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DESIGN OF SENSING MODULE OF

SOLAR VEHICLE

SUBMITTED BY:
ALOK SINGH
AKASH CHAUBEY
SATYENDRA KR. MAURYA

GUIDED BY:
Mr. SACHIN TYAGI

INDEX

INTRODUCTION
ACCELEROMETER SENSOR
ULTRASONIC SENSOR
SERVO CONTROLLED SUN TRACKING
SEAT BELT PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION

ACCELEROMETER
SENSOR

An accelerometer is an
apparatus, either mechanical
or electromechanical, for
measuring acceleration or
deceleration - that is, the rate
of increase or decrease in the
velocity of a moving object.
There are also accelerometers
for detecting vibrations in
machinery.
Power supply :1.8volt to
3.6volt
ADXL 335:small,low
power,3Axis
accelerometer,used for tilt.

FIG- Accelerometer used:


ADXL 335

SENSORS AND CONTROLLER


The microcontroller we are going to use is Arduino
Uno with atmega328 inbuilt.
We will use ultrasonic sensor HC-SR 04 for the
collision
detection.
Sensor
Sensor name:
name:
Accelerometer
ADXL335 will be used for the roll over
Accelerometer.
Accelerometer.
protection.

Used
Usedfor
for :: Roll
Rollover
over
protection.
protection.

Model:
Model: ADXL335
ADXL335 ..

Type:
Type: 33 Axis
Axis Ana
Ana log
log
output.
output.

Power
Power supply:
supply: 1.8v
1.8v to
to
3.6
3.6 v.
v.

POWER
POWER CUT
CUT OFF:
OFF:
This
is
for
the
This SEAT
is used
used
for
the
BELT SAFTY
safety
safety purpose
purpose of
of the
the
driver.
driver.
belt
belt is
is

POWER CUT OFF AND


SOLAR TRACKING

Until
Until the
the seat
seat
not
not tied,
tied, the
the
electrical
powertrain
electrical
powertrain

will
will not
not supply
supply the
the
motor
motor and
and the
the whole
whole
power
power is
is cut
cut off.
off.
This
This is
is done
done by
by the
the
relay
switching
relay
switching
mechanism
mechanism attached
attached to
to
the
the seat
seat belt
belt hooks.
hooks.

SERVO CONTROLLED
SUN TRACKING:
We will use sun tracking
servo controlled solar
chips array (panel) which
will move in the direction
in which the maximum
solar irradiance level is
found. sun rays fall on
the
solar
array
perpendicular.
In this way sun rays fall
on the solar array
perpendicular so that we

TECHNICAL PHENOMENON:
1. Actually we are going to use the accelerometer
(accelerometer will be further described) which gives an
transduced result to the Arduino which can be
programmed in such a way that it will warn the driver by
using some LEDs or Buzzers when angle of the base of
the car increases more than 5 degree from horizontal
surface and as the angle increases more than 10 degree,
the power supply of the motor will be cut off.

2. We concluded that this device will successfully alert a


driver that they are in danger of a rollover however it
does not auto-correct the problem nor will it prevent
reckless driving. Further additions can be made to this
device, including a charging circuit for the batteries and a
digital interface to control the leds.

ROLL OVER PROTECTION:


o One of the most dangerous driving
scenarios is a vehicle rollover, yet there is
little in the way of preventing them. The
goal of this project is to analyse the cause
of these rollovers and create a device that
can be attached to all cars aftermarket and
alerts the driver that they are in danger.
Using knowledge of the accelerations
under which cars roll over and an
accelerometer which relates acceleration
to electrical characteristics, we designed a
system to alert the driver of danger before
the car rolls over by lighting warning LEDs,
Green, Yellow, and Red, and sounding a
buzzerand we c bedded system technique.
an also cut off the power supply to the
motor

Ultrasonic sensors
Ultrasonic sensors are devices that use electrical
mechanical energy transformation to measure
distance from the sensor to the target object.

Why we use
it?-

Sensor name:
ultrasonic sensor
Used for: range
detection and
collision protection.
Model:HC-SR04.
Type: Ana log output
clock controlled.

For the Collision


detection the
ultrasonic sensor
will sense any
vehicle less than 2
meter range and
activate an alarm in
the cockpit to notify
the driver about
that.
Ultrasonic sensor

COLLISION DETECTOR
A collision avoidance system is
an automobile safety system
designed to reduce the severity
of an accident. It uses radar
(all-weather) and sometimes
laser and camera (both sensor
types are ineffective during bad
weather) to detect an imminent
crash. Once the detection is
done, these systems either
provide a warning to the driver
when there is an imminent
collision or take action
autonomously without any
driver input (by braking or
steering or both). Collision
avoidance by braking is
appropriate at low vehicle

ROLL OVER PROTECTION AND


COLLISION DETECTION :
For the roll over
protection,
accelerometer
sense the
orientation of
the car along
ground and as
the car tilted in
any direction
more than 20
degree, the
power supply to
the motor is cut
of.

SEAT BELT PROTECTION

This is used for safety purpose of the driver until the seat belt is
not tied .
The electrical power train will not supply the motor and whole
power is cut off.
This done by the relay switching mechanism attached to the
seat belt. The connection of the seat belt and
relay to start motor as:

SERVO CONTROLLED SUN


TRACKING

We will use sun tracking servo controlled solar chip array


panel which will move In the direction in which the max.
solar irradiance level is found.
Sun rays fall on the solar array perpendicular.
In this way sun rays fall on the solar array perpendicular
so that we will get maximum efficiency from the solar
chips array.

Mono Crystalline Solar Cells


Mechanical
Specification
Cell
Material

Mono
Crystalline
Silicon

Dimension 156mmx15
6mm
Thickness
(related to
silicon)

180 m
(30m)

Cell
Weight

16.37
grams

Working
Temperatu
re

-50 C to
80 C

Cell
Structure

n+ p p+

solar cells or photo voltaic


cells are the thin,
crystalline silicon chips
which transduces solar
energy in to the electrical
due to an photoelectrical
phenomenon.
We are using the mono
crystalline solar cell
because they have higher
efficiency than
polycrystalline.
ADVANTANGES OF MONO
CRYSTALLINE SOLAR CHIP
Mono crystalline chips have
higher efficiency (18-20%) .
Using chips directly at the place
of solar panel, will reduce the
cost and the weight.
By using solar chips we can
efficiently use the free space of
the vehicle.

INNOVATIONS IN AURA:
Roll Over Protection.
Collision And Range
Detection.
Seat Belt Safety
Power Cut Off.

Sun Tracking During


parking.
Efficient And
Regenerative
Breaking