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Industrial Waste

Water
Best Management Practices

Best Management Practice


(BMP)
Best Management Practices (BMP) is a term used in
the United States and Canada to describe a type of water
pollution control. Historically the term has referred to
auxiliary pollution controls in the fields of industrial
wastewater control and municipal sewage control, while
in stormwater management (both urban and rural) and
wetland management, BMPs may refer to a principal
control or treatment technique as well (Wikipedia).

Methods or techniques found to be the most effective and


practical means in achieving an objective (such as
preventing or minimizing pollution) while making the
optimum use of the firm's resources.

Best management practices (BMPs) describe ways to


manage your land or your activities to reduce or prevent
pollution of surface and groundwater near you. These
practices protect your family's health, but also help
protect the other uses of our water such as recreation,
animal habitat, fisheries, and agricultural uses such as
irrigation or stock watering. Best management practices
are usually simple and low tech, and benefit everybody.

Industrial Wastewater
BMPs
Industrial wastewater BMPs are considered an adjunct to
engineered treatment systems. Typical BMPs include operator
training, maintenance practices, and spill control procedures for
treatment chemicals. There are also many BMPs available which
are specific to particular industrial processes, for example:
source reduction practices in metal finishing industries (e.g.
substituting less toxic solvents or using water-based cleaners);
in the chemical industry, capturing equipment washdown waters
for recycle/reuse at various process stages;
in the paper industry, using process control monitoring to
optimize bleaching processes, and reduce the overall amount of
bleach used

Best Management Practices for Water Efficiency

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)


worked with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) to develop 14 water efficiency best management
practices (BMPs) to help agencies increase water
efficiency and meet federal requirements. Each BMP
provides operations and maintenance improvements and
retrofit and replacement options. Use these best
management practices to glean project ideas for reducing
water use and increasing water efficiency at your agency.

1. Water Management Planning


2. Information and Education Programs
3. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Rep
air
4. Water-Efficient Landscaping
5. Water-Efficient Irrigation
6. Toilets and Urinals
7. Faucets and Showerheads
8. Steam Boiler Systems
9. Single-Pass Cooling Equipment
10.Cooling Tower Management
11.Commercial Kitchen Equipment
12.Laboratory and Medical Equipment
13.Other Water-Intensive Processes
14.Alternative Water Sources

The discharge/disposal of industrial


wastewaters can
be classified as follows:
Uncontrolled discharges to the environment.
Controlled (licensed) discharges to the environment (watercourses)
possibly after pre-treatment.

Illegal, mostly clandestine, discharges to sewerage systems.


Controlled discharges to sewerage systems under agreement or
licence, possibly with pre-treatment.

Wastewaters collected by tanker for treatment/disposal


elsewhere.

It is important to note that, in many cases, large volumes


of industrial wastewaters which are legally discharged to
decaying and/or badly operated sewerage
networks, both combined and separate, never actually
reach a treatment plant.

Various approaches to effective industrial wastewater


control are available such as the use of appropriate
technology (specified, for example, as the best
economically available) or the issuing of permits or
consents based on volumes and quality standards for
discharges either to sewers or directly to watercourses.

In
some countries (e.g. United States) pre-treatment
standards
apply to all industrial users wishing to discharge to the
sewerage system (to control pollutants that may pass
through or
interfere with the treatment works processes or which
may
contaminate the sewage sludge).

In others each discharge is


treated on its own merits irrespective of its general type
or
classification, and standards are set according to the
nature
and condition of the receiving water. Normally standards
include numerical limit values for chemicals, solid
materials,
temperature, pH and the like, while some substances are
banned completely.

Highly effective control can be observed in the developed


world and improvements continue with time.
As described in the EU Urban Waste Water Treatment
(UWWT) Directive and the Integrated Pollution Prevention
and Control (IPPC) Directive, the polluter-pays has become a
guiding principle among these countries followed by laws and
regulations designed and enforced to implement it.

Waste water management


Consider the sustainable management of water
from source to re-entry into the environment and
not only concentrate om single or selected areas
os segments of the service provision process.

Different management approaches are required


depending om whether the area is rural or urban, the
size and density of the population, level of economic
development, technical capacity and system of
govenance.
There are many diff. wastewater management
approaches available but, as noted by Laugesen et. al
, understanding the receiving environment is crucial
for technology selection, and Massoud et al.
recommended that this should be accomplished by
conducting a comprehensive site evaluation process
that determines the carrying capacity of the
receiving environment. This could be done as a part
of an environmental impact assessment that could