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Anatomi dan Fisiologi

Organ Penghidu

TIM BLOK 2.4

Overview of Upper
Airways
Anatomy
Nose
Oral Cavity
Pharynx

Throat

Frontal view

Frontal and lateral view

Prinsip dari aliran uadara di


Rongga Hidung
Nasal Air Flow
Laminar vs Turbulent
Nasal Cycle
Regulate by autonomic nervous system
80% of human each 2 hours

terjadi dalam
rongga hidung
1. Humidification
2. Temperature regulation
3. Fungsi proteksi dari mukosa nasal

Humidification
Mucous membrane also contains epithelial cells

with many goblet cells; mucus secreted by goblet


cells moistens the air and traps dust particles
(membran mukosa mengandung sel epitel yang
mengandung sel goblet yang berfungsi sabagai
penghasil mukosa yang dapat melembabkan
udara).
Drainage from the nasolacrimal ducts and

perhaps secretions from paranasal sinuses


also help moistens the air (cairan dari duktus
nasolakrimal dan sinus paranasal dapat juga
melembabkan udara).

Tenperature Regulations
Below olfactory epithelium, mucous membrane

contains capillaries ; air which is whirls around


conchae and meatus warmed by blood in
capillaries (membran mukosa mengandung
pembuluh darah yang melingkupi tulang conchae
yang dapat menghangatkan udara)

Fungsi Fungsi Proteksi dari mukosa nasal


Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
1. Mechanical defenses (mucociliary apparatus)
2. Nonspecific protective factors (Interferon,
Proteases, Protease inhibitors , Lysozyme
Antioxidants)
3. Cellular defenses (phagocytic cells)
Specific Immune Responses
4. Humoral immune response
5. Cellular immune response
6. The endothelial cells
7. The epithelial cells

Mekanisme Mengenali bau (Olfaction)


N I (olfactorius)

Where does smell


figure?
In humans
Strong link to sense of taste (Hubungan
yang kuat dengan keinginan untuk rasa
(makanan))
Strong link to emotional states
Used for identification of gender

Basics: What do you need for


smell?
Odorous Substance (Zat/bahan
bau)
Airborne (udara)
Perceptual system that can parse
or segregate the information in
airborne odorant molecules
(sistem persepsi olfaktory dari
seseorang yang bisa mengenali
bau)

Physiology

Physiology contd.
Olfactory Receptor Cells have cilia
(reseptor olfaktory mempunyai cilia)
Cilia are bathed in mucous (cilia
terbungkus oleh mukus)
Mucous contains Odorant binding
proteins (OBP)
OBP transmits the odorant molecules
from the air to receptor sites on the cilia

Olfactory Pathways

Additional Video

Odor Perception
Odor (as well as taste) are much more phenomenological
than vision or audition.
Odor Detection
Varies greatly from odor to odor (molecular
properties)
Varies with a variety of other factors
Time of day, Age and Gender
Smoking in injurious to odor detection!
Odor Identification
Shows context dependence
Varies once again with age and gender

Odor Identification
Determined by Gender

Women vastly superior


Can be improved with practice
Stimulus Saliency
Infants and mothers can recognize each other by

smell alone
Infants hedonic reactions to smell develops with
age

Odor Familiarity - Seen in elderly people

Some more amazing


facts
Odor Constancy
Natural sniffs lead to constant odor perception
but
artificial blowing of air does not
Common Chemical Sense
Odors judged pleasant at moderate
concentrations are
judged unpleasant at high concentrations
Related to the action of free nerve endings stimulated
in an indiscriminate manner
Warning system for the organism
Adaptation - Adapt to a particular odor
Cross Adaptation: Adapt to a different odor
Could have led to odor categorization but turns
out that
cross-adaptation is not symmetric!

Disorders of Smell
Anosmia or Odor Blindness
Often caused by a blow to the head
Temporary since ORCs can regenerate
Sometimes can be total but in that case is specific
to
certain odors, e.g. sweat, urine
Anosmia can have serious consequences such as
loss
of apetite and weight

Thank you......