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Wireless Transmission

&
Technology
Presented by:Anant Desai
Tanmay Deshmukh
Vinod Dalvi
Sasmit Gokhale
Vaibhav Dighe

Outline
Communication Systems
Wireless Communications
Current Wireless Systems
- Cellular systems
- Satellite Systems
- Bluetooth

- Wi-Fi(Wireless Fidelity)

Why Wireless?
Freedom from wires.
Easy to Setup
Auto Magical instantaneous communication without
physical connection setup e.g.- Bluetooth, Wi-Fi.
Global coverage
Communication can reach where wiring is infeasible or
costly
E.g.- rural areas, buildings, battlefield, outer space.
Stay connected, flexibility to connect multiple devices

What is Wireless Communication ?


Transmitting/receiving voice and data using electromagnetic
waves in open space.
The information from sender to receiver is carried over a well
defined channel.
Each channel has a fixed frequency bandwidth & capacity(bit
rate).
Different channels can be used to transmit information in
parallel and independently.

Brief History
Ancient Systems: Smoke Signals, Carrier Pigeons
Radio invented in the 1880s by Marconi
Many sophisticated military radio systems were
developed during and after WW2
Cellular has enjoyed exponential growth since 1988, with
more than 2 billion users worldwide today
Ignited the recent wireless revolution, 1980-2003
Growth rate tapering off

Types of Wireless Transmission


RADIO TRANSMISSION:- easily generated, Omni-directional ,
travel long distance , easily penetrates buildings.
MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION:- widely used for long distance
communication , relatively inexpensive.
INFRARED TRANSMISSION :- Widely used for short range
communication , unable to pass through solid objects , used for
indoor wireless LANs , not for outdoors.
LIGHT WAVE TRANSMISSION:- unguided optical signal such as
laser , unidirectional , easy to install , no license required.

Wireless Systems: Range Comparison


1m

10 m

100 m

Bluetooth

1 Km

WLANs

10 Km

Mobile
Telephony

100 Km

1,000 Km

MW SW
Satellite
FM
Radio Radio Radio Links

Wireless Technology
CELLULAR SYSTEM
SATELLITE SYSTEM
Wi-Fi
BLUETOOTH

Satellite Systems

A satellite is an artificial object


intentionally placed into the
orbit of a planet.

Satellite Systems
How Satellite works?
Types of Orbit:- Low-Earth-Orbit (LEOs)
Medium-Earth-Orbit (MEOs)
Geostationary (GEOs)
Applications:- Global Positioning System(GPS)

How Satellites Work ?


1.

A Earth Station sends


message in GHz range.
(Uplink)

2.

Satellite Receive and


retransmit signals back.
(Downlink)
Other Earth Stations
receive message in useful
strength area. (Footprint)

3.

Satellite Orbits
Distance (km)

Period

Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

700 - 2000

~2 hr

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)

10.000 15.000

~6 hr

Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO)

36.000

24 hr

Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO)
Altitude (375-1000 miles)
Revolution time: 90 min - 3 hours.
Advantages:
Reduces transmission delay
Eliminates need for bulky
receiving equipment.
Disadvantages:
Smaller coverage area.
Shorter life span (5-8 yrs.) than
GEOs (10 yrs).
Subdivisions: Little, Big, and Mega
(Super) LEOs.

Middle-Earth-Orbiting (MEO)
MEOs orbits between the
altitudes of 5,600 and 9,500
miles.
These orbits are primarily
reserved for communications
satellites that cover the North
and South Pole.
Unlike the circular orbit of the geostationary
satellites, MEOs are placed in an elliptical
(oval-shaped) orbit.
Approximately a dozen medium Earth orbiting
satellites are necessary to provide continuous
global coverage 24 hours a day.

Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit (GEO)
Orbit is synchronous with the
earths rotation.
From the ground the satellite
appears fixed.
Altitude is about 23,000 miles.
Coverage to 40% of planet per
satellite. Provides images of
nearly one-third of the Earth's
surface every 23 minutes with 4
km resolution.

GPS: What is it ?
A constellation of 24 satellites
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a worldwide radionavigation system formed from a constellation of 24 satellites and
their ground stations.
They are constantly moving, making two complete orbits in less
than 24 hours.
These satellites are traveling at speeds of roughly 7,000 miles an
hour.

GPS: How it works


Satellites are reference points for locations on Earth
The whole idea behind GPS is to use satellites in space as
reference points for locations here on earth.
GPS satellites use a "triangulate," system where the GPS receiver
measures distance using the travel time of radio signals.
By using triangulation, we can accurately measure our distance
and find out position from three satellites position anywhere on
earth.
Basic calculations measuring distance
Velocity * Time = Distance
Velocity = speed of light (186,000 miles per
second. )
Time = a lot of analysis and calculations!

Bluetooth
Bluetooth

What is BLUETOOTH?
Bluetooth is a wireless technology
used to transfer data between different electronic
devices.
The distance of data transmission is
small in comparison to other modes of wireless
communication.
This technology eradicates the use of cords,
cables, adapters and permits the electronic
devices to communicate wirelessly among each
other.

Bluetooth is a high-speed, low-power microwave wireless link


technology, designed to connect phones, laptops, PDAs and other
portable equipment together with little or no work by the user.

What is Bluetooth Technology?


It comprises of a base band processor, a radio and an antenna .
The base-band processor converts the data into signals, the
antenna of another blue tooth device, within at least 30 feet
distance, receives a transmitted signal in the air.
It uses a frequency
hopping spread spectrum
technique (FHSS) - which
is one of two basic
modulation techniques
used in spread spectrum
signal transmission.
Frequencies are switched
repeatedly during radio
transmission to help
reduce unlawful access
or other means of
telecommunications to
cross paths and cause
interruption

Importance Of Bluetooth
These have Replaced cables for transferring
Information from one Electronic Device to another
one.
These have decreased Strain like carrying phones
while talking, making hands free to do another work.
This is cheaply Available.
Its Mobility is also very Important as it doesnt need
any power outlet or Internet connection or any other
items.

Applications Of Bluetooth Devices:


Head Set
In-Car Bluetooth System
Bluetooth Equipped Printer
Bluetooth Equipped Web Cam
Bluetooth GPS System
Bluetooth Key Board

Wi-Fi

What is Wi-Fi ?
Short for wireless fidelity.
It is a wireless technology that uses radio
frequency to transmit data through the air.
The standard for wireless local area networks
(WLANs). Its like a common language that all
the devices use to communicate to each other. If
you have a standard, people can make all sorts of
devices that can work with each other.

Brief History
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
established the 802.11 Group in 1990. Specifications for
standard ratified in 1997.
Initial speeds were 1 and 2 Mbps.
IEEE modified the standard in 1999 to include:
802.11b
802.11a
802.11g was added in 2003.
IEEE Created standard, but Wi-Fi Alliance certifies
products

Wi-Fi Standards
Standard

Speed

Freq band

802.11

2Mbps

2.4GHz

802.11a

54Mbps

5GHz

802.11b

11Mbps

2.4GHz

802.11g

54Mbps

2.4GHz

802.11n

600Mbps

2.4/5GHz

Advantages of Wi-Fi
Freedom You can work from any location
that you can get a signal.
Setup Cost No cabling required.
Flexibility Quick and easy to setup in
temp or permanent space.
Scaleable Can be expanded with growth.
Mobile Access Can access the network on
the move.

Limitations of Wireless
Generally very low transmission rates for
higher numbers of users
Often proprietary, more powerful approaches,
standards are often restricted
Many national regulations, global regulations
are evolving slowly
Restricted frequency range, interferences of
frequencies