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SAILING- MODULE 1

Capt. Nowshad Jobair

AIM

Familiarization and working with Rhumb Line


Sailing and Great Circle Sailing

NJ

OBJECTIVES
You will be able to:
Calculate d.lat, d.long, departure,
course and distance using parallel,
plane and Mercator sailing methods.

State the principles of GC Sailing.

Calculate GC distance and Initial


course.
NJ

SAILING

Parallel Sailing
Sailing along a parallel of Latitude.
Course to be due East (090 T) or due West
(270 T)
Causes change in Dlong but no change in
Dlat
Departure is Distance along a parallel of
Latitude, measured in NM

Dep = DLong x Cos Lat


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SAILING

Example Parallel Sailing (Ch 2 Pg 2)


A ship leaves position Lat. 37 28 N
Long. 47 28 E and steers 090 T at 12 knots
for 8 hours. Find the position reached.

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SAILING

Departure

Position Lat. 37 28 N
Long. 47 28 E
Distance = Speed x Time = 12 x 8 = 96 miles
Departure, Distance in NM
DLat

= Nil as course is EAST

Dlong

=
=

120.95
2 01.0 E

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SAILING

Initial Lat
DLat
Final Lat

37 28.0 N
Long.
0
DLong
37 28.0 N
Long.

47 28.0 E
2 01.0 E
49 29.0 E

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SAILING

Example Parallel Sailing (Ch 2 Pg 2)


Find the course and distance from
Lat. 53 42 N Long. 178 27 W
to Lat. 53 42 N Long. 179 53 E.

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SAILING

Initial Lat
Arr.
Lat
DLat

53 42.0 N
Long.
178 27.0 W
53 42.0 N
179 53.0 E
0
D Long.
1 40.0 W
x 60
100.0

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SAILING

Vessel proceeding along same latitude in Westerly


direction, hence course is 270 (T)
Distance = Dep = Dlong x Cos Lat
= 100.0 x Cos 53 42.0
= 59.2
Course 270 (T) and distance 59.2

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SAILING

Plane

Sailing (Ch 2 page 4)


Dep

DLat

Always draw
course from
N/S Line

Sin Co =

Cos Co

Tan Co

Depurture = Dlong x Cos Mean Lat


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SAILING

Example Plane Sailing (Ch 2 pg 4)


Find course and distance from
Lat. 27 28 N Long 47 02 W
to Lat. 24 53 N Long. 49 16 W.

DLat

Always draw
course from
N/S Line

Dep
NJ

SAILING

From Lat
27 28.0 N
Long
47 02.0 W
Lat24 53.0 N
Long
49 16.0 W
DLat 2 35.0 S
DLong 2 14.0 W
x 60
x 60
.
155.0 S
134.0 W

Dlat = 1 17.5 S
Mean Lat = Initial Lat + Dlat
= 27 28.0 N + 1 17.5 S
= 26 10.5 N

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SAILING

Dep

= DLong x Cos Mean Lat


= 134.0 x Cos 26 10.5 = 120.3

Tan Course = Dep/ DLat = 120.3/ 155.0 = 0.77613


Hence Course = S 37.8 W (37.81608)
= 217.8 (T)
Distance =

= 196.2

Ans: Course 217.8 (T), Dist 196.2


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SAILING

Example Mercator Sailing (Ch 2 Pg 12)


Find by Mercator Sailing the True Course and
distance from
A in Lat. 38 41 N Long. 32 54 W to
B in Lat. 49 50 N Long. 5 14 W

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SAILING

MP

Long.
2505.90
032 54.0 W
3441.05
005 14.0 W
DMP 935.15 DLong 27 40.0 E
x 60
1660.0 E

Di
sta
nc
e

Co

ur
se

DLong

DMP

Lat.
38 41.0 N
49 50.0 N
DLat 11 09.0 N
x 60
669.0 N

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SAILING

Tan

Course = DLong / DMP


= 1660.0 / 935.15 = 1.77512

Hence Course = N 60.6 E (60.60555)


= 060.6 (T)
Distance =

= 1363.0

Ans: Course 060.6 (T), Dist 1363.0

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SAILING

Rhumb Line Sailing


1. Parallel Sailing
2. Plane Sailing
3. Mercator Sailing
Degrees must be converted to minutes

Great Circle Sailing


Work with degrees, Not Minutes

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SAILING

Properties of a Spherical Triangle:

The shortest distance between two places on the


earths surface is the Great Circle Track.
Great circles appear as straight lines on Gnomonic
Charts.
The plane of the G.C. passes through the earths
centre.
The equator is a great circle.
Great circles cross the equator at two points 180 of
longitude apart.
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North Elevated Pole:

PA = 90 Lat A

P
D.Lo
ng

PB = 90 Lat B
B

A
Equator
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(ii)

North Elevated Pole:


P

PA = 90 Lat A
A

D.Lo
ng
PB = 90 +
Lat B
Equato
r
B

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(iii

North Elevated Pole:

PA = 90 +
Lat A

P
D.Lo
ng

PB = 90 Lat B
B

Equator

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South Elevated Pole:


Equato
r

B
PA = 90 Lat A
D.Lo
ng
P

PB = 90 Lat B

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South Elevated Pole:


B
Equator
A
PA = 90 Lat A

D.Lo
ng

PB = 90 +
Lat B

P
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South Elevated Pole:


A
Equator
B

PA = 90 +
Lat A
D.Lo
ng
P

PB = 90 Lat B

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Choose your preferred Elevated Pole:


1.
2.
3.

Stay in SAME hemisphere.


Work out 90 or 90+ Latitudes, depend on
Departure and Landfall positions.
If two positions are in different hemisphere,
one leg is 90-Lat and the other is 90+Lat

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SAILING

Great Circle Sailing (Ch 3 pg 7)


Find the great circle distance
from Wellington NZ (A)
to

Panama (B)

41 38 S
07 24 N

175 28 E
079 55 W

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SAILING

Calculate Dlong first:


Long A = 175 28E
Long B = 079 55W
D.Long = 255 23W
360
D.Long = 104 37E = Angle P

Using the South Pole in triangle APB, find PA & PB


PA = 90 - 41 38 S
PB = 90 + 7 24 N

=
=

48 22
97 24
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SAILING

A 41 38 S
B 07 24 N

175 28 E
079 55 W

B7 24
N
79 55
W

Equat
or

41 38
S
175 28
E

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SAILING

Cos AB = (Cos P x Sin PA x Sin PB)


+ (Cos PA x Cos PB)

Cos AB = (Cos 104 37 x Sin 48 22 x Sin 97 24 )


+ (Cos 48 22 x Cos 97 24)
= - 0.18704 0.08557
= - 0.27261
AB
= 105.81939 (AB in degrees and decimals)
= 105.81939 x 60 = 6349.2
(to convert into minutes as 1minute = 1nm)
Distance AB = 6349.2 nm
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Initial Course by Cosine Formula

This method is used to obtain the value of INTERIOR


angles within the Great Circle triangle.

Cos Angle required =


Cos Opposite side (Cos Adjacent side x Cos Adjacent side)
Sin Adjacent side x Sin Adjacent side

Or even simpler:

Cos Angle = Cos Opp (Cos Adjs)


Sin Adjs
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Therefore to obtain the Initial Course we require
Angle A:

Cos A = Cos PB ( Cos PA x Cos AB)


(Sin PA x Sin AB)

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SAILING

We have:
PA = 48 22
PB = 97 24
AB = 105.81939

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SAILING
To find Initial course:
Cos A = Cos PB ( Cos PA x Cos AB)
(Sin PA x Sin AB)
Cos A = Cos 9724 ( Cos 4822 x Cos 105.81939)
(Sin 4822 x Sin 105.81939)
Cos A = (-0.12880 - ( - 0.18111)) =
(0.71910)

0.07274

A = 85.82841
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SAILING
To Name Initial course:

f
o
n
o
i
t
Di r e c
DLong

Initial Course = S 85.8E


= 180 85.8
= 94.2 (T)

From
Wor the
Hem king
isph
e re
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SAILING
Initial course by ABC Method:
A= Tan Lat A
= Tan 4138.0 = 0.23181 S
Tan Dlong
Tan 10437.0
Named opposite to latitude A except when Dlong (P) is
between 90 and 270
B= Tan Lat B
= Tan 724.0
Sin Dlong
Sin 10437.0
Always named same as Lat B
C

= (A + / - B)

= 0.13422 N

= 0.09759 S
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SAILING

Tan Course =

1
(C x Cos Lat A)

13.70992

Course = S 85.8 E (85.82824)


Named East or West basis on Dlong
Initial Course = S 85.8 E
= 094.2 (T)

NJ

REVIEW
You are now able to:
Calculate d.lat, d.long, departure,
course and distance using parallel,
plane and Mercator sailing methods.

State the principles of GC Sailing.

Calculate GC distance and Initial


Course.
NJ

END

NJ