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MANAGEMENT

OF MNES/MNCS
ITALIAN STYLE

Group Profile:
Group Number : 12
ID

Name

B110202056

Md. Imran

B-110202
B-110202
B-110202
B-110202

Remarks

Contents

Overview of Italy
Religion and Language
Dress code and Food habit
Etiquettes and Customs
Cultural Dimensions
Business Etiquette and Protocol
Management Style
Negotiation tactics
Comparison with USA and Japan

Overview of Italy

Official name Italian Republic


Population About 58, 126, 212
Official Language Italian (German & French
in some regions)
Currency Euro (EUR)
Capital city Rome
GDP purchasing power parity about $1.821
trillion
GDP Per Capita purchasing power parity
about $31,000

An Overview of Italy
Italy is considered the birthplace of Western
civilization and a cultural superpower. Both
the internal and external facets of Western
culture were born on the Italian peninsula. The
famous elements of Italian culture are its art,
music, fashion, and iconic food. Italy was the
birthplace of opera. Italy is home to the
greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage
Sites (51) to date and according to one
estimate the country is home to half the
world's great art treasures

Religion

12% 4%1%

83%

Christians
Irreligious
Muslims
Others

Important Elements of Culture

Language

: Verbal
: Non-verbal

Religion
Values and Attitudes
Manners and Customers

Impact of Language

Verbal Language:
The official language of the country is Italian.
About 93 percent of the Italian population speaks
Italian as native language, according to the BBC.
There are a number of dialects of the language
spoken in the country, including Sardinian, Friulian,
Neapolitan, Sicilian, Ligurian, Piedmontese,
Venetian and Calabrian. Milanese is also spoken in
Milan. Other languages spoken by native Italians
include Albanian, Bavarian, Catalan, Cimbrian,
Corsican, Croatian, French, German, Greek,
Slovenian and Walser.

Non-verbal Language:
Various types of action to communicate with each other
with particular message, it is used in replacement of
speech or in parallel with spoken words.

-While meeting an Italian for the first time, be ready to


shake hands, but if they come at you be ready for an air
kiss
- The air kiss is simply pressing your cheek to someone
elses, starting with the right cheek and moving to the left
- lip contact is not necessary, but in very close
relationship its ok

Eye Contact
Italians are relies heavily on eye contact
Eye behavior is most often associated with the
understanding of deception.
Italians use eye contact to depict how honest
one is.
Intense direct eye contact is common, looking
away is a sign of disinterest and/or that you are
behaving rude.
Maintain eye contact while talking, it is
considered that you are hiding something if you
look away

Dress Etiquette

Dressing well is a priority in Italy.


Men wears dark coloured, conservative
business suits.
Women wears wear either business suits
or conservative dresses.
Elegant accessories are equally important
for men and women.
Fashions and fashion design are
trademarks of Italy.

Business Dress Code :

Traditional Dress Code

Food Habits

Italians typically eat three meals on an average


day: breakfast (colazione), lunch (desinare), and
dinner (cena). Breakfast is usually a quick affair
consisting of espresso or cappuccino and a
croissant (briosce) or cookies (biscotti).
Lunch is the main meal of the day in Italy,
though on weekdays its likely to have fewer
course than on Sundays and to be somewhat
more rushed, though whats hurried for the
Italians may seem downright leisurely to us.
Dinner is usually served late in the evening
after 7:00 or 8:00 and traditionally consists of
light items, such as salads, steamed vegetables,
cheese, and cold cuts, as well as meats, pastas
and desserts.

Public Holidays

Other Cultural Festivals :


Italy's interesting festivals include:

Venice Film Festivals - A glamorous event on Venice Lido, August/September

Taormina Film Fest - Events in the Greco-Roman theatre at Taormina, June

Buskers Festival - In Ferrara, October

Rome Cinema Festival - Competes with the more famous one in Venice,

autumn

Venice Biennale - Art and architecture exhibitions, in alternating years, June

to November

Mittelfest - Drama, music and dance in Cividale del Friuli, July

Greek drama in Sicily - Classical drama in the Greek theatre of Siracusa

(Syracuse), May-June

Meeting Etiquette:

Greetings are enthusiastic yet rather


formal.
The usual handshake with direct
eye contact and a smile suffices
between strangers.
Once a relationship develops, air-kissing on
both cheeks, starting with the left is often
added as well as a pat on the back between
men.
Wait until invited to move to a first name
basis.

Meeting Etiquette:

Wait until invited to move to a first name basis


Italians are guided by first impressions.
Many Italians use calling cards in social
situations. These are slightly larger than
traditional business cards and include the
person's name, address, title or academic
honors, and their telephone number.
If you are staying in Italy for an extended
period of time, it is a good idea to have calling
cards made. Never give your business card in
lieu of a calling card in a social situation.

Business Card

Business cards are exchanged


after the formal introduction.
To demonstrate proper respect for
the other person, look closely at their
business card before putting it in your
card holder.
It is a good idea to have one side of
your business card translated into Italian.
If you have a graduate degree, include it on your
business card.
Make sure your title is on your card. Italians like
knowing how you fit within your organization.

Dining Etiquette:
If invited to an Italian house:
If an invitation says the dress is informal, wear stylish
clothes that are still rather formal, i.e., jacket
and tie for men and an elegant dress for women.
Punctuality is not mandatory. You may arrive
between 15 minutes late if invited to dinner and up
to 30 minutes late if invited to a party.
If you are invited to a meal, bring gift-wrapped such
as wine or chocolates.
If you are invited for dinner and want to send flowers,
have them delivered that day.

Table manners:

Remain standing until invited to sit down.


You may
be shown to a particular seat.
Table manners are Continental -- the fork
is held in
the left hand and the knife in the right while eating.
Follow the lead of the hostess - she sits at the table first,
starts eating first, and is the first to get up at the end of
the meal.
The host gives the first toast.
An honored guest should return the toast later in the
meal.
Women may offer a toast.

Gift Giving Etiquette:


Do not give red flowers as they indicate

secrecy.

Do not give yellow flowers as they

indicate jealousy

If you bring wine, make sure it is a good vintage.

Quality, rather than quantity, is important.


Do not wrap gifts in black, as is traditionally a mourning

color.
Do not give chrysanthemums as they are used at funerals.

Do not wrap gifts in purple, as it is a symbol of bad luck.

Gifts are usually opened when received.

Hofstedes Cultural Dimension

Individualism

This dimension is the degree of interdependence a


society maintains among its members
In Individualist societies people are supposed to
look after themselves and their direct family only. In
Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Italy is an Individualist culture as it is me centred
For Italians having their own personal ideas and
objectives in life is very motivating and the route to
happiness is through personal fulfilment.

Power Distance

This dimension deals with the fact that all


individuals in societies are not equal
Italy tends to prefer equality and a
decentralisation of power and decisionmaking.
Control and formal supervision is
generally disliked among the younger
generation, who demonstrate a preference
for teamwork and an open management
style.

Masculinity

Masculine dimension indicates that the society will be


driven by competition, achievement and success. And
Feminine dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life.
Italy is a Masculine society highly success oriented
and driven
Children are taught from an early age that
competition is good and to be a winner is important in
ones life.
Italians show their success by acquiring status
symbols such as a beautiful car, a big house, a yacht
and travels to exotic countries.

Uncertainty Avoidance

The extent to which the members of a culture


feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown
situations and have created beliefs and
institutions that try to avoid these is referred as
Uncertainty Avoidance
Italy has a high level of Uncertainty Avoidance
which means that as a nation Italians are not
comfortable in ambiguous situations.
Formality in Italian society is important and the
Italian penal and civil code are complicated
with clauses, codicils etc.

Time Dimension

Long-term oriented.
Focus more on the near future and
therefore do not save or plan their future
too much.
Do not focus on investing.
Consider traditions to be very important.

Indulgence

Offers delightful small group tours in comfort


and style.
Travel to the iconic jewels as well as the out of
the way destinations, away from the beaten
path.
Use local guides in cities and towns who are
experts in their fields.
Cars are able to move around as the locals do.
Offer the best mix of culture, history, art, food
and wine experiences.

Religion in Italy
The major religion in Italy is Roman
Catholicism. This is not surprising, as
Vatican City, located in the heart of Rome,
is the hub of Roman Catholicism and where
the Pope resides. Roman Catholics make
up 90 percent of the population, though
only one-third of those are practicing
Catholics, while the other 10 percent is
composed of Protestant, Jewish and a
growing Muslim immigrant community

Family Values

The family is the centre of the social


structure and provides a stabilizing
influence for its members.
In the north, generally only the nuclear
family lives together; while in the south,
the extended family often resides
together in one house.
The family provides both emotional and
financial support to its members.

Etiquette & Customs in Italy

Greetings are enthusiastic yet rather formal. The


usual handshake with direct eye contact and a
smile suffices between strangers.
Wait until invited to move to a first name basis.
Italians are guided by first impressions, so it is
important to demonstrate propriety and respect
when greeting people, especially when meeting
them for the first time.
Once a relationship develops, air-kissing on both
cheeks, starting with the left is often added as
well as a pat on the back between men

Business Etiquette and Protocol in


Italy

Italians prefer to do business with people they know


and trust.
A third party introduction will go a long way in
providing an initial platform from which to work.
Italians much prefer face-to-face contact, so it is
important to spend time in Italy developing the
relationship.
Demeanour is important as Italians judge people on
appearances and the first impression you make will
be a lasting one. Italians are intuitive. Therefore,
make an effort to ensure that your Italians
colleagues like and trust you.

Business Etiquette and Protocol in


Italy

Networking can be an almost full-time occupation in


Italy. Personal contacts allow people to get ahead.
Take the time to ask questions about your business
colleagues family and personal interests, as this
helps build the relationship.
Italians are extremely expressive communicators.
They tend to be wordy, eloquent, emotional, and
demonstrative, often using facial and hand gestures
to prove their point.
Your business colleagues will be eager to know
something about you as a person before conducting
business with you.

Business Negotiation

In the north, people are direct, see time as money, and get
down to business after only a brief period of social talk.

In the south, people take a more leisurely approach to life


and want to get to know the people with whom they do
business.

Allow your Italian business colleagues to set the pace for


your negotiations. Follow their lead as to when it is
appropriate to move from social to business discussions.

Italians prefer to do business with high-ranking people.

Hierarchy is the cornerstone of Italian business. Italians


respect power and age.

Negotiations are often protracted.

Never use high-pressure sales tactics

Management of Italy

When managing in Italy, it is important to keep in


mind that each person has a very distinct role
within the organization, and maintaining that role
helps to keep order.
People believe that their supervisors have been
chosen because they have more experience and
greater knowledge than those they manage, and it
is, therefore, unnecessary, and even inappropriate
for them to consult with lower-ranking individuals
when decision-making.
Managing in Italy is very difficult for someone from
the Northern countries.

Management of Italy

Age is very important in Italy, and ones age determines


the relative degree of respect one should receive.

Some companies have a rather old board of directors,


and therefore still do business in the more traditional
way.

Companies with younger people in charge are often


much more flexible.
Because the Italians hold hierarchy in high regard,
employees are very loyal and have deep respect for their
superiors.

Their superiors expect results of very high quality and


are therefore not easily satisfied.

Therefore, it is not uncommon that the work has to be


double checked and improved before the superiors are
satisfied.

Planning in Italy
At the time of decision making, the manager
at first decides on whom the responsibility will
be imposed and then they do another job
regarding to the planning.
Who take
decision in
Italy ?
Decision
Making time

The Manager himself

Decision making time is very


slow

Implementatio
n time

Implementation time is very


fast

Organizing In Italy

Italian organizational functions were


massively developed in 1980s
They introduced new personnel policies
like merit-based promotion, incentive pay
and increase autonomy
Responsibilities for the manager were also
developed

Staffing in Italy

Italian organization recruit people for their


organization from employment agencies,
European employment service, private
agencies and executive recruitment
These agencies registered qualified people
and provide vacancy information and collect
the requirement of organization.
Ministero del Levoro e della Prevedenza
Sociale, ALI, Sinterim, Vedior, Eurointerim are
such type of employment agencies.

Controlling

Italy maintains the hierarchy in the


relationship in organization, so the lenders or
superiors control people.

Sub ordinates give respect to him and leaders


maintain paternalistic leadership style.
They distribute work responsibility to the
employee, motivate them as like a friend for
better and productive outcome.
If any one fails to provide better result he or she
must be demoted from the post.

Problem solving
Workplace conflicts are very common, there are very
few offices where all the employees get along. Because
of this, conflict resolution is a necessary component of
the workplace, and those in a leadership position must
be skilled in conflict resolution techniques. In that case
the conflict resolution techniques or problem solving
policies used by the Italians are described at below:
a)

Listen then speak out

b)

Gather group

c)

Be impartial

d)

Broadcast praise

e)

Promote team work

f)

Do not postpone conflict situation

Negotiation Tactics

Italians are sophisticated diplomats and negotiators.

Emphasizing the mutual benefit of a long-term


relationship may be the best way to ensure business
success.

Who one knows can be more important than what one


knows when doing business in Italy.

Italians generally expect and prefer to negotiate with


only the most important people and the people with
authority to make decisions in the company.

Negotiation Tactics

Dealings are generally formal affairs in Italy. Italians behave


and expect others to behave with decorum.

Honor and personal pride are critical to Italians and must never
be insulted.

Most decisions will not be made at the table but instead behind
closed doors by various people who may have to be consulted.

negotiations can be very slow and protracted affairs in Italy.

A known Italian tactic is to dramatically change demands at the


eleventh hour to unsettle or test the flexibility of their
counterparts. Remain firm

Negotiation Tactics

In the north, people are direct, see time as money, and get
down to business after only a brief period of social talk.

In the south, people take a more leisurely approach to life and


want to get to know the people with whom they do business.

Allow your Italian business colleagues to set the pace for your
negotiations. Follow their lead as to when it is appropriate to
move from social to business discussions.

Italians prefer to do business with high-ranking people.

Hierarchy is the cornerstone of Italian business. Italians


respect power and age.

Negotiation Tactics

Negotiations are often protracted.

Never use high-pressure sales tactics.

Always adhere to your verbal agreements. Failing to follow


through

on

commitment

will

destroy

business

relationship.

Heated debates and arguments often erupt in meetings. This


is simply a function of the free-flow of ideas.

Haggling over price and delivery date is common.

Decisions are often based more on how you are viewed by


the other party than on concrete business objectives.

Comparison with USA and Japan


Cultural Dimension Comparison

Dimensions

USA

Japan

Italy

Individualism

High

Low

High

Power Distance

Low

High

Medium

Masculinity

High

High

High

Uncertainty Avoidance

Low

High

High

Short term

Long term

Long term

Orientation

Comparison with USA and Japan


Management Practices Comparison

Topic

USA

Japan

Italy

Decision comes

At the top

Top to bottom
and to back

At the top

Decision made

Fast

Slow

Slow

Implementation

Slow and
requires

Fast and
comparatively
accurate

Fast

Responsible for
activities

Individual

Group

Individual

Comparison with USA and


Japan
Management Practices Comparison
Topic

USA

Japan

Italy

Clear and
specific

Ambiguous
responsibility

Little visible

Organization
structure

Formal and
bureaucratic

Informal

Strong
hierarchical

Organization
culture

Lack of common
organizational
culture

Well known
organizational
culture

Well known
organizational
culture and
philosophy

Identification

By profession

By company
rather than
occupation

By company

Very low

High

Medium

Clear the
responsibilities

Level of job
security

Thank You