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Sir Umer Iqbal

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Mushtaq (273)
Kashif Iqbal
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Selected Personality

Biography Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


Umer (R.A.) was the son of Khattab.

He was initially a non-Muslim but converted
to Islam later. After his becoming Muslim,
he was given the title of Al-Farooq
meaning the one who distinguishes the
right from wrong. His conversion to Islam is
also one of the most remarkable events in
Islamic history.

Biography Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


Umer R.A. was born in Makkah.


fathers name was Khattab.


belonged to a middle class family.


Umer R.A. learned to read and write in his


was among the 20 people in Makkah almost

who can read and write.


was tall and physically powerful and soon

became a renowned wrestler.

History Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) started delivering

the message of islam, Umer opposed islam and
threatened to kill the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)


was most adamant and cruel in opposing

Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting the


was the first man who resolved that

Muhammad had to be murdered in order to finish

History Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


firmly believed in the unity of the

Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a
cause of division and discord among the


muslims could not delivering the

message of islam openly because of Umer
as he was against of Islam.

Intension To Kill Muhammed

S.A.W. & Acceptance Of Islam

On the way to murder Muhammed S.A.W.

Met with Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas.

Umer told him that he is going to kill Muhammed S.A.W.

Saad said that Banu Hashim will kill you in the revenge.

Hearing this, Umer took his sword in his hand and said I
will kill you first

Saad Bin Abi Waqas told him to set his own house in order
first, as his sister and her husband had converted to Islam.

Intension To Kill Muhammed

S.A.W. & Acceptance Of Islam

Umar was taken aback to learn this.

Umer found his sister and brother-in-law reciting the

verses of the Qur'an.

Started quarreling with his brother-in-law.

His sister came to rescue her husband.

Also started quarreling with her.

Yet still they kept on saying "you may kill us but we will
not give up Islam".

Intension To Kill Muhammed

S.A.W. & Acceptance Of Islam

Upon hearing these words.

Slapped his sister so hard.

She fell to the ground bleeding from her mouth.

Out of guilt he calmed down.

Asked his sister to give him what she was reciting.

Gave him the paper on which was written the verses of

the chapterTa-Ha.

Struck by the beauty of the verses.

Intension To Kill Muhammed

S.A.W. & Acceptance Of Islam

Asked his sister and brother in law to take him in front of

the Holy Prophet.

Hazrat Khabbab R.A. came out and congratulate Umer.

He then went to Muhammad with the same sword he

intended to kill him with.

Converted in front of the Holy Prophet P.B.U.H. and his


Earn The Title Of FAROOQ

Umer was 27 when he became Muslim.Following his

conversion, Umer went to inform the chief of Quraish,
Amr ibn Hishm, about his new faith. According to one
account, Umer thereafter openly prayed at the Kaaba as
the Quraish chiefs, Amr ibn Hishm and Abu Sufyan ibn
Harb, reportedly watched in anger.This further helped the
Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam openly. At
this stage Umer even challenged anyone who dared to
stop the Muslims from praying, although no one dared to
interfere with Umer when he was openly praying.

Earn The Title Of


Umers conversion to Islam gave power to the Muslims and the faith
in Makkha. It was after this that Muslims offered prayers openly in
Masjid al-Haram for the first time. Abdullah bin Masoud said:

Umar's embracing Islam was our victory, his migration to Medina was
our success and his reign a blessing from Allah, we didn't offer
prayers in Al-Haram Mosque until Umer accepted Islam, when he
accepted Islam Quraish were compelled to let us pray in the

All these things earned Umer the title of

who distinguishes truth from falsehood.

FAROOQ, meaning he

Migration To Madinah
Muslims usually migrated at night due to fear of Quraish's
resistance to that migration, but Umar is reported to have
migrated openly during the day time.

Hazrat Umer R.A came to the Kabah where the nobles of

Quraish were in the courtyard. He performed seven
circuits, and then prayed two rakaat at the Station (of
Ibrahim). Then he approached their circle one step at a
time and said,

"Whoever wishes to bereave his mother, orphan his

children and widow his wife then let him meet me behind
this valley.

Not one of them followed him.

Death of Muhammad

Hazrat Umer was full of grief upon hearing the news of

demise of Muhammad(SAW). Umer, the devoted disciple,
could not accept the reality that the "Messenger of God"
has died.

It is said that Hazrat Umer promised to strike the head of

any man who would say that Muhammad died.

At this point Abu Bakr is reported to have come out to the

Muslim community and gave his famous speech which

Death of Muhammad (SAW)


worshipped Muhammad, let them know that

Muhammad is dead, and whoever worshipped God, let
them know that God is alive and never dies.

Ab Bakr R.A. then recited these verses from the Qur'an:


S.A.W. is but a messenger; messengers (the

like of whom) have passed away before him. If, then, he
dies or is killed, will you turn back on your heel?

Hearing this, Umer R.A. then fell down on his knees in great
sense of sorrow and acceptance of the reality.

Khilaafat Of Hazrat Umer R.A.

AsCaliph Abu Bakr R.A. died, Umer R.A. assumed the

office of Caliphate.

Umer R.A. addressed the Muslims in his Inaugural address


O ye faithful! After Abu Bakr, the mantle of Caliphate has

fallen on my shoulders. I swear it before God that I never
coveted this office.

I assure you that I will not run away from my post. Allah
has examined me from you and you from me, In the
performance of my duties, I will seek guidance from the
Holy Book, and will follow the examples set by the Holy
Prophet and Abu Bakr.

Historic words of Umer R.A.

The following are the historic words of Umer, over which

he laid foundation of his rule:


God, he that is weakest among you shall

be in my eye the strongest, until I have
vindicated for him his rights; he that is
strongest I will treat as the weakest, until
he complies with the law.

Initial Challenges

The first challenge for Umer was to win out his subjects
and members of Majlis al Shura.

On Friday prayers Umer addressed the people as follows:

Brethren, it has come to my notice that the people are

afraid of me... they say that he (Umer) has become the
Caliph now, God knows how hard he will be.

Whoever has said this is not wrong in his assessment, know

this brethren that you will feel a change in me.

Initial Challenges

Umar's addresses greatly moved the people. Next time he

addressed the people as:

I will be harsh and stern against the aggressor, but I will

be a pillar of strength for the weak.

I will not calm down until I will put one cheek of a tyrant
on the ground and the other under my feet, and for the
poor and weak, I will put my cheek on the ground.

Initial Steps And Decisions

The people were soundly moved by Hazrat Umer's

speeches and his popularity grew rapidly and continuously
over the period of his reign.

In addition to this Umer, in order to improve his reputation

and relation with Banu Hashim, the tribe of Prophet
Muhammad and Hazrat Ali, delivered to him his disputed
estates in Khayber.

With necessary public support with him, Hazrat Umer took

a bold decision of retrieving Khalid ibn Walid from
supreme command on Roman front

This made Umer R.A. quite a popular leader.

Successive Achievements
& Leadership Of Umer R.A.

Umer R.A. is recognized for his discipline,

administration, and the conquests that took place
during his reign. During his reign, the Islamic
empire stretched to Persia, Rome and even
brought Egypt under the Islamic flag. During his
Khilaafat, he brought reforms and worked
extensively on the welfare of his subjects.

Conquest over Romans


the reign of Hazrat Abu Bakkar (RA) Muslim

army laid siege of Damascus. However, after his
passing away, when Hazrat Umar (RA) took the
charge, Muslim army under the leadership of
Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (RA) conquered Damascus.
The Governor of the city surrendered and a treaty
was signed.

Victory over Persians &

Jerusalem conquest

After several sieges and defeats at the hands of Persians,

Muslims at last achieved victory over Persians during the
reign of Hazrat Umar (RA). He had to send several
reinforcements to ensure that the Muslim army conquered
the army of Rustum.

In his reign, Muslims also conquered Jerusalem. The

Christians of the city decided to accept defeat against the
siege of Muslim army. The ruler of the city gave the keys
to Hazrat Umar (RA) personally, and a treaty was signed
that guaranteed the safety of citizens of the city.

Establishments In The
Khilaafat Of Hazrat Umer
Arabia was divided into R.A.
two provinces, Makah and Medina.

Iraq was divided into two provinces, Basra and Kufa.

In the upper reaches of the Tigris and the Euphrates,

Jazira was a province.

Syria was a province.

Umer divided Palestine in two provinces Elya (Jerusalem)

and Ramla.

Egypt was divided into two provinces, Upper Egypt and

Lower Egypt.

Persia was divided into three provinces, Khorasan,

Azarbaijan and Fars.

Establishments In The
Khilaafat Of Hazrat Umer
Umer R.A.was the first to
introduce the public ministry
system, where the records of officials and soldiers were
kept. He also kept a record system that had the messages
he sent to Governors and heads of states.

He was the first to appoint police forces to keep civil


He was the first to discipline the people when they

became disordered.

Reforms In The Khilaafat Of

Hazrat Umer R.A.

Hazrat Umer R.A. brought numerous reforms in the

governance during his reign. Some of the major reforms
introduced by Hazrat Umer R.A. are:

The establishment of Bait-ul-Maal (States treasury for

people) was one of his major achievements.

A proper Judicial system was established, where

Magistrates and Judges would have courts and would
decide on cases.

Army headquarters were established for protection of


Canals and roads were constructed.

Reforms In The Khilaafat Of

Hazrat Umer R.A.

The Imams, Teachers and Moazzins were given pay

in schools and Mosques.

Prisons and Police station were built.

The first Islamic Lunar calendar was established and

the Hijrah system was initiated.

Population census was made.

Welfare homes and orphanages were built.

Taraweeh, the night prayers during Ramadan, were

institutionalized during Umar's reign as Caliph.

Justice Of Hazrat Umer R.A.

Hazrat Umer R.A. had given such type of general

freedom of criticism and expression to the people
on his actions and orders that an ordinary person
didnt hesitate or reluctant to criticize or object on
khalifa itself.

Once a person said to Hazrat Umer R.A. many

times: OUmer, be afraid of Allah. A person
amongst the audience tried to stop that person.
Hazrat Umer R.A. said, No, let him say. If those
people will not say anything to me then what is the
use of those?

Justice Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


Hazrat Umer fell ill. It was suggested that

he be given honey as a cure, and there was no
honey at his home. A good stock of it, however,
was there in the Bait-ul-Maal. Hazrat Umer sough
the permission of the people in Masjid-i-Nabvi if
he could take a little bit of honey from there. One
express purpose behind seeking this open
permission was to let the people know what little
rights the caliph had in the use of public money.

Justice Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


the first lady, Um-e- Kulsum, sent some

perfume vials as a gift to the women of Kaiser of
Rome. They, out of goodwill, returned the bottles
of perfume, but filled with precious jewels.
Hazrat Umer heard about the exchange. He
ordered confiscation of the jewels, stating,
Perfume was yours, but the messenger used in
the process was a government employee. He
ordered that the jewels be deposited in Baitul
Maal, and his wife be compensated for the actual
value of the perfume.

Justice Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


a son of Hazrat Umro bin Al-Aas, the

conqueror of Egypt, beat a non-Muslim
without any reason. Hazrat Umer had that
respected son of Hazrat Umro bin Al Aas
thrashed publicly, stating, Since when did
you begin enslaving people whose mothers
had given birth to them as free?

Justice Of Hazrat Umer R.A.


one occasion he said from the pulpit, O

People, in case you ever find me tilting towards
worldliness; what will you do then? A man rose
from the gathering, drew his sword and said, You
will be beheaded with it. Hazrat Umer in order
to further test him, said, You, daring to say so to
me. He remained resolved and said, Yes, it will
be like this for you. Hazrat Umer then said,
Thank God. I have men like you who have the
courage to straighten me out if I ever I chose to
deviate from the right path.

Personal Life Of Hazrat Umer

R.A. As Khalifah

Simplicity and devotion were the main characters of

Umer R.A. He used to wear clothes that had many
patches and yet received Governors, convoys and

He took just enough allowance from the State to

have a simple meal and wear simple clothes. At
times he was very poor. He used to visit the old
people and sick and even do their house work.

He used to visit the houses of the soldiers and

inquire about their families.

He stayed awake at night in Salaah and often kept



A Persian non-Muslim, named Firoz and nicknamed

"Abu Lulu," complained to Umer R.A. about his
master, Mughirah bin Shuba R.A. who imposed tax
on him.

Hazrat Umer R.A. told Firoz that the tax was

reasonable. This made Firoz angry.

The next day, during the Fajr Salaah, he stabbed

Umer R.A. 6 times in the back, severely wounding
the Caliph.

Hazrat Umer R.A. passed away 3 days later in 23

A.H. He was 63 years old.

He ruled the 23Lakh square mile Islamic State for

10 years, 6 months and 4 days.

In short, Hazrat Umer (RA) is

the role model for every
Muslim. He was an epitome
of justice, principles, piety,
humility and character. He
performed all his roles
whether personal or
professional with due
diligence and not a single

Sayings of Prophet
Muhammad (s.a.w.) about
I see that devil either from humans or jinn, runs
away from
(Tirimzi) R.A.

I saw in a dream that I was given a bowl of milk

which I drunk and remaining I gave it to Umer.

No doubt, ALLAH has issue truth, on the tongue and

in the heart of Umer. (Tirimzi)

If someone else Prophet should have been proposed

by ALLAH after me, would have been



Umer bin

He Was The Same

Umer Bin Khattab
About Whom The
People Of Makkah
Said That The Dog Of
Khattab Can Accet
The Islam But The

May ALLAH Provide

Us With The Heart
To Live Life The
Way Hazrat Umer
R.A. Lived And
Become A Better