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Motion

Speed
Velocity
Acceleration

Some Motion Terms


Distance

& Displacement
Velocity & Speed
Acceleration

Scalar versus Vector


Scalar

- magnitude only (e.g. volume,


mass, time)

Vector

- magnitude & direction (e.g.


weight, velocity, acceleration)

Pictorial Representation

An

arrow represents a

vector

Length = magnitude of vector


Direction = direction of vector

Pictorial Representation

This

arrow could represent a vector


of magnitude 10 point to the right
This arrow could represent a vector
of magnitude 5 point to the left

Distance & Displacement


Distance

is the actual distance traveled.

Displacement

Finish line

Displacement

depends only on Start &

is the distance traveled , in


a certain direction.

Displacement Isnt Distance


The

displacement of an object is not the


same as the distance it travels

Example: Throw a ball straight up and then


catch it at the same point you released it
The

distance is twice the height


The displacement is zero

Distance & Displacement

Distance & Displacement


B
3m

4m

5m

You walk from A to B to C.


Your distance traveled is 7m
Your displacement form A is 5 m

Speed and Velocity


is the distance traveled in a
certain time.

Speed

is the displacement traveled in


a certain time.

Velocity

Velocity

is speed in a given direction.

Types of Speed
Instantaneous

Speed is the speed at any


specific instance

Average

Speed is the total distance covered


divided by total time

Speed
The

average speed of an object is defined


as the total distance traveled divided by
the total time elapsed

total distance
Average speed
total time
x
Speed
t

Speed is a scalar quantity

Speed, cont
Average

speed totally ignores any


variations in the objects actual motion
during the trip
The total distance and the total time are
all that is important
SI units are m/s

Velocity
The

average velocity of an object is


defined as the total displacement traveled
divided by the total time elapsed

totaldisplacement
Averagevelocity
totaltime
r
r x
V
t

Velocity is a vector quantity

Velocity
It

takes time for an object to undergo a


displacement
The average velocity is rate at which the
displacement occurs

Vaverage
generally

x x f x i x f x i

t
t f ti
t

use a time interval, so let ti = 0

Velocity continued
Direction

will be the same as the direction


of the displacement (time interval is always
positive)

+ or - is sufficient

Units

of velocity are m/s (SI), cm/s (cgs)


or ft/s

Other units may be given in a problem, but


generally will need to be converted to these

Speed vs. Velocity

Cars on both paths have the same average velocity


since they had the same displacement in the same
time interval
The car on the blue path will have a greater average
speed since the distance it traveled is larger

Speed vs. Velocity

You drive from Yakima to Seattle (140 miles away)


You stop in Ellensburg for a 2 hr lunch with a friend.
Your total driving time is 2 hours

140miles
Averagespeed
2hour 2hour
140miles
Averagespeed
35mph
4hours

Uniform Velocity
Uniform

velocity is constant velocity


The instantaneous velocities are always the
same

All the instantaneous velocities will also equal


the average velocity

Velocity Example
150 Km/hr
100 Km/hr
50 Km/hr

Velocity again
Wind
35 Km/hr

How fast is the plane


moving in respect to
the ground?

100 Km/hr

Velocity, yet again


How fast is the
plane moving in
respect to the
ground?

Wind
35 Km/hr

100 Km/hr

Velocity (finally)
How fast is the
plane moving in
respect to the
ground?

Wind
35 Km/hr
Result
100 Km/hr

65 Km/hr

Velocity again (??)


How fast is
the plane
moving in
respect to the
ground?

100 Km/hr
Wind
50 Km/hr

Velocity - the last time


a2 + b2 = c2
100 Km/hr

Resultant
Wind
50 Km/hr

c2

b2
a2

How fast is the plane moving in respect to the ground?

(Last) Velocity
How fast is the plane moving in respect to the ground?

a2 + b2 = c2
100 Km/hr

Resultant
Wind
50 Km/hr

R2 = (100)2 + (50)2
R = 111.8 Km/hr

c2

b2
a2

R2 = 10,000 + 2500 R2 = 12,500

Acceleration

Change in velocity divided by


the change in time

V
a
t

Acceleration
Changing

velocity (non-uniform) means an


acceleration is present
Acceleration is the rate of change of the
velocity

Units

are m/s2 (SI), cm/s2 (cgs), and ft/s2


(US Cust)

Average Acceleration
Vector

quantity
When the sign of the velocity and the
acceleration are the same (either positive
or negative), then the speed is increasing
When the sign of the velocity and the
acceleration are in the opposite directions,
the speed is decreasing

Acceleration
Acceleration

is the
rate of change of
velocity. A change in
velocity can be either
a change in speed, or
direction, or both.
Deceleration is
when acceleration
has a negative value.

Acceleration
The

formula for calculating acceleration is:

Acceleration (a) = final velocity (vf) initial velocity (vi)


time (sec)

The

unit for velocity, in this case, is


m/s/s

OR

m/s2

Acceleration Math
Problem
A

jet starts at rest at the end


of a runway and reaches a speed of
80 m/s in 20 s. What is its
acceleration?

Acceleration Math
Problem
A

jet starts at rest at the end of a runway


and reaches a speed of 80 m/s in 20 s.
What is its acceleration?
Acceleration

(a) = final velocity (vf) initial velocity (vi)


time (sec)

= 80 m/s 0 m/s = 4 m/s2


20 sec

Acceleration Math
Problem
A

skateboarder is moving in a straight line at


a speed of 3 m/s and comes to a stop in 2 sec.
What is his acceleration?

a = 0 m/s - 3 m/s = -1.5 m/s2


2 m/s

Instantaneous & Uniform Acceleration


The

limit of the average acceleration as


the time interval goes to zero
When the instantaneous accelerations are
always the same, the acceleration will be
uniform

The instantaneous accelerations will all be equal


to the average acceleration

Relationship Between Acceleration & Velocity

Uniform velocity (shown by red arrows maintaining


the same size)
Acceleration equals zero

Relationship Between Velocity & Acceleration

Velocity and acceleration are in the same direction


Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the
same length)
Velocity is increasing (red arrows are getting
longer)
Positive velocity and positive acceleration

Relationship Between Velocity & Acceleration

Acceleration and velocity are in opposite


directions
Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the
same length)
Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are getting
shorter)
Velocity is positive and acceleration is negative

Kinematic Equations
Used

in
situations
with uniform
acceleration

V f Vi at
V Vi 2ax
2
f

2
1
x xi Vi t
at
2

Kinematic Equations - Ex #1
A

car traveling with an initial velocity


of 6 m/s, accelerates at 2 m/s2, for 6
seconds. What is the cars final
velocity?

Kinematic Equations - Ex #1 - Ans


A

car traveling with an initial velocity


of 6 m/s, accelerates at 2 m/s2, for 6
seconds. What is the cars final
velocity?

V f Vi at
m
m
m
V f 6 2 2 6 s 18
s
s
s

Kinematic Equations for Acceleration

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642
Galileo formulated the
laws that govern the
motion of objects in
free fall
Also looked at:

Inclined planes
Relative motion
Thermometers
Pendulum

Free Fall
All

objects moving under the influence of


gravity only are said to be in free fall

Free fall does not depend on the objects


original motion

All

objects falling near the earths surface


fall with a constant acceleration
The acceleration is called the acceleration
due to gravity, and indicated by g

Acceleration due to Gravity


Symbolized

by g

= 9.81 m/s2
g is always directed downward

toward the center of the earth

air resistance and assuming g


doesnt vary with altitude over short
vertical distances, free fall is constantly
accelerated motion

Ignoring

Free Fall an object dropped

Initial velocity is zero


Let up be positive
Use the kinematic equations

Generally use y instead of x


since vertical

Acceleration is g = -9.81 m/s2

vo= 0
a=g

Free Fall an object thrown downward


= g = -9.81 m/s2
Initial velocity 0
a

With upward being


positive, initial
velocity will be
negative

vo 0
a=g

Free Fall - example

If a rock is dropped from a

building, and it takes 18


seconds to reach the ground,
how tall is the building?

Free Fall - answer

What do we know?

m
Vi 0
s
V f ??
x ??
m
a 9.81 2
s
t 18 sec

Free Fall - answer


1 2
x(t) xi Vi t at
2

m
1
x(t) 0 0 (-9.81
)(18 sec)2
2
2
s

1587.6 0.986

x(t)

meters

miles

Motion
The

End