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Overview of the Caribbean

Tourism Sector:

Managing Tourism Resources


Mercedes Silva
Sustainable Tourism
Specialist
Adaptation to Climate Change in the
Caribbean
Tourism Sector Workshop
Grenada, May 27th, 2002

CTO Membership

Caribbean Map

CTO Caribbean Sub-Regions


OECS Countries
Anguilla
Antigua & Barbuda*
British Virgin Islands
Dominica*
Grenada *
Montserrat*
St Kitts and Nevis*
St. Lucia *
St Vincent and the Grenadines*

Dutch West Indies


Aruba
Bonaire
Curacao
Saba
St Eustatius
St Marteen

Other CARICOM
The Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Guyana
Jamaica
Trinidad and Tobago
Haiti
Suriname

Hispanic Caribbean
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Mexico: Cancun / Cozumel
Venezuela

Other Commonwealth
Bermuda
Cayman Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands

French West Indies


Guadeloupe
Martinique

US Caribbean
Puerto Rico
US Virgin Islands

* CARICOM

Benefits of Tourism
Foreign Exchange
Government
Revenue
Investment

Job Creation
Linkages to Other Sectors
Socio-Cultural Development

Visitor Expenditure in the


Caribbean
(US$ billion)
U
S
$

20

17

18
16

14

18

19

20

15

14

b
i
l
l
i
o
n

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Employment in Tourism
Industry
CTO conservatively estimates that
more than 900 thousand persons are
directly or indirectly employed in the
tourism industry (300 thousand in the
accommodation sector)

Importance of Tourism to Caribbean


Economies
Visitor Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP
Anguilla 75%
Cayman Islands 60%
St. Lucia
55%
Antigua & Barbuda
49%
Aruba 41%
Barbados
36%
St. Kitts & Nevis 31%
Grenada
28%
St. Vincent & Gdines 28%
Jamaica 25%

International & Caribbean


Visitor Arrivals
Region

Tourists (StayOver)
(million arrivals)

Cruise Passengers
(million bed days)

1989

2000

1989

2000

World

426.0

698.8

24.7

53.1

Caribbean

12.38

20.3

14.7

25.7

Share of
Cbean in
World
(%)

2.9

2.9

59.0

48.4

International & Caribbean


Tourist Arrivals
%
G
R
O
W
T
H
S
I
N
C
E
1
9
8
7

Growth
Performance 1987-2000
120
100

CARIBBEAN

80

60

WORLD

40

20

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

YEAR

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

International & Caribbean


Cruise Bed Days
%
G
R
O
W
T
H

350

Growth Performance 1991-2000

300

MEDITERRANEAN

250

200

S
I
N
C
E
1
9
8
9

150

WORLD

100

CARIBBEAN
50

1991

1993

1995

1996

1997

YEAR

1998

1999

2000

2001

Growth in Tourist Arrivals to the Caribbean and


Selected Sub-regions since 1991
All Caribbean
Hisp. Caribbean

140

Fr. Caribbean

Fr. Caribbean
CARICOM

120

US Caribbean
Dutch Caribbean

100

Hisp. Caribbean

% Growth

80

All Caribbean

60

40

CARICOM
US. Caribbean

20

Dutch Caribbean
0

-20

1990

1991

1992

Source : Caribbean Tourism Organization

1993

1994

1995
Year

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Tourist Arrivals to the


Caribbean by Sub Regions
2000
Other Carribean
36%

OECS
7%
US Territories
20%

Other C'wealth
5%
French W.I.
6%

Dutch W.I.
7%

Tourist Arrivals to the


Caribbean by Major Markets
2000p
Caribbean
7%
Europe
26%

Canada
6%

Other
11%

United States
50%

US Travel to Overseas
Destinations
Comparative Performance 1990 - 2000
95

All Overseas

85

Competition

Caribbean

75
65
55
45

Gulf
War

35
25
15
5
-51990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

-15
YEAR

Source USTIA

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Arrivals from Canada to the


Caribbean by Sub-region 2000p
C an adian T our is t A r r ivals t o
T he H is pan ic C ar ibbean - 2 0 0 0
p

Cancun
1 4%
FR E NC H U S T E R I T OR I E S
CARIBBE AN

Cuba
Dom

5%

48%

R ep

1%

38%

DUT C H C A RIB B E AN
4%

H I SP A N I C
C AR I B BE AN*
57%

C A R I C OM
32%

OT HE R C A R I B B E A N
1%
* E xcludes P uerto Rico

Average Annual Growth in Arrivals to the Caribbe


from Europe and by Sub Region 1993-2000 P
T OT A L E U R OP E

HI S P A NI C C A R I B B E A N

US T E R I T OR I E S

FR E N C H C A R I B B E A N
DUT C H C AR I B B E A N

C OM M ON W E A LT H

C 'B E A N

C A R I C OM

OE C S

(5 . 0)

0. 0

5. 0

10 . 0

P e r c e nt a ge

15 . 0

20 . 0

OECS
1%

Room Capacity in the


Caribbean

Other
52%

Dutch
6%
US Terr.
7%

300

250
198.6

Rooms
(000)

209.6

219.4

232.6

244.1

251.3

200
150
100

83.8

50
0

1980

1995

Other
C'wealth
27%

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

French
7%

Occupancy Rates in the


Caribbean (percent)
67

R
a
t
e
i
n
%

66
65
64
63
62
61
60

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Challenges to Caribbean
Tourism
Diminished economic growth in many of our
source market
Reduced profitability of airlines
More countries seriously adopting tourism as a
viable development option
Increased leisure travel options within our
major markets
Changing Consumer Patterns
Changing distribution systems

Challenges to Caribbean Tourism

Climate Change Issues


Sea Level Rise:

most tourism facilities are located in coastal areas

Global Temperature:
warmer winters in northern markets / changes in
tourism seasons.
warmer summers in the region / less attractive for
tourists.

Precipitation Patterns
Hurricanes
lost of infrastructure
affect region image as a safe destination

Todays Changing Consumer


New Standards of Expectation
less likely to be satisfied with sun, sea &
sand alone
more knowledgeable & independent
more environmentally conscious
more security-concerned
more likely to travel in family/groups

Challenges After September 11th


Safety and security the primary concern of
travelers both in terms of Air travel and
safety at the destination
Shorter booking window, reduced from
three months to as much as four weeks
Economic downturn..increased unemployment

Growing Competition - Product


higher levels of service outside Caribbean
freer cross-border travel (notably Europe)
huge growth in cruise ship inventory and cruising
destination
better scheduled airlift to other regions
Lack of investment and innovation in product
development in the region

Towards the Future


The Caribbean is perceived as a safe destination
in comparison to its major competitors in the
middle east and Asia.
Declines in September estimated at 19% are
leveling off and showing positive signals of
recovery.
Preliminary estimates suggest that arrivals to
the region in 2001, declined by 2% compared to
2000
Greater effort in marketing & research

Towards the Future

Sustainable Tourism
Approach
Efforts being made towards Sustainable
tourism initiatives inclusive of improved
product & human resource development
Natural Resource Protection
Carrying Capacity Assessments
Environmental and Financial Feasibility
Disaster Mitigation
Research and Education

Projected Growth in World &


Caribbean Tourism
millions
ch.
Caribbean
World
% share

1995
14.7
567.0
2.6%

2000
20.3
698.8
2.9%

ave.
annual
2010
%
28.4 4.6
937.0
3.0%

3.6

Mercedes Silva
Sustainable Tourism
Specialist
msilva@caribtourism.com
www.onecaribbean.org
www.doitcaribbean.com
Adaptation to Climate Change in the Caribbean
Tourism Sector Workshop
Grenada, May 27th, 2002