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# Motion

Speed
Velocity
Acceleration

Distance

& Displacement
Velocity & Speed
Acceleration

Scalar

mass, time)

Vector

## - magnitude & direction (e.g.

weight, velocity, acceleration)

Pictorial Representation

An

arrow represents a

vector

## Length = magnitude of vector

Direction = direction of vector

Pictorial Representation

This

## arrow could represent a vector

of magnitude 10 point to the right
This arrow could represent a vector
of magnitude 5 point to the left

Distance

Displacement

Finish line

Displacement

## is the distance traveled , in

a certain direction.

The

## displacement of an object is not the

same as the distance it travels

## Example: Throw a ball straight up and then

catch it at the same point you released it
The

## distance is twice the height

The displacement is zero

B
3m

4m

5m

## You walk from A to B to C.

Your displacement form A is 5 m

## Speed and Velocity

is the distance traveled in a
certain time.

Speed

a certain time.

Velocity

Velocity

Types of Speed
Instantaneous

## Speed is the speed at any

specific instance

Average

## Speed is the total distance covered

divided by total time

Speed
The

## average speed of an object is defined

as the total distance traveled divided by
the total time elapsed

total distance
Average speed
total time
x
Speed
t

Speed, cont
Average

## speed totally ignores any

variations in the objects actual motion
during the trip
The total distance and the total time are
all that is important
SI units are m/s

Velocity
The

## average velocity of an object is

defined as the total displacement traveled
divided by the total time elapsed

totaldisplacement
Averagevelocity
totaltime
r
r x
V
t

Velocity
It

## takes time for an object to undergo a

displacement
The average velocity is rate at which the
displacement occurs

Vaverage
generally

x x f x i x f x i

t
t f ti
t

## use a time interval, so let ti = 0

Velocity continued
Direction

## will be the same as the direction

of the displacement (time interval is always
positive)

+ or - is sufficient

Units

or ft/s

## Other units may be given in a problem, but

generally will need to be converted to these

## Cars on both paths have the same average velocity

since they had the same displacement in the same
time interval
The car on the blue path will have a greater average
speed since the distance it traveled is larger

## You drive from Yakima to Seattle (140 miles away)

You stop in Ellensburg for a 2 hr lunch with a friend.
Your total driving time is 2 hours

140miles
Averagespeed
2hour 2hour
140miles
Averagespeed
35mph
4hours

Uniform Velocity
Uniform

## velocity is constant velocity

The instantaneous velocities are always the
same

## All the instantaneous velocities will also equal

the average velocity

Velocity Example
150 Km/hr
100 Km/hr
50 Km/hr

Velocity again
Wind
35 Km/hr

## How fast is the plane

moving in respect to
the ground?

100 Km/hr

## Velocity, yet again

How fast is the
plane moving in
respect to the
ground?

Wind
35 Km/hr

100 Km/hr

Velocity (finally)
How fast is the
plane moving in
respect to the
ground?

Wind
35 Km/hr
Result
100 Km/hr

65 Km/hr

How fast is
the plane
moving in
respect to the
ground?

100 Km/hr
Wind
50 Km/hr

a2 + b2 = c2
100 Km/hr

Resultant
Wind
50 Km/hr

c2

b2
a2

## How fast is the plane moving in respect to the ground?

(Last) Velocity
How fast is the plane moving in respect to the ground?

a2 + b2 = c2
100 Km/hr

Resultant
Wind
50 Km/hr

R2 = (100)2 + (50)2
R = 111.8 Km/hr

c2

b2
a2

Acceleration

## Change in velocity divided by

the change in time

V
a
t

Acceleration
Changing

## velocity (non-uniform) means an

acceleration is present
Acceleration is the rate of change of the
velocity

Units

## are m/s2 (SI), cm/s2 (cgs), and ft/s2

(US Cust)

Average Acceleration
Vector

quantity
When the sign of the velocity and the
acceleration are the same (either positive
or negative), then the speed is increasing
When the sign of the velocity and the
acceleration are in the opposite directions,
the speed is decreasing

Acceleration
Acceleration

is the
rate of change of
velocity. A change in
velocity can be either
a change in speed, or
direction, or both.
Deceleration is
when acceleration
has a negative value.

Acceleration
The

time (sec)

The

## unit for velocity, in this case, is

m/s/s

OR

m/s2

Acceleration Math
Problem
A

## jet starts at rest at the end

of a runway and reaches a speed of
80 m/s in 20 s. What is its
acceleration?

Acceleration Math
Problem
A

## jet starts at rest at the end of a runway

and reaches a speed of 80 m/s in 20 s.
What is its acceleration?
Acceleration

time (sec)

## = 80 m/s 0 m/s = 4 m/s2

20 sec

Acceleration Math
Problem
A

## skateboarder is moving in a straight line at

a speed of 3 m/s and comes to a stop in 2 sec.
What is his acceleration?

2 m/s

The

## limit of the average acceleration as

the time interval goes to zero
When the instantaneous accelerations are
always the same, the acceleration will be
uniform

## The instantaneous accelerations will all be equal

to the average acceleration

## Uniform velocity (shown by red arrows maintaining

the same size)
Acceleration equals zero

## Velocity and acceleration are in the same direction

Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the
same length)
Velocity is increasing (red arrows are getting
longer)
Positive velocity and positive acceleration

## Acceleration and velocity are in opposite

directions
Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the
same length)
Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are getting
shorter)
Velocity is positive and acceleration is negative

Kinematic Equations
Used

in
situations
with uniform
acceleration

V f Vi at
V Vi 2ax
2
f

2
1
x xi Vi t
at
2

Kinematic Equations - Ex #1
A

## car traveling with an initial velocity

of 6 m/s, accelerates at 2 m/s2, for 6
seconds. What is the cars final
velocity?

A

## car traveling with an initial velocity

of 6 m/s, accelerates at 2 m/s2, for 6
seconds. What is the cars final
velocity?

V f Vi at
m
m
m
V f 6 2 2 6 s 18
s
s
s

## Kinematic Equations for Acceleration

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642
Galileo formulated the
laws that govern the
motion of objects in
free fall
Also looked at:

Inclined planes
Relative motion
Thermometers
Pendulum

Free Fall
All

## objects moving under the influence of

gravity only are said to be in free fall

original motion

All

## objects falling near the earths surface

fall with a constant acceleration
The acceleration is called the acceleration
due to gravity, and indicated by g

## Acceleration due to Gravity

Symbolized

by g

= 9.81 m/s2
g is always directed downward

## air resistance and assuming g

doesnt vary with altitude over short
vertical distances, free fall is constantly
accelerated motion

Ignoring

## Initial velocity is zero

Let up be positive
Use the kinematic equations

since vertical

vo= 0
a=g

## Free Fall an object thrown downward

= g = -9.81 m/s2
Initial velocity 0
a

## With upward being

positive, initial
velocity will be
negative

vo 0
a=g

## building, and it takes 18

seconds to reach the ground,
how tall is the building?

What do we know?

m
Vi 0
s
V f ??
x ??
m
a 9.81 2
s
t 18 sec

1 2
x(t) xi Vi t at
2

m
1
x(t) 0 0 (-9.81
)(18 sec)2
2
2
s

1587.6 0.986

x(t)

meters

miles

Motion
The

End