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Organizational

Behavior
Chapter 3: Perception and Learning
in Organization

Prepared by:
Nur Aisyah Binti Mahbob
(2010312861)
Prepared for:
Miss Syahrina Adliana

Table of Content
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.

5.
5.
6.
6.

Case Summary
Question
Introduction
Body
I.
Check the perception
I.
II.
II. Awareness of Perception Biases
III.
III. Self-awareness
IV.
IV. Interaction and Communication
Conclusion
References

Case Summary
Salmah, an 3 years employee in ABS Corp. A careful,
hardworking, disciplined, ideas contributor employee
in the company. She expected good pay, feedback
and next promotion from her top management.
However, the one who get promoted is Ahmad who is
being a good friend to her boss. She believed
Ahmads promotion is not based on his performance
and skill as Salmah believes that his skill and
performance is not as high as hers. Salmah makes a
perception where her boss being discriminate her
based on sexism by letting Ahmad get promoted.
Salmah began to change from positive to negative
attitude as her perception towards Ahmad and her
boss becomes negative.

Question
With reference to the case,
Salmah may have made
wrong perception towards
her bosss decision. Discuss
the possible decision that
Salmah could take in order
to provide her with more
accurate perception.

Introduction
We

dont see things as they


are; we see things as we are.
Anais Nin
Starting with a simple different
process of perception. (Carley,
C.)

To an insect, its a meal.


Toit aisphotographer,
it is a still life.
To
a
maple
tree,
a
To Canadian,
its a nation symbol.
To a street cleaner
its
source
of life.
rubbish.

Definition of
Perception.
Perception can be defined as a process of
receiving information about and making
sense of the world around us. (McShane). It
came from a Latin word, percepio, defined
as an organization or interpretation of the
information received to understand the
environment.(Schacter).

From the definition, it clearly stated


that perception is a process of
making a statement or perception
based on the information received.
Most of the time, perception could
be far away than perfect because it
is processed through information
received which some of them is not
a fact.

ELEMENTS

RESULTS

Informatio
n
Informatio

Attitude

n
Informatio
n
Informatio
n
Informatio
n

Behavior
Perception

The information is received by the 5


human
senses
from
the
environment
and
result
in
perception and behavior towards
the
condition.
The
Model
of
Perceptual Process shows clearly
how the information received can
result in perception, behavior and
attitude towards particular condition
and situation.

Model of the
Perceptual Process
Environmental Stimuli
Feeling

Hearing

Seeing

Smellin
g

Selective attention and emotional marker


response

Perceptual organization and


enterpretation
Attitude and behavior.

Tasting

The 5 elements plays an important role


to result in perception made by
someone. In this case, Salmah:
1. Feel that her boss do not want any
woman to be top in the company.
2. Hear that promotion she believed she
deserve being given to someone else.
3. See that Ahmad is always with her
boss even during weekend.

So, with the elements, it has


influenced Salmah to create a
negative perception toward her
bosss decision in promoting Ahmad
instead of her. The perception that
created by Salmah may be wrong
and to increase the accuracy of
Salmahs perception, the method is:

I.
II.
III.
IV.

Check the perception


Awareness of Perception Biases
Improving Self-awareness
Interaction and Communication

Check the Perception


Made.
Checking the perception made is an
important method in increasing the
accuracy of the perception made.
(Carly,C.) It includes the checking the
information received that led to the
making od the perception. Analyze can
be defined as a study or determine
something in detail and interpret it.
(Oxford Dictionary). As example, the
information that is received from the
stimulus being checked to avoid wrong
result in perception, attitude and

By checking the early information received, it


could increase the accuracy of perception
towards someone or something. In Salmahs
case, what she believed is more than what
she really know. She believed that her skill
and performance is higher than Ahmads skill
and performance. This situation could led to
negative perception towards her bosss
decision as she regarded herself is more
valuable than Ahmad. Checking the information
on Ahmads skill and performance could
increase the accuracy of her perception

Awareness perceptual
biases
Perceptual
biases
occur
when
perceivers beliefs influenced their
evaluation. Such example, if an
employer has a beliefs that man
employee can perform well than
woman employee, a perceptual biases
has occur. By acknowledge this biases
occur, the perceivers need to
minimize the errors of perceiving.
There are 6 types of perceptual errors.

The Errors Are?


Attribution
Errors
Self-Fulfilling
Prophecies
Halo-effect
Error
Primary Effect
Error
Recency Effect
Error
Self-consensus Effect
Error

Attribution
Two

Error.

types of attribution error:

Self-fulfilling

prophecies.
A strong influence situation based on how
we view and label things and consistent
with
the
perceptions.
Self-fulfilling
prophecies has the strong effect in
influencing the perception from the reality.
It affect stronger in the beginning of
relationship, when people has the same
expectation and with people who has low
past achievement. The are 4 steps in
completing this error.

Other

Errors:

Halo-effect

Occurs when one trait of a person forms a


general impression towards that person. Such
example, an employer perception changed
because for only one thing done by an
employer.

Primary effect
Occurs when first impression based on the
first information the perceivers received
about that person. Example, negative
impression occur when an employer heard
about an employee who always comes late to

Other Errors:

Recency-effect
Occurs when the latest information about a person
overlooked our overall perception towards that
person. Such example, an employer is pleased when
he heard that his new employee is a successful worker
in the past companies.

False-consensus effect
Occurs when the perceiver overestimate the extent to
which others have beliefs and characteristics similar
to our own. Such example, when an employee do not
like his boss, he believe that large percentage of
workers inside the organization has the same thought

Based on the case, Salmah may has the wrong


perceptions toward her bosss decision in promoting
Ahmad instead of her. It can relate to the error of
halo-effect in making perception towards Ahmad.
Ahmads one trait that his skill and performance is
regarded as lower than her makes Salmah think
negatively about her boss letting Ahmad being
promoted. The one trait that form a general
conclusion that led to negative perception of Salmah
towards her bosss decision. In increasing the
accuracy of Salmahs perception, Salmah has to
change the perception that influence by her beliefs in
resulting negative perception towards her bosss

Improve Self-Awareness
More powerful to improve and increase
accuracy of perception is by self-awareness.
It help people to become more aware in
detecting the biases in he perception made.
Most of the wrong perception is influenced
by
the
mindset,
own
beliefs
and
environmental factors. In order to reduce the
error, the perceiver must aware of the factor
contributed to the wrong perception.
Generally, getting know ourselves is the way
to reduce the wrong perception and
unknowingly increase the accuracy of the

In 1955, Johari Window model developed by Joseph


Luft and Harrington Ingham in the United states.
(Luft, J. & Ingham, H.) It often used to understand the
relationship with self and others and helps to
improve the mutual understanding between coworkers. Has 4 segments or window which called as
blind, open, hidden and unknown. Each segment
shows how our personalities known by others and
ourselves. Its include the information about a person
that is known by that person or others or both or it is
completely hidden by both the person and others.
The following diagram shows how the Johari Window
works in understanding self and others.

Johari Window

FEEDBACK

DISCLOSURE

Known to Self

Known
to Others

Unknown
to Others

Open Area
Ex: Hardworking

Hidden Area
Ex: Secret

Unknown to Self

Blind Area
Ex: Negative traits

Unknown Area
Ex: ??

Based on the case, Salmah regarded Ahmads skill


and performance are lower than hers that make
her thinks negatively about her bosss decision.
However, she do not really know her actual
performance and skills that regarded higher than
Ahmads. To increase the accuracy that led to
creation of negative perception towards her bosss
decision, Salmah should get to know herself by
getting feedback from friends or colleagues before
making a conclusion of something. By applying
Johari Window model could make Salmah better
know about herself and others and avoid creating

Interaction and
communication
The last method to improve as well as increase the
accuracy of the perception made, interaction or
communication between the perceiver and other is a
must. Feedback is one of the example of
communication and interaction as it gives effect in
someones values and performance as well as it can
interact as a medium of communication between
people.
By
interacting
and
communicating,
perception biases can be reduced and it can increase
the accuracy of the perception. However, it applies
the contact hypothesis where the effect is stronger
when people has close relationship and frequent
interact with each other to work on and achieve the

How do you think


about my
performance?

Youre doing just well,


just add a little
improvements and youll
be success.

This is an example
of feedback which
could be a
motivation or
demotivation to an
employee as well
as knowing our

Based on the case, Salmah did not interact or


communicate with Ahmad. She did communicate and
interact with her boss but she received a little
feedback from her boss. No interaction or
communication with Ahmad makes Salmah creates a
wrong perception on how Ahmad perform in the
organization. This led to perceptual biases where she
regarded that Ahmads performance is lower than her.
Furthermore, she perceived that Ahmad is being her
bosss best friend and that is the reason why Ahmad
get the promotion instead of her. Salmah should
interact and communicate with Ahmad to know
Ahmad better rather than making a general

Conclusion
In conclusion, in order to increase the accuracy of
the perception that Salmahs made towards her
bosss decision, she should check the perception,
aware of the perceptual biases, improving selfawareness and communicate and interact with
others. Changing the misperception made
towards her boss and Ahmad could change her
attitude that has changed to the negative as she
start to come late for works, stop contributing
ideas and take unwarranted sick leaves. She
should avoid the misperception and maintain her
role as the employee and continuously contribute

Reference
Smith , A. E., Jussim, L., Eccles, J., VanNoy, M.,
Madon, S., & Palumbo, P. (1998). Self-fulfilling
Prophecies, Perceptual Biases, Accuracy at the
individual and Group Level. Experimental Social
Psychology, 531-533.

Perception. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2012,


from
Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perception

Interaction. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2012,


from
Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interaction

Chapter

3:

Perception

and

Learning

McShane, & Glinow, V. (2010). Organizational


Behavior: Emerging knowledge and practice for the
real world (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Carley, C. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2012, from


Southwestern
Oklahoma
State
University:
faculty.swosu.edu/.../PowerPoints.../Unit06_Percepti
on_2_2_03.ppt

Schacter,
Daniel.
(2011).Psychology.
Worth
Publishers

Luft, J.; Ingham, H. (1950). "The Johari window, a


graphic
model
of
interpersonal
awareness".Proceedings of the western training
laboratory in group development(Los Angeles:

Perception Question
Are the letters straight or
tilted?