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Gear trains

(Chapter 6)

Change torque, speed


Why we need gears
Example: engine of a containership
Optimum operating speed of the engine about
400 RPM
Optimum operating speed of the propeller about
100 RPM
Need reduction gear

Connecting the main engine to the propeller


through a reduction gear
Propeller,

Output flange

operates at about 100


RPM
Gea
r

Engine

Engine operates at
about 400 RPM

Types of gears

Gear box
Stick shift
Synchronizers

The gear box is in first gear, second gear

Gear Nomenclature (6.1)

Important definitions
Velocity ratio=mV=angular velocity of output gear/
angular velocity of input gear=pitch diameter of
input gear/pitch diameter of output gear
Torque ratio=mT=torque at output gear/torque at
input gear
mT=1/mV
Gear ratio=mG=Ngear/Npinion, mG is almost always
greater than one

Fundamental law of tooth gearing (6.2 and 6.3):


velocity ratio must be constant as gears rotate

Angular velocity ratio= ratio


of distances of P from centers
of rotation of input and output
gear.

3 O2 P

2 O3P

If common normal were


fixed then the velocity ratio
would be constant.

If gear tooth profile is that of involute curve


then fundamental law of gearing is satisfied
Involute curve: path generated
by a tracing point on a cord as the cord
is unwrapped from base cylinder

Generating gear teeth profile

Steps:
Select base circles
Bring common normal AB
Draw involutes CD, EF

Gear action

Angular velocity of
Gear 3 / angular
Velocity of gear 2 =
O2P/O3P = constant

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Fundamental law of gearing:


The common normal of the tooth profiles
at all points within the mesh must always
pass through a fixed point on the line of
the centers called pitch point. Then the
gearsets velocity ratio will be constant
through the mesh and be equal to the ratio
of the gear radii.
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Base circle radius =


Pitch circle radius cos

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Initial contact: B

Path of approach: BP=ua=[(r3+a)2-rb32]1/2-r3sin


Path of recess: PC=ur=[(r2+a)2-rb22]1/2-r2sin

Final contact: C

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Standard gears: American Association of Gear


Manufacturers (AGMA) (6.4)
Teeth of different gears have same profile as long as the
angle of action and pitch is the same.
Can use same tools to cut different gears. Faster and
cheaper product. Follow standards unless there is a very
good reasons not to do so.

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Template for teeth of standard gears

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AGMA Specifications
Diametral pitch, pd=1, 1.25, 1.5,,120
Addendum of pinion = addendum gear
Observations
The larger the pitch, the smaller the gear
The larger the angle of action: the larger the
difference between the base and pitch circles,
the steeper the tooth profile, the smaller the
transmitted force.
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AGMA Standard Gear Specifications


Parameter
Pressure angle,
Addendum, a

Coarse pitch
(pd=N/d<20)
200 or 250 (not common)

Fine pitch
(pd=N/d>20)
200

1/pd

1/pd

Dedendum, b

1.25/pd

1.25/pd

Working depth

2.00/pd

2.00/pd

Whole depth

2.25/pd

2.2/pd+0.002

Circular tooth thickness

1.571/pd (circular pitch/2)

1.571/pd

Fillet radius

0.30/pd

Not standardized

Clearance

0.25/pd

0.25/pd+0.002

Minimum width at top


land

0.25/pd

Not standardized

Circular pitch

/pd

/pd

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Min: 0.25/pd

1/pd
1.25/pd

/pd
1.571/pd
0.25/pd

d=N/pd

0.3/pd
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Planetary (or Epicyclic) Gears (10.4)


Gears whose centers can move
Used to achieve large speed reductions in
compact space
Can achieve different reduction ratios by
holding different combinations of gears
fixed
Used in automatic transmissions of cars
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Planetary gear

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Components of a planetary gear


Planet
Carrier
Input shaft
Sun gear
Ring gear

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A variant of a planetary gear

Carrier

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Planetary gears in automotive


transmission

Planetary gears
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Velocity Analysis Of Planetary Gears (10.6, 10.7)


Two degrees of freedom
Given the velocities of two gears (e.g. sun
and carrier) find velocities of other gears
Approach
Start from gear whose speed is given
Use equation gear = car+ gear/car

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Velocity analysis of planetary gear

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This program finds the velocities of the remaining links given


the velocities of two links in a planetary gear.
Input:
Number of teeth of sun, planet and ring gears, N1, N3, N4,
respectively.

N1 30
N3 35

N4 100
Velocities of two links: specify the known values of the inputs
and guess the values of the outputs:

3 100
4 120
1 100

2 1 0 0
1 2 100

G iv en
3

2 12

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1 2 12
N1
3 2
12
N3

4 2

N1
12
N4

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3.333

1.538

Find 1 2 3 4 12

1.795

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