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TPM

Dr. Mohamed Ben Daya


Professor of Industrial
Engineering & Operations
Research

First Session
Introduction
Introduction to TPM
What is TPM?
Equipment: the Focus of TPM

Second Session
Components of TPM
TPM-AM: Autonomous
Maintenance
TPM-PM: PM & PDM
TPM-EM: Equipment Management

Third session
TPM Implementation
Feasibility Study
Implementation
Case Studies

Introduction to TPM
Historical Background
Todays challenges
The TPM Solution

What is TPM?
TPM Definition
TPM Goals
TPM Concepts
TPM Benefits

Equipment: the focus of


TPM
The Six big Losses
Equipment Effectiveness
Calculating Equipment
Effectiveness
Equipment Management

Introduction to TPM
Historical Background
Todays challenges
The TPM Solution

Historical Background
Nakajima introduced TPM in Japan in
1971 Based on his observations of PM
systems in Western countries
1987 United States (Hartmann)
TPM Prize in Japan

1971-1982
51

1983-1988
65

Contd
TPM is now well accepted by the
Japanese industrial sector, and is
attracting the attention of Western
industrial nations, China, and
various southeast Asian countries.
Ford, Motorola, Kodak, DuPont,
Proctor & Gamble, IBM, AT&T, ...

Contd
TPM helped Japanese to gain a
manufacturing advantage over the
rest of the world.

TPM Institutions
Japan Institute of Plant
Maintenance
International TPM Institute, Inc.,
USA

Growth of PM
Stage 1: Breakdown maintenance
Stage 2: Preventive maintenance
Stage 3: Productive maintenance
Stage 4: TPM

Todays Challenges
Global Competition
The Quality Challenge
Just-In-Time
Cycle Time Reduction
Set Up Reduction
Cost Reduction
.

Contd
Cost Reduction
Capacity Expansion
Other Issues
Environment
Energy Conservation

The Quality Challenge


Motorola quality goal is six sigma.
That is 99.9996% good parts
delivered: You must make 300,000
good parts before you ship a bad
one !
You must have a perfect machine to
produce a perfect product
ISO 9000

Just-in-Time
Modern production technique that
reduces inventory levels
considerably.
An equipment breakdown in the
middle of a JIT run, immediately
wipes out all gains.

Cycle time reduction


Shorter runs to produce customer
orders with less lead time
Equipment breakdowns, idling and
minor stoppages will make it very
difficult to reduce cycle times

Set-Up Reductions
JIT and cycle time reductions
result in shorter and more
frequent production runs.
Suddenly, set-ups become crucial
Past OEE studies show that set-up
and adjustments can consume up
to 50% of total production time

Cost Reduction
Past efforts have been on
manufacturing costs
Maintenance costs make up 5-15%
of total production costs
Production costs have been
decreasing
Maintenance cost have been
escalating

Capacity Expansion
Manufacturing produces a product
Maintenance creates the capacity for
production
Studies show low equipment
productivity on sometimes new
equipment
There is so much available capacity
hidden in your existing equipment

Other Issues
Environmental issues
The other side of the environmental
coin is energy conservation.
Example: electrical motors are the
highest energy consumers in many
industries, yet many run at low
efficiency, due to partially burnt
windings, bad insulation, etc.

The TPM Solution


TPM properly installed has a
positive and often dramatic effect
on many of the above issues.
The return on investment (ROI) of
your successful TPM installation is
likely to be higher than any of your
previous productivity improvement
programs

PM alone cannot
eliminate breakdowns
According to the principles of
reliability engineering, the causes
of equipment failure change with
the passage of time
See Figure

What is TPM?
TPM Definition
TPM Goals
TPM Concepts
TPM Benefits

TPM Definition
Nakajima (JAPAN)
Productive maintenance involving
total participation
Hartmann (U.S.A.) TPM is a
philosophy that can permanently
improve the over all effectiveness of
equipment with active involvement of
operators

Total in TPM means ...


Total effectiveness
Total maintenance system

PM - Preventive Maintenance
MP - Maintenance Prevention
MI - Maintainability Improvement
Total participation of all involved
employees

TPM Goals
Improve product quality
Reduce waste
Improve the state of maintenance
Empower employees

The Three Zeros


Zero unplanned equipment
downtime
Zero (equipment caused ) defects
Zero loss of equipment speed

TPM Concepts
Employees empowerment
Equipment management

Interface
Maintenance-Production
Many industries are organized
with maintenance on one side and
production on the other
The organizational line frequently
gets in the way, causing delays and
production stoppages
In TPM, both sides work as a team

TPM Task Transfer


The organizational line that separates
the maintenance and operating
functions is replaced by a shared
task zone in which both parties are
trained and certified to safely
perform tasks identified by the team
See Figure

TPM Skill Transfer Chart


Transparencies

Old Administrative
System
Consumes much time
Promotes inefficiency
Causes longer downtimes
increases costs, and
decreases productivity

Teamwork
Team management: System that
organizes people into effective
teams in order to accomplish a
companys stated goals and
objectives

An Effective Team
Achieves business results
Has documented goals and
supporting plans
Exhibits responsibility for clearly
defined processes
is accountable to itself and higher
level teams
Assesses its progress

Contd
Has good documentation
Has everyones participation
Uses quality improvement tools
Has a skilled leader and members

Equipment Management
the focus of TPM

Factors affecting
equipment effectiveness
Equipment failure (breakdown)
Setup and adjustment downtime
Idling and minor stoppages
Reduced speed
Process defects
Reduced yield

Six Major Losses

Down Time.

1. Breakdowns due to equipment failure.


2. Setup and adjustment (e.g. exchange of dies in injection

molding machines, etc.)

Speed Losses.
3. Idling and minor stoppages (abnormal operation of sensor,

etc.).
4. Reduced speed (discrepancies between designed and actual
speed of equipment)

Defects.
5. Defects in process and rework (scrap and quality defects

requiring repair)
6. Reduced yield between machine startup and stable production.

The Equipment Losses (you can


and must measure)
Setup and Adjustments
Including changeovers.

Equipment
Availability

Programming.
Test runs.

Equipment Failures
Sporadic breakdowns.
Chronic breakdowns.

Idling and Minor Stoppages


Jams and other short stoppages.

Equipment
Efficiency

No parts, no operator.
Blocked.

Reduced Speed
Equipment worn out.
Lack of accuracy.

Contd.
Quality

Process Defects
Scrap.
Rework

Others (define)
Equipment warm up etc.
No parts, no operator.

Availability
Loading time = Total available
time per day (or month) Planned
downtime
Planned downtime: amount of
downtime officially scheduled in
the production
plan
Loading Time
- Down Time

Availability

Loading Time

100

Example

Loading time per day = 460 min.


Downtime: breakdowns
= 20 min.
Setup 20 min
= 20 min.
Adjustments
= 20 min.
Availability = ?

Loading Time - Down Time


Availability
100
Loading Time

Example

Loading time per day = 460 min.


Downtime: breakdowns
= 20 min.
Setup 20 min
= 20 min.
Adjustments
= 20 min.
Availability = ?

Loading Time - Down Time


100
Loading Time
460 - 60
Availability
100 87%
460
Availability

Performance Efficiency

Performance Efficiency = (net operation rate)


x (operating speed rate),
Operating speed rate refers to the
discrepancy between the ideal speed
(equipment capacity as designed) and its
actual operation speed
Theoratical cycle time
Operating Speed rate
actual cycle time
Example
Theoretical cycle time per item is

0.5 min

Actual cycle time is

0.8 min

OSR =0.5/ 0.8 x 100

=62.5%

Contd.

Net operating time calculates losses


resulting from minor stoppages such as
small problems and adjustment losses.
Net Operating rate

Actual Processing time


Operation time

Processed amount actual cycle time


Operation time

Example
Number of processed items per day is

0.5 min

Actual cycle time is

0.8 min

Operation time is

= 62.5%

NOR = (400)(8)/400 x 100

= 80%

Performance Efficiency
PE = Net operation rate x Operating speed rate.
PE

Processed amount Actual cycle time ideal cycle time

100
Operation time
actual cycle time

Processed amount ideal cycle time

100
Operation time
Ex: Processed amount = 400 items.
Ideal cycle time = 0.5 min
Operation time
= 400 min

PE

400 (items ) 0.5 (min)


100 50%
400 (min)

Contd.
Alternative formula in case ideal cycle time is not known or products with different
cycle times are run on the same machine.

Operation time - Lost time


PE
Operation time
Lost time due to
Idling and minor stoppages,
Speed losses,

Rate of Quality
Pr ocessed amount - rejects
Rate of Quality
100
Pr ocessed amount
Usable operating time - Defects time loss
Rate of Quality
100
Usable operating time
Example
Processed amount

= 200

Rejects

=4

200 - 4
Rate of Quality
98%
200

Overall Equipment
Effectiveness
Example

Loading time
= 800 min.
Down time
= 50 min.
Theoretical cycle time
= 1.5 min.
Processed amount
= 290 parts.
Rejects
= 6 parts.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Find

Availability,
Performance Efficiency,
Rate of Quality,
Overall Equipment Efficiency,

Based on our experience, the ideal


conditions are,
Availability
=> greater then 90 %.
Performance Efficiency => greater then 95%.
Rate of quality products => greater then 99%.

Therefore the ideal overall equipment


effectiveness should be.
0.9 x 0.95 x 0.99 x 100 =

85 +%

This figure is not just a remote goal. All the


PM prize winning companies have an
equipment effectiveness greater then 85%.