Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 31

Mark M.

Davis
Janelle Heineke

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
INTEGRATING MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES
FIFTH EDITION

PowerPoint Presentation by
Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama
Copyright 2005, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CHAPTER

12

Facility Layouts

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook


The University of West Alabama
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
Introduce the various facility layouts that are used in
manufacturing and service operations.
Present a methodology for designing a process-oriented
layout.
Introduce the concept of takt time and its relationship to
the output capacity of a product-oriented layout.
Identify the steps and elements involved in balancing an
assembly line.
Discuss the current trends in facility layouts given todays
shorter product life cycles and the customers increasing
desire for customized products.
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Managerial Issues
Recognizing that many factors must be considered in
choosing how to layout a facility.
Understanding the significant impact that choosing a
particular type of layout has on the firms ability to
compete in the market and its long-term success.
Developing estimates of the investment costs of time and
money associated with installing a particular layout.
Attaining the goal of a smooth flow of material through the
process through the choice of a layout that is both
efficient and effective.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Types of Manufacturing Layouts

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Characteristics of a Good Layout

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.1

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Process Layout
Developing a manufacturing or services process
layout
Arrange departments consisting of similar or
identical processes in a way that optimizes their
relative placement,
Optimal placement involves placing
departments with large amounts of
interdepartmental traffic adjacent to one
another to minimize material handling costs.
For service process, the main objective is to
minimize customer and worker travel time
through the process.
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Interdepartmental Flow

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.2

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Building Dimensions and Departments

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.3

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Interdepartmental Flow Graph with


Number of Annual Movements

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.4

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Cost MatrixFirst Solution

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.5

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Revised Interdepartmental Flowchart*

*Only interdepartmental flow with effect on cost is depicted.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.6

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Cost MatrixSecond Solution

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.7

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Revised Building Layout

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.8

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Product Layout
Assembly Lines
A progressive paced assembly linked by some
sort of material handling device.

Assembly Line Type Differences


Material handling devices
Line configuration
Pacing (machine or human)
Product mix
Workstation characteristic
Length of line
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Illustrating Cycle Time and Throughput Time


on an Assembly Line

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.9

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Product Layout: Key Terms


Product Interval Time
The time between products being completed
(processed through) at a single station (process
step). Also, cycle time or takt time.

Product Duration (Throughput) Time.


The overall time required to entirely complete an
individual product.

Assembly Line Balancing


Assignment of tasks to workstations within a
given cycle time and with minimum idle worker
time.
Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Assembly Line Balancing Steps


1. Specify the sequential relationships among tasks using a
precedence diagram.
2. Determine the required takt (T) time.
3. Determine the theoretical minimum number of
workstations (Nt) required to satisfy the takt time
constraint.
4. Select a primary rule by which tasks are to be assigned
to workstations and a secondary rule to break ties.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Assembly Line Balancing Steps (contd)


5. Assign tasks, one at a time, to the first workstation until
the sum of the task times is equal to the takt time.
Continue assigning tasks to other workstations until all
tasks are assigned.
6. Evaluate the efficiency of the resulting assembly line.
7. If efficiency is unsatisfactory, rebalance the line using a
different decision rule in step 4.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Takt Time and Throughput Time


on an Assembly Line
Matching task time to takt time:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Split the task


Duplicate the station
Share the task
Use a more skilled worker
Work overtime
Redesign the product

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Assembly Line Balancing Formulas


Production time per day
Takt time (T)
Output per day (in units)

Sum of task times (S)


Number of workstations
Takt time (T)
Efficiency

Sum of task times (S)


Actual number of workstations (Na) Takt time (T)

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Assembly Steps and Times for Model J Wagon

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.10

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Precedence Graph for Model J Wagon

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.11

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Balance Made According to


Largest Number of Following Tasks Rule

*Denotes task arbitrarily selected where there is a tie between longest operation times.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.12A

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Precedence
Graph for Model
J Wagon

Efficiency Calculation

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.12 (contd)

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Efficiency Calculation

S
Efficiency
NT
195
Efficiency
0.77, or 77%
5 50.4

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

Exhibit 12.12 (contd)

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Flexible
Line Layouts
Exhibit 12.13
Source: Robert W. Hall, Attaining Manufacturing Excellence
(Homewood, IL: Dow JonesIrwin, 1987), p. 125.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Group Technology (Cellular) Layout


Benefits
Better human relations in small work teams.
Improved operator expertise from the limited
number of parts and quick production cycle.
Less work-in-process inventory and material
handling due to reduced number of production
stages.
Faster production setup from faster tooling
changes.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Group Technology (GT) Layout


Developing a GT Layout
Grouping parts into families that follow a
common sequence of steps.
Identifying dominant flow patterns of partsfamilies for location of processes.
Physically grouping machines and processes into
cells.

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Facilities Layout for Services


Goals of Service Facility Layouts
Minimize travel time for workers and customers
Maximize revenues from customers

Types of Service Layouts


Process layoutemergency rooms
Product layoutcafeteria line
Fixed-position layoutautomobile repair shop

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Facilities Layout for Services (contd)


Servicescape
The aspects of the physical surroundings in a
service operation that can affect a customers
perception of the service received.
Ambient conditions
Noise, lighting, and temperature

Spatial layout and functionality


Minimizing employee travel time and maximizing revenue
opportunities from customers

Signs, symbols, and artifacts


Objects that create positive images of the firm

Copyright 2005 The McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin