Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 91

STRUCTURAL STEEL TRAINING

PROGRAMME

Prepared By:
K.Ramamurthy

Scope
The training program covers the
structural steel fabrication, testing &
erection requirements for Mild Steel,
Indian
standard
sections
and
Cylindrical welded water storage
tanks in various capacities.
The training will be specific for Rolled
plate sections used with various
welded & Bolted joints.

INTRODUCTION

Structural engineering is a field of engineering


dealing with the analysis and design of structures
that support or resist loads. Structural
engineering is usually considered a speciality
within civil engineering, but it can also be studied
in its own right. Structural engineers are most
commonly involved in the design of buildings and
large non building structures but they can also be
involved in the design of machinery,
medical equipment, vehicles or any item where
structural integrity affects the item's function or
safety. Structural engineers must ensure their
designs satisfy given design criteria, predicated
on safety (e.g. structures must not collapse
without due warning) or serviceability and
performance (e.g. building sway must not cause

Structural elements

A statically determinate simply supported beam, bending


under an evenly distributed load.
Any structure is essentially made up of only a small
number of different types of elements:
Columns
Beams
Plates
Arches
Shells

Columns
Columns are elements that carry only axial force - either tension or
compression - or both axial force and bending (which is technically called a
beam-column but practically, just a column). The design of a column must
check the axial capacity of the element, and the buckling capacity.

Beams
A beam may be defined as an element in which one dimension is
much greater than the other two and the applied loads are usually
normal to the main axis of the element. Beams and columns are
called line elements and are often represented by simple lines in
structural modeling.
cantilevered (supported at one end only with a fixed connection)
simply supported (supported vertically at each end; horizontally
on only one to withstand friction, and able to rotate at the
supports)
continuous (supported by three or more supports)
a combination of the above (ex. supported at one end and in the
middle)
Beams are elements which carry pure bending only. Bending
causes one part of the section of a beam (divided along its length)

A truss is a structure comprising two types of structural elements;


compression members and tension members (i.e. struts and ties).
Most trusses use gusset plates to connect intersecting elements.
Gusset plates are relatively flexible and minimize bending moments
at the connections, thus allowing the truss members to carry
primarily tension or compression.
Trusses are usually utilized in span large distances, where it would be
uneconomical to use solid beams.

Plates
Plates carry bending in two directions. A concrete flat slab is an
example of a plate. Plates are understood by using
continuum mechanics, but due to the complexity involved they are
most often designed using a codified empirical approach, or
computer analysis.
They can also be designed with yield line theory, where an
assumed collapse mechanism is analyzed to give an upper bound
on the collapse load (see Plasticity). This is rarely used in practice.

Shells
Shells derive their strength from their form, and carry
forces in compression in two directions. A dome is an
example of a shell. They can be designed by making a
hanging-chain model, which will act as a catenary in pure
tension, and inverting the form to achieve pure
compression.

Arches
Arches carry forces in compression in one direction only,
which is why it is appropriate to build arches out of
masonry. They are designed by ensuring that the line of
thrust of the force remains within the depth of the arch.

APPLICATIONS OF MILD STEEL :


Industrial Structures like Warehouses, Godowns,
etc
Industrial Plants like Power Plants, Cement Plants,
Refineries,
Chemical Plants
Bridges and Girders, Aircraft , Railways industries
etc.
Reinforcement rods including Mild Steel and High
Yield Strength
Deformed bars
Residential Buildings including Multistoried
Plates
Tubes
Nuts, Bolts and Rivets, etc

IN USE :

Greater flexibility
Limited no. of internal supports
Adaptability of frame work to change of use
Increasing effective life of building
Ease in dismantling or demolition

DIFFERENT FORMS OF STRUCTURAL STEEL :


Rolled sections like Beams, Channels, Angles, Plates
Flats, Rounds, Tubes
Built Up Sections made with Plates or combination
of Plates and
Rolled sections
Pre-Engineered and Prefabricated

FABRICATIO
N

What is inspection of Structural Steel


in the Fabrication Shop
Inspection of structural steel typically
address
material
traceability,
cutting,
beveling, drilling, fit-up, welding operation,
high strength fastener, Installation &
dimensional accuracy
throughout steel
fabrication.
Unless specified otherwise, The fabrication
Item shall be inspection at the place of
manufacture prior to despatch.

Material
Structural engineering depends on the
knowledge
of
materials
and
their
properties, in order to understand how
different materials support and resist
loads.
Generally the material for the structural
steel is used IS2062 / IS226 of grade A. &
B
The property of the structural steel of
above grade..\can
be referred to IS 808
metal.docx

The standard commonly used structural


steels are:
Carbon steels
A36 - structural shapes and plate
A53 - structural pipe and tubing
A500 - structural pipe and tubing
A501 - structural pipe and tubing
A529 - structural shapes and plate
High strength low alloy steels
A441 - structural shapes and plates
A572 - structural shapes and plates
A618 - structural pipe and tubing
A992 - W shapes beams only
A270 - structural shapes and plates
Corrosion resistant high strength low alloy
steels
A242 - structural shapes and plates
A588 - structural shapes and plates
Quenched and tempered alloy steels
A514 - structural shapes and plates

Joining of Structural Elements


The structural Elements are to be joined together ,
to form the required structural sections and the
architectural views.
The major joining process is done by
Welding.

Bolting and

The process of joining by Bolts will have to take the


Design forces as recommended or for the full
strength of the section.
The process of joint on weld will have the properties
similar or better than materials being joined

Structural engineering theory

Bolt
Connection

Figure of a bolt in shear stress. Top figure illustrates single


shear, bottom figure illustrates double shear.
Structural engineering depends upon a detailed
knowledge of loads, physics and materials to understand
and predict how structures support and resist self-weight
and imposed loads. To apply the knowledge successfully a
structural engineer will need a detailed knowledge of
mathematics and of relevant empirical and theoretical
design codes. He will also need to know about the
corrosion resistance of the materials and structures,
especially when those structures are exposed to the

General use of Codes in structural


steel works

IS 800 Code of practice for General Construction


steel
IS 803 Code of practice for Vertical Mild steel
cylindrical welded Storage tank
IS 808 Dimension for Hot Rolled Steel Sections
IS 816 Code of practice for use of Metal Arc
Welding for General Construction in Mild Steel
IS 817 Code of practice for training and testing of
metal arc welding
IS 822 Code of procedure for Inspection of welds
IS 1161 Steel tubes for structural purposes
IS 1239 Mild steel tubes tubular and other wrought
steel fittings

IS 1363 Hexagon Head Bolts, Screws and


Nuts,
IS 1367 Technical Supply Conditions for
Treaded Fasteners
IS 1852 Rolling & Cutting Tolerances for
Hot Rolled Steel Products
IS 3757 High Strength Structural Bolts
IS 4000 Code of practices for High
strength Structural Bolts
IS 7215 Tolerances for fabrication of
structural steel
IS 7318 Approval Test for welders when
Welding procedure approval is not required

Welding Connection

INTRODUCTION

What is welding?

Welding is a joining process in which metals, or sometimes


plastics melted and mixed to produce a joint with properties
similar or better than materials being joined.
The heat in welding may come from a flame , an electric arc.
Pressure may or may not be applied
Extra filler material may or may not be required (depending
upon the thickness of pieces being joined)
Metals can also be cut or separated by a flame or with an
electric arc.
Brazing is the joining of the metals with a filler metal having a
melting temperature above 450C but below the melting
point of base material
Soldering is the joining of the metals with a filler metal
having a melting temperature below 450C but below the
melting point of base material

Depending upon the heat source,


shielding method, filler wire type etc.

There are over 70 different


welding processes
Commonly used welding processes can
be divided into two categories based
upon the heat source.
Arc Welding
Gas Welding

ARC WELDING

MAIN ARC WELDING PROCESSES

Shielded Metal Arc Welding-SMAW


Gas Metal Arc Welding-GMAW
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding-GTAW
Flux Cored Arc Welding-FCAW

WELDING ELECTRODE
Covered Electrodes for Manual Metal ARC
Welding of Carbon Manganese steel

..\814.pdf

SELECTION OF WELDING ELECTRODES :


Electrodes shall be from Branded Company,
Absolutely Dry
Flux coating and Length shall be uniform
Validation of Electrodes upto one year max from date of
manufacturing
Welding Electrodes shall conform to IS 814 for Steel conforming IS
2062.
Welding Electrodes shall accompany manufacturers test Certificate
As far as possible only one brand of Electrodes shall be used for
particular
structure or component or during testing, at least three Vendors shall be
24

APPROVED BRANDS OF COMMONLY USED WELDING ELECTRODES :


ADVANI ORELIKON E 6010 (FOR PIPING), E6013, E 7018 (LOW
HYDROGEN)
ESAB E 6010, E 6013, E 7018 (LOW HYDROGEN)
D & H SCHERON E 6013, E 7018 (LOW HYDROGEN)
KOBE STEEL E 6013, E 7018 (LOW HYDROGEN)
E 6013 General use for Structural Steel Structures and Plates upto
thickness of 20 mm thick in all positions.
E 7018 Low Hydrogen Electrodes used in Heavy Structures and MS
Plates for thickness above 18 mm in all positions. These electrodes require
preheating in Oven prior to use. The advantage of using E 7018 is that it
produces uniform weld in all positions with less Slag but is expensive in
comparison to E 6012
25

WELDING QUALIFICATION
Code of practice
for training and Approval Test for
welders
when
testing of metal arc
Welding procedure
welding
approval
is
not
required
..\817.pdf

..\7318_2.pdf

TESTS ON WELDS :
Tests on Welds can be Classified under,
Destructive Test such as,
Visual Inspection for Fillet and Groove Welds
Root Bend Test for Groove Welds
Face Bend Test for Groove Welds
Nick Break Test for Fillet Welds
Non Destructive Test such as,
DP Test ( DYE PENETRANT ) for Fillet and groove Welds
Radiography Test , Tensile Strength etc. for Groove Welds
27

TYPES OF COMMON TESTS ON WELDS


Tension face

ROOT BEND TEST

Tension face

FACE BEND TEST

NICK BREAK TEST

Defects like Cracks , Slag Inclusions, Lack of Penetration


can be viewed in Radiography film

FILM LENGTH

RADIOGRAPHY TEST FILM FOR GROOVE WELD

28

40

WELDER QUALIFICATION TEST :

TP

TP

TP

TP

TP

TP

TP

TP

TP

TP

10
1.5 TO 2 MM

40

50MM DISCARD

300

600 TO 720

EQUAL PIECES

300

50MM DISCARD

Full Penetration Butt or Groove Weld


Weld to be stopped an restarted with fresh Electrode within
central 50 mm.
Root Weld 3.15 mm diameter Electrode
Final Weld 4 mm diameter Electrode
Test Pieces Face Bend, Root Bend, Tensile Strength, Radiography.

29

Welder Qualification Test is Mandatory and shall be conducted by


specialised personnel at site prior to start of any Structural Steel Welding
works.
Welders Qualification test shall be conducted as per IS 817.
The Welder shall perform test based on PQR ( Procedure Qualification
Record ).
The Welder to be tested shall be experienced with previous qualification
The Welder shall carry his previous Identity Card
The Welder shall be sound in health
Preferably the Welder shall be tested in 3 G position welding for
Structural building works and 5 G in case of Piping works
The Welder s Test piece after Welding shall be tested in laboratory and
WPQ (
Welder Performance Qualification Test Record ) shall be made .
30

In case Welder passes the test, the Welder shall be issued Identity Card

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF WELDING :


SRN
O

ADVANTAGES

LIMITATIONS

Most efficient way to join


metals

Manually applied, therefore


high labor cost.

Lowest-cost joining method

Need high energy causing


danger

Affords lighter weight through


better utilization of materials

Not convenient for


disassembly.

Joins all commercial metals

Defects are hard to detect at


joints.

Provides design flexibility


31

WELDERS IDENTITY CARD :


IDENTITY CARD FOR WELDER
PROJECT

BASE METAL

CLIENT

FILLER METAL

CONSULTANT

DIA / THK

CONTRACTOR

PROCESS

CONTRACT NO

POSITION

WELDERS
PHOTOGRAPH

WELDER NO
DATE OF QUALIFICATION
VALID UPTO

APPROVED BY

NAME OF WELDER
CONTRACTOR
NAME
SIGNATURE / DATE

ENGINEER

NAME
SIGNATURE / DATE
32

WELDER QUALIFICATION RECORD :


Position :
Plate Thickness :
Welding Electrode used :
Welding machine used :
Welding Electrode Diameter :
Root
Full -

Sr

Welde
Welde r
rs
Identi
name ficatio
n no

Visu
al
Insp
ectio
n

Date
of
Testi
ng

Radi
ogra
Destructive Test
phy
results
resul
ts

Rema
rk

Root Face Tensi


Bend Bend le

33

PRODUCTIVE NORMS :
SRNO ACTIVITY

PRODUCTIVE NORM

Fitter

1.50 MT Per day for 8 hours

SAW Welder

80 R/m Per day for 8 hours

SMAW Welder

10 R/m Per day for 8 hours including


Root and Full Weld

Gas Cutting

60 R/m per day for 8 hours

Driller

30 Drills per day for 8 hours

Rigger

1.50 MT per day for 8 hours

The Productivity Norms also depends upon the Structures i.e. Light or
Heavy and
the Site conditions.
34

POSITIONS IN WELDING :

FILLET
1F

2F

3F

4F

GROOVE

1G

5G

2G

PIPE IS ROTATED
DURING WELDING

3G

6G

4G

PIPE IS NOT ROTATED


DURING WELDING
35

WELDING SYMBOLS :
The Identification of weld like Type, Thickness of the Weld is always
indicated in
the drawings with an Symbol , the common symbols are,
6 Denotes 6 mm Fillet Weld on one Side
6

Denotes 6 mm Fillet Weld on both Side


Denotes Single V Butt Weld on one Side
Denotes Double V Butt Weld on both Side
Denotes Weld all round
36

6 300 (300)

Denotes 6 mm Fillet Weld on one Side


for length 300mm with gap of 300mm

6 300 (300)

Denotes 6 mm Fillet Weld on both Side


for length 300mm with gap of 300mm
Denotes Single Beveled Butt Weld on one Side

Denotes Double Beveled Butt Weld on both Side

Denotes Field or Site Weld

37

SIZE OF WELD :
Size of Weld is determined by Design depending on the Size of the
member and the intended loading,
The Size of weld is indicated in the Shop drawings, and is interpreted
by its throat thickness,

Z=a2
Z = Leg length
a = Throat thickness

In case of Submerged Arc Welding, the welding is done is


Concave profile. The Leg Length in case of Concave fillet weld
shall be more for specified Throat thickness.
Z
a
38

CONSTRUCTION :
Construction of Steel Structures are divided into two parts
namely,
Fabrication is a process of building Steel Structures which involves
Marking of
various Components and Elements as per the Shop Drawings, Cutting,
and
Welding ( either Tack welded or full welded ).
Erection is a process of Building the various fabricated materials to
form a
Structure as per the desired Design and Fabrication drawing.
Painting is optional which can be done either after fabrication or after
39
Erection

TYPICAL STRUCTURAL STEEL CONNECTIONS :

CLEAT ANGLE

SEAT ANGLE

CLEAT ANGLE

SEAT ANGLE

THE SIZE OF CLEAT ANGLE AND SIZE OF FILLET WELD SHALL


BE INDICATED IN THE SHOP DRAWING.
THE SEAT ANGLE AND CLEAT ANGLE SHALL BE WELDED
ALLROUND.
IN CASE ERECTION BOLTS ARE SHOWN , THE HOLES SHALL
40
ALSO BE PLUG WELDED AFTER ERECTION AND ALIGNMENT OF
THE BEAM.

JOINT

FLANGE SPLICE

WEB SPLICE

IF DESIGN SPECIFIES FULL STRENGTH BUTT WELD , THE JOINT


SHALL
BE WELDED AND GRINDED, PRIOR TO PROVIDING SPLICE PLATE.
THE SHOP DRAWING SHALL SPECIFY THE LOCATION OF
SPLICING
ACCORDING TO THE LOADING MEMBER.
THE SPLICE PLATE SHALL BE FILLET WELDED ALL ROUND AS
PER THE
SIZE OF THE WELD INDICATED IN SHOP DRAWING.
41

THE MAIN MEMBER SHALL BE IN FULL CONTACT WITH SPLICE

CLEAT ANGLE

BEAM

COLUMN

WELD LENGTH
ERECTION BOLTS
BRACING ANGLE
GUSSET PLATE
WELD LENGTH SHALL BE SPECIFIED IN THE SHOP
DRAWING. THE SIZE OF THE GUSSET SHALL
GOVERN
THE WELD LENGTH.

42

TYPICAL BUILT UP SECTION WITH MS PLATE AND ROLLED SECTIONS


MS PLATE

BEAM

MS PLATE

FILLET WELD

BEAM WITH
COVER PLATE

COVER PLATES

COVER PLATES

MS CHANNEL
43

TOOLS / TACKLES / EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED FOR FABRICATION :


Levelled Floor for marking the Structural component as per the
drawing
Marking pencil, Line thread, Right Angle, Scale, Plumb.
Punching tool
Measuring Tape
Gas Cutting Set
Welding Machine, Grinder, Drilling Machine
Hydra or small crane for local shifting
Small steel or wooden supports
Red Oxide Primer.
44

TOOLS / TACKLES / EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED FOR ERECTION :


Hydra or Crane for shifting fabricated materials to site of Erection
Positioning of the Equipment at the location of the Erection
Slings for lifting the fabricated component
D Shackles, U Clamps
Chain Pulley Blocks
Wooden Sleepers or steel supports
Hoochooks or Ratchets
Power Winch
Derrick
45

QUALITY ASSURANCE :
Specification of Steel material
Inspection of Steel Material
Transportation of material to Site
Stacking of materials
Cutting the materials to required dimensions as per the shop
fabrication drawings
Alignment of the members , Check for Fit up
Tack welding
Full Welding
Transportation of the fabricated materials to Erection site
Arranging various members as per the sequence
Erection of members
Welding of supports
Inspection of Erected members for its Alignment
Painting of Structure.

46

QUALITY CONTROL :
Structural Steel Fabrication and Inspection Record
Billing Control Chart for fabrication / Erection / Alignment of Structural
Steel
Field installation Checklist / Acceptance of Steel Structure
Release of Painting
Grouting Release
Welding Procedure Qualification Record
Welders Performance Qualification Test Record
Identity Card for Welders
Qualified Welders Log.

47

DEFECTS IN WELDS :
Craters
Splatters
Undercuts
Blowholes
Cracks
Slag Inclusions
The Defects in Welds are generally due to poor quality Electrodes,
Unqualified
Welders, Over / Low Current, Improper position, Welding speed,
Incorrect Polarity.
The remedial measures shall be taken accordingly depending on the
type of

48

VIDEO
Structural video\VID-201409
21-WA0000.mp4

VIDEO
Structural video\Structural Steel Co
nnections_(360p).mp4

ERECTION

Procedure for Supervision of


fabrication & Erection of
structural steel

Structural steel - R1.docx

Erection alignment
The steelwork shall be temporarily shop erected
complete or as arranged with the inspector so that
accuracy of fit may be checked before despatch. The
parts shall be shop assembled with sufficient numbers
of parallel drifts to bring and keep the parts in place.
In the case of parts drilled or punched, through steel
jigs with bushes resulting in all similar parts being
interchangeable, the steelwork may be shop erected
in such position as arranged with the inspector.

TOLERANCE
Tolerances for fabrication of steel structures
shall
conform to IS : 72 15 , Specification or agreed
between the approval of quality procedure.
Tolerances for erection of steel structures
shall
conform to the general guidance or
Specification requirement.

Plant and Equipment


The suitability and capacity of all plant and
equipment used for erection shall be to the
satisfaction of the engineer.
All Lifting equipments should have Min.1.5 times the
capacity of the Item to be lifted. The load test should
be checked on this equipment.
Storing and Handling
All structural steel should be so stored and handled
at the site that the members are not subjected to
excessive stresses and damage.
Setting Out
The positioning and levelling of all steelwork, the
plumbing of stanchions and the placing of every part
of the structure with accuracy shall be in accordance
with the approved drawings/Specification and to the
satisfaction of the engineer.

During erection, the steelwork shall be securely


bolted or otherwise fastened and, when
necessary, temporarily braced to provide for all
load to be carried by the structure during
erection, including those due to erection
equipment and its operation.
ASSEMBLY
The component parts shall be assembled and
aligned in such a manner that they are neither
twisted nor otherwise damaged, and shall be
so prepared that the specified cambers, if any,
provided.

Field Connections
Field bolting - Field bolting shall be carried
out with the same care as required for shop
bolting.
Field welding - All field assembly and
welding shall be executed in accordance
with the requirements for shop fabrication
excepting such as manifestly apply to shop
conditions only.
Where the steel has been delivered painted,
the paint shall be removed before field
welding, for a distance of at least 50 mm on

CRANE GIRDER
In case of crane runway girder the maximum- vertical
deflection under dead and imposed loads shall not exceed
the following:
Refer IS Code: 800 1984 clause - 3.13.1.3 Page: 35.
Limiting Horizontal deflection for structural steel should
not exceed to clause No 3.13.2 Page No.35 of IS 800 1984.
Following Points should be noted during erection:
The joint between Girders should be at same level
The Expansion joint should be as per approved detail
drawing, No deviation should be accepted
The center line deviation of the Girder should not exceed
the thickness of web plate or as per requirement of the
Crane vendor
Walkway between CG & Structural Column should be min.

PEB STRUCTURAL
ERECTION
PEB Erection Guide

TESTING

Welding
Inspection:

Visual & NDT

Visual Inspection
Fit Up:
The Welding joint to
releasing for welding.

be

checked

before

After welding the weld should be Inspected for


defects like Undercut, blow holes, porosity,
fusion of the material, Spatter, Etc,.
The defects to be identify and rectification to
be carried out under the instruction of the
Inspector.

Inspection through NDT


DP TEST
RADIO GRAPHY TEST
ULTRASONIC TEST
MAGNETIC TEST

TESTS ON WELDS :
Tests on Welds can be Classified under,
Destructive Test such as,
Visual Inspection for Fillet and Groove Welds
Root Bend Test for Groove Welds
Face Bend Test for Groove Welds
Nick Break Test for Fillet Welds
Non Destructive Test such as,
DP Test ( DYE PENETRANT ) for Fillet and groove Welds
Radiography Test , Tensile Strength etc. for Groove Welds
64

Welding
Defects

UNDERCUT

POROSITY

INCOMPLETE FUSION

OVERLAP

UNDERFILL

SPATTER

EXCESSIVE CONVEXITY

EXCESSIVE CONCAVITY

EXCESSIVE WELD
REINFORCEMENT

INCOMPLETE PENETRATION
&
EXCESSIVE PENETRATION

UNACCEPTABLE WELD PROFILES

Safety

Targets and Goals Important SHE Targets and Goals:

Zero recordable injuries


Zero reportable environmental incidents
All personnel inducted in SHE matters
Total compliance of conducting SHE Inspections and
Audits
100% incident recording and reporting
100% PPE compliance
Executing work with least disturbance to the
environment in general and the neighbourhood in
particular.

Compliance
Compliance to the following is mandatory:
Memorandum of Understanding
Employers Policy and Management System
The work to be done in accordance with
Employers SHE
Policy and Management systems.
Indian Statutory requirements
International standards, Guidelines & ISO

SHE Policy & Plan Develop of SHE Policy, approved by TCE:


1. SHE Policy, SHE Organization
2. Name and experience of management persons and their
responsibilities.
3. Number of SHE Staff
4. Procedure for identifying and estimating hazards and its
measures.
5. Proposed SHE Training courses
6. Description of emergency drills
7. Details and specifications of Safety Equipment and PPE
8. Statement of policy and procedures regarding Safe
maintenance and operation of Equipment
9. Statement of policy and procedures for ensuring that subcontractors comply with contractors safety plan.
10.Disciplinary procedure for SHE related matters
11.Procedure for reporting and investigation of accidents,
dangerous occurrences or occupational illnesses.
12.Any changes in the SHE Policy / plan to be intimated and
procedure to be written for implementation.

Introduction:
Unlike in any other type of engineering industry, civil
woks involving building and construction where so
many

different

works

are

carried

out,

is

accountable for a much high number of accidents;


Most of these accidents is either due to crossfunctional
multiply

or
the

consequent
damage;

simultaneous
potential

accidents

of

activities,
hazards,

involving

which

risk,

injury

and

and/or

Employment

being

temporary,

prominently

frequent

change

transient
of

or

manpower

compounds the problems;


It

is

therefore

highly

difficult

to

impart

safety

knowledge and training and continue with the same


trained

workforce

till

the

completion

of

the

contract;
However, the laws require making the worker and
environment safe. This can be achieved only by
making the worker, his supervisor, manager and

SAFETY IN FABRICATION :
The power supply to all Electrical Equipment and Hand Tools shall only
be through adequately rated ELCB.
Power Cables and Welding Cables used in the fabrication shop should
preferably be without any joint.
Temporary lifting lugs welded with any member should have adequate
strength and weld length to cater to the load.
Periodical checks shall be carried out to ensure good condition of
electrode holders, hand-held tools like Grinders, Drill, Oxy-Acetylene gas
regulators, Cutting torches and gas hoses etc.
House Keeping in Fabrication Yard
Area should be sufficiently illuminated during Fabrication at Night
hours.
Identification and Location of Scrap Yard

83

SAFETY IN ERECTION :
Ensure proper slinging of the member to avoid sliding / jerking of the
load during erection.
Avoid all erection activities during rains, heavy wind and night hours.
Structural members like Columns, Trusses, Lattice Girders etc. shall
be provided with adequate number of guy ropes to hold them till
alignment and final bolting / welding is completed.
Check adequacy of erection cleats ( especially if not shown on
drawings ).
Ensure that erection bolts are reasonably tight and not kept loose.
Cordon off the erection area / s to restrict the movement of
unauthorised persons.
Ensure the Crane used for erection is Load tested to lift the required
Member.

84

SAFETY

Electrical hazards - Power sources and installation


HAZARDS

Welding installations
When the welding circuit is connected, the following guidelines
should be adopted:
the connection between the power source and the work piece
should be as direct as practicable
use insulated cables and connection devices of adequate
current-carrying capacity. The current for electric arc welding
must not exceed 300 Amps on a hand welding operation.
extraneous conductive parts should not be used as part of
the welding return circuit unless part of the work piece itself
the current return clamp should be as near to the welding arc
as possible.
All welding grounds and returns should be securely attached
to the work by cable lugs/ clamps/ bolts/ strip conductors.

GAS WELDING/CUTTING
OXYGEN CYLINDERS

Oxygen is stored within cylinders of various sizes


and pressures
ranging from 2000- 2640 PSI.
(Pounds Per square inch)
Oxygen cylinders are forged from solid armor plate
steel. No part of the cylinder may be less than 1/4
thick.
Cylinders are then tested to over 3,300 PSI using a
(NDE) hydrostatic pressure test.
Cylinders are regularly re-tested using hydrostatic
(NDE) while in service
Cylinders are regularly chemically cleaned and
annealed to relieve jobsite
stresses created by

ACETYLENE CYLINDERS
WELDING/CUTTING
Acetylene is stored in cylinders specially designed
for this purpose only.
Acetylene is extremely unstable in its pure form at
pressure above 15 PSI (Pounds per Square Inch)
Acetone is also present within the cylinder to
stabilize the acetylene.
Acetylene cylinders should always be stored in the
upright position to prevent the acetone form
escaping thus causing the acetylene to become
unstable
HEIGHT SAFETY .

COMPRESSED GASES HAZARDS

HOW TO USE CYLINDERS


Gas cylinders in use must be kept upright on a custom-built stand or
trolley fitted with a bracket. The metal cap shall be kept in place to protect
the valve when the cylinder is not in use.
Use in a well-ventilated area to avoid gas accumulation.
Do not bring cylinders into a confined space to avoid inhaling the gas and
possible suffocation from the accumulation of flammable, toxic, or reactive
gases.
Read, understand, and follow all cylinder markings and labels to avoid
misuse.
Before connecting a regulator, stand to one side, and momentarily open
the valve and then close it immediately. This procedure, called cracking
the valve, is done to clear the valve of dust or dirt that could enter the
regulator.
Open valves slowly by hand to avoid gauge damage. If a specific tool is
required to open the valve, leave it in position so that the flow of gas can be
stopped quickly in an emergency.
Lift and move cylinders properly.

COMPRESSED GASES
HAZARDS

Close the gas cylinder valves when not in use such as during
breaks, lunch, or
end-of-shift to avoid leaks.
All gas cylinders must be fixed with pressure regulator and dial
gauges.
Avoid getting any oil or grease on the cylinders or
regulators/gauges,particularly those containing oxygen, to avoid
fire or explosion.

Our project goal is NO HARM TO HUMAN,


MACHINE AND ENVIRONMENT .

And we should remember that NO WORK IS SO


IMPORTANT WHICH WE CAN NOT PERFORM
SAFELY .

THANK YOU