much pressure
Clean file frequently with file brush

52-101

Procedure for
Polishing in a Lathe
1. Select correct type and grade of abrasive
cloth for finish desired

Piece about 6 8 in. long and 1 in. wide


Use aluminum oxide abrasive cloth for
ferrous metals
Use silicon carbide abrasive cloth should be
used for nonferrous metals

2. Set lathe to run at high speed


3. Disengage feed rod and lead screw

52-102

4. Remove toolpost and toolholder


5. Lubricate and adjust dead center
6. Roll sleeves up above elbows and tuck in
any loose clothing
7. Start lathe
8. Hold abrasive cloth on work
9. With right hand, press cloth firmly on
work while tightly holding other end of
abrasive cloth with left hand
10. Move cloth slowly back and forth

52-103

Shoulder
Shoulder: the change in diameters, or step,
when turning more than one diameter on a
piece of work
Three common types of shoulders
Square
Filleted
Angular or Tapered
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Permission required for reproduction or display.

52-104

Three Types of Shoulders

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Technology of Machine Tools


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Krar Gill Smid

Knurling,
Grooving,
andFormTurning
Unit 53

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53-106

Knurling
Process if impressing a diamond-shaped or
straight-line patter into the surface of the
workpiece
Improve its appearance
Provide better gripping surface
Increase workpiece diameter when press fit
required

53-107

Knurling
Diamond- and
straight-pattern
rolls available in
three styles
Fine
Medium
Course
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53-108

Knurling Tool
Toolpost-type toolholder on which pair of
hardened-steel rolls mounted
Knurling tool with
one set of rolls in
self-centering head
Knurling tool with
three sets of rolls
in revolving head
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53-109

Universal Knurling Tool System


Dovetailed shank and as many as seven
interchangeable knurling heads that can
produce wide range of knurling patterns
Combines in one tool

Versatility
Rigidity
Ease of handling
Simplicity

53-110

Procedure to Knurl in a Lathe


1. Mount work between centers and mark
required length to be knurled

If work held in chuck for knurling, right end


of work should be supported with revolving
tailstock center

2. Set lathe to run at one-quarter speed


required for turning
3. Set carriage feed to .015 to .030 in.

53-111

4. Set center of floating head of knurling tool


even with dead-center point

5. Set knurling tool at right angles to


workpiece and tighten it securely
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53-112

6. Start machine and lightly touch rolls


against work to check tracking
7. Move knurling tool to end of work so
only half the roll face bears against work
8. Force knurling tool into work
approximately .025 in. and start lathe
OR

Start lathe and then force knurling tool into


work until diamond pattern come to point

53-113

9. Stop lathe and examine pattern


10. Once pattern correct, engage automatic
carriage feed and apply cutting fluid to
knurling rolls
11. Knurl to proper length and depth

Do not disengage feed until full length has


been knurled; otherwise, rings will be formed
on knurled pattern

12. If knurling pattern not to point after length


has been knurled, reverse lathe feed and
take another pass across work

53-114

Grooving
Done at end of thread to
permit full travel of nut up
to a shoulder or at edge of
Square
shoulder for proper fit
Also called recessing,
undercutting, or necking
Rounded grooves used
Round
where there is strain on
part
V-shaped
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53-115

Procedure to Cut a Groove


1. Grind toolbit to desired size and shape of
groove required
2. Lay out location of groove
3. Set lathe to half the speed for turning
4. Mount workpiece in lathe
5. Set toolbit to center height

53-116

6. Locate toolbit on work at position where


groove is to be cut
7. Start lathe and feed cutting tool toward
work using crossfeed handle until toolbit
marks work lightly
8. Hold crossfeed handle in position and set
graduated collar to zero
9. Calculate how far crossfeed screw must be
turned to cut groove to proper depth
10. Feed toolbit into work slowly using
crossfeed handle

53-117

11. Apply cutting fluid to point of cutting tool

To ensure cutting tool will not bind in


groove, move carriage slightly to left and to
right while grooving
Should chatter develop, reduce spindle speed

12. Stop lathe and check depth of groove with


outside calipers or knife-edge verniers
Safety note: Always wear safety goggles when
grooving on a lathe

PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Threads and
Thread Cutting
Unit 55
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Permission required for reproduction or display.

55-119

Threads
Used for hundreds of years for holding parts
together, making adjustments, and
transmitting power and motion
Art of producing threads continually
improved
Massed-produced by taps, dies, thread
rolling, thread milling, and grinding

55-120

Threads
Thread
Helical ridge of uniform section formed on
inside or outside of cylinder or cone

Used for several purposes:


Fasten devices such as screws, bolts, studs, and
nuts
Provide accurate measurement, as in micrometer
Transmit motion
Increase force

55-121

Thread
Terminology
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Permission required for reproduction or display.

55-122

Thread Terminology
Screw thread
Helical ridge of uniform section formed on
inside or outside of cylinder or cone

External thread
Cut on external surface or cone

Internal thread
Produced on inside of cylinder or cone

55-123

Major diameter
Largest diameter of external or internal thread

Minor diameter
Smallest diameter of external or internal thread

Pitch diameter
Diameter of imaginary cylinder that passes
through thread at point where groove and thread
widths are equal
Equal to major diameter minus single depth of
thread
Tolerance and allowances given at pitch
diameter line

55-124

Number of threads per inch


Number of crests or roots per inch of threaded
section (Does not apply to metric threads)

Pitch
Distance from point on one thread to
corresponding point on next thread, measured
parallel to axis
Expressed in millimeters for metric threads

Lead
Distance screw thread advances axially in one
revolution (single-start thread, lead = pitch)

55-125

Root
Bottom surface joining sides of two adjacent
threads
External thread on minor diameter
Internal thread on major diameter

Crest
Top surface joining two sides of thread
External thread on major diameter
Internal thread on minor diameter

Flank
Thread surface that connects crest with root

55-126

Depth of thread
Distance between crest and root measured
perpendicular to axis

Angle of thread
Included angle between sides of thread
measured in axial plane

Helix angle
Angle that thread makes with plane
perpendicular to thread axis

55-127

Right-hand thread
Helical ridge of uniform cross section onto
which nut is threaded in clockwise direction
When cut on lathe, toolbit
advanced from right to left

Left-hand thread
Helical ridge of uniform cross section onto
which nut is threaded in counterclockwise
direction
When cut on lathe, toolbit
advanced from left to right
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55-128

Thread Forms
April, 1975 ISO came to an agreement
covering standard metric thread profile
Specifies sizes and pitches for various threads
in new ISO Metric Thread Standard
Has 25 thread sizes, range in diameter from 1.6
to 100 mm
Identified by letter M, nominal diameter, and
pitch M 5 X 0.8

55-129

American National Standard Thread


Divided into four main series, all having
same shape and proportions

National Coarse (NC)


National Fine (NF)
National Special (NS)
National Pipe (NPT)

Has 60 angle with root and crest truncated


to 1/8th the pitch
Used in fabrication, machine construction

55-130

American National Standard Thread

.6134
D .6134 x P or
N
.125
F .125 x P or
N

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55-131

Unified Thread
Developed by U.S., Britain, and Canada for
standardized thread system
Combination of British Standard Whitworth and
American National Standard Thread

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55-132

.6134
D (external thread) .6134 x P or
N
.5413
D (internal thread) .5413 x P or
N
.125
F (external thread) .125 x P or
N
.250
F (internal thread) .250 x P or
N

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55-133

American National Acme Thread


Replacing square thread in many cases
Used for feed screws, jacks, and vises
D=minimum.500P

=maximum.500P+0.010

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F=.3707P

C=.3707P-.0052
(formaximumdepth)

55-134

Brown & Sharpe Worm Thread


Used to mesh worm gears and transmit
motion between two shafts at right angles to
each other but not in same plane
D=.6866P
F=.335P
C=.310P

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55-135

Square Thread
Being replaced by Acme thread because of
difficulty in cutting it
D = .500P
Often found on vises
F = .500P
and jack screws
C = .500P + .002

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55-136

International Metric thread


Standardized thread used in Europe
D = 0.7035P (maximum)
= 0.6855P (minimum)

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Permission required for reproduction or display.

F = 0.125P
R = 0.0633P (maximum)
= 0.054P (minimum)

55-137

Thread Fits and Classifications


Fit
Relationship between two mating parts
Determined by amount of clearance or
interference when they are assembled

Nominal size
Designation used to identify size of part

Actual size
Measured size of thread or part
Basic size: size from which tolerances are set

55-138

Allowance
Permissible difference between largest
external thread and smallest internal thread
Difference produces tightest fit acceptable
for any given classification
The allowance for a 1 in.8 UNC Class 2A and 2B fit is:
Minimum pitch diameter of the
internal thread (2B)
= .9188 in.
Maximum pitch diameter of the
external thread (2A)
= .9168 in.
Allowance = .002 in.

55-139

Tolerance

Variation permitted in part size


May be expressed as plus, minus, or both
Total tolerance is sum of plus and minus tolerances
In Unified and National systems, tolerance is plus
on external threads and minus on internal threads
The tolerance for a 1 in.8 UNC Class 2A thread is:
Maximum pitch diameter of the
external thread (2A)
= .9168 in.
Minimum pitch diameter of the
external thread (2A)
= .9100 in.
Tolerance = .0068 in.

55-140

Limits
Maximum and minimum dimensions of part
The limits for a 1 in.8 UNC Class 2A thread are:
Maximum pitch diameter of the
external thread (2A)
= .9168 in..
Minimum pitch diameter of the
external thread (2A)
= .9100 in.

55-141

Three Categories of Unified


Thread Fits
External threads classified as 1A, 2A, and 3A and
internal threads as 1B, 2B, 3B
Classes 1A and 1B
Threads for work that must be assembled
Loosest fit

Classes 2A and 2B
Used for most commercial fasteners
Medium or free fit

Classes 3A and 3B
Used where more accurate fit and lead required
No allowance provided

55-142

Thread Calculations: Example 1


To cut a correct thread on a lathe, it is necessary first to make
calculations so thread will have the proper dimensions.
Calculate pitch, depth, minor diameter, and width of flat
for a 10 UNC thread.
D=singledepthofthread Minor dia Major dia - ( D D)
P=pitch
.75 - (.061 .061)

1
1
.628 in.
P

.100 in.
tpi 10
P 1 1
Width of flat x
D .61343 x P
8 8 10
.61343 x .100 .061 in.
.0125 in.

55-143

Thread Calculations: Example 2


What are the pitch, depth, minor diameter, width of crest
and width of root for an M 6.3 X 1 thread?
P=pitch=1mm
D=0.54127x1
=0.54mm

Width of root 0.25 x P


0.25 x 1
0.25 mm

Minor dia Major dia - ( D D)


6.3 - (.54 .54)
5.22 mm
Width of crest 0.125 x P
0.125 x 1
0.125 mm

55-144

Procedure to Set the QuickChange Gearbox for Threading


1. Check drawing for thread pitch required
2. From chart on quick-change gearbox, find
whole number that represents pitch in
threads per inch or in millimeters
3. With lathe stopped, engage tumbler lever
in hole, which is in line with the pitch
4. Set top lever in proper position as
indicated on chart

55-145

5. Engage sliding gear in or out as required


6. Turn lathe spindle by hand to ensure that
lead screw revolves
7. Recheck lever settings to avoid errors

55-146

Thread-Chasing dial
Lathe spindle and
lead screw must be
in same relative
position for each cut
Thread-chasing dial
attached to carriage for
this purpose

Dial has eight divisions


Even threads use any division
Odd threads either numbered
or unnumbered: not both
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55-147

Thread Cutting
Produces a helical ridge of uniform section
on workpiece
Performed by taking successive cuts with
threading toolbit of same shape as thread
form required
Work may be held between centers or in
chuck

55-148

Procedure to Set Up a Lathe for


Threading (60 Thread)
1. Set lathe speed to speed used for turning
2. Set quick-change gearbox for required pitch
in threads per inch or in millimeters
3. Engage lead screw
4. Secure 60 threading toolbit and check
angle using thread center gage
5. Set compound rest at 29 to right; set to left
for left-hand thread

55-149

6. Set cutting tool to height of lathe center


point
7. Mount work between centers

Make sure lathe dog is tight on work


If work mounted in chuck, it must be held
tightly

8. Set toolbit at right angles to work, using


thread center gage
9. Arrange apron controls to allow split-nut
lever to be engaged

55-150

Thread-Cutting Operation
Procedure to cut a 60 thread
1. Check major diameter of work for size
2. Start lathe and chamfer end of workpiece
with side of threading tool to just below
minor diameter of thread
3. Mark length to be threaded by cutting
light groove at this point with threading
tool while lathe revolving

55-151

4. Move carriage until point of threading tool


near right-hand end of work
5. Turn crossfeed handle until threading tool
close to diameter, but stop when handle is at
3 o'clock position
6. Hold crossfeed handle in this position and
set graduated collar to zero
7. Turn compound rest handle until threading
tool lightly marks work

55-152

8. Move carriage to right until toolbit clears


end of work
9. Feed compound rest clockwise about .003 in.
10. Engage split-nut lever on correct line of
thread-chasing dial and take trial cut along
length to be threaded
11. At end of cut, turn crossfeed handle
counterclockwise to move toolbit away from
work and disengage split-nut lever

55-153

12. Stop lathe and check number of tpi with


thread pitch gage, rule, or center gage
13. After each cut, turn carriage handwheel to
bring toolbit to start of thread and return
crossfeed handle to zero
14. Set depth of all threading cuts with
compound rest handle

See Table 55.2 and Table 55.3

55-154

When tool is fed in at 29, most of the cutting


is done by the leading edge of toolbit.

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55-155

Table 55.2Depth settings for


cutting 60 national form
threads*
Compound Rest Setting

tpi

30

29

24

.027 .031 .0308

20

.0325 .0375 .037

18

.036 .0417 .041

16

.0405 .0468 .046

14

.0465 .0537 .0525

table taken
13 Portion
.050of.0577
.057
from textbook
11
.059
.068 .0674

55-156

15. Apply cutting fluid and take successive


cuts until top (crest) and bottom (root) of
thread are same width
16. Remove burrs from top of thread with file
17. Check thread with master nut and take
further cuts

55-157

Six Ways to Check Threads

Depends on accuracy required:


1. Master nut or screw
2. Thread micrometer
3. Three wires
4. Thread roll or snap gage
5. Thread ring or plug gage
6. Optical comparator