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Power and Political Behavior

Part II

Power and Political Behavior

Power Analysis: A Broader View
by Amitai

Types of Organizational Power:

1. Coercive power
2. Utilitarian power
3. Normative power
Power Analysis: A Broader View
by Amitai

Types of Membership in the


1. Alienative membership
2. Calculative membership
3. Moral membership
Alienative membership- members
have hostile, negative feelings about
being in the organization.
Calculative membership-
members weigh the benefits and
limitations of belonging to the
Moral membership- members have
such positive feelings about
organizational membership that they
are willing to deny their own needs.
Alternative Calculative Moral
Type of Power




Etzioni's Power Analysis

Symbols of Power
by Rosabeth Moss Kanter

Characteristics of Powerful People in Organization:

1. Ability to intercede for someone in trouble.
2. Ability to get placements for favored employees.
3. Exceeding budget limitations.
4. Procuring above-average rises for employees.
5. Getting items on the agenda at meetings.
6. Access to early information.
7. Top managers seek out their opinion.
Symbols of Powerlessness
by Rosabeth Moss Kanter

Powerlessness- a lack of power.

Symptoms of Powerlessness:
Overly close supervision
Inflexible adherence to the rules
Tendency to do the jobs themselves
rather than training their employees to do
Symbols of Power
by Michael

Unusual Symbols:

1.Office furnishings
2.Time power
3.Standing by
What is Politics?
The methods or tactics involved in managing a
state or government.

The management of a political party; the conduct

and contests of parties with reference to political
measures or the administration of public affairs;
the advancement of candidates to office; in a bad
sense, artful or dishonest management to secure
the success of political candidates or parties;
political trickery.

Intrigue or maneuvering within a political unit or

group in order to gain control or power.

Political Behavior- actions not

officially sanctioned by an
organization that are taken to
influence others in order to meet one’s
personal goals.

Power and Political Behavior

Organizational Politics- the use of
power and influence in organizations.

*Organizational Politics is not

necessarily negative; it is the use of
power and influence in

Power and Political Behavior

Politics is a controversial topic among
managers. Some managers take a
favorable view of political behavior; others
see it a detrimental to the organization.

Many organizational conditions encourage

political activity.

Unclear goals
Autocratic decision making
Ambiguous lines of authority
Scarce resources

Power and Political Behavior

The effects of political behavior in organizations
can be quite negative when the political
behavior is strategically undertaken to maximize

If people within the organization are competitively

pursuing selfish ends, they’re unlikely to be
attentive to the concerns of others.

The workplace can seem less helpful, more

threatening, and more unpredictable.

People focus on their own concerns rather than on

organizational goals.
Power and Political Behavior
Influence Tactics
Influence is the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior,
or feelings of another person.

Influence Tactics are used for impression management.

Impression Management- individuals use influence tactics

to control others’ impressions of them.

Image Building
Initiatives or project

Power and Political Behavior

Influence Tactics Used in
Managing Political Behavior in

Managing political behavior at work is important.

The perception of dysfunctional political behavior
can lead to dissatisfaction.
When employees perceive that there are dominant
interest groups or cliques at work, they are less
satisfied with pay and promotions. When they
believe that the organization’s reward practices
are influenced by who you know rather than how
well you perform, they are less satisfied.
Power and Political Behavior
On How Managers Prevent The Negative
Consequences Of Political Behavior

Open communication
Clear expectations about performance and
Participative decision-making practices
Workgroup cooperation
Effective management of scarce resources
Supportive organizational climate

Power and Political Behavior

Managing Up: Managing the Boss
Make Sure You Understand Your Boss And His Context,
His goals and objectives.
The pressures on him.
His strengths, weaknesses, blind spots.
His preferred work style.
Assess Your Needs, Including:
Your own strengths and weaknesses.
Your personal style.
Your predisposition toward dependence on authority figures.
Develop And Maintain A Relationship That:
Fits both your needs and styles.
Is characterized by mutual expectations.
Keeps your boss informed.
Is based on dependability and honesty.
Selectively uses your boss’s time and resources.

Power and Political Behavior

Sharing Power: Empowerment

Empowerment- sharing power within an


Empowerment is easy to advocate but difficult to

put into practice.

“Creating conditions for heightened motivation

through the development of a strong sense of
personal self-efficiency.”
Jay Conger
Power and Political Behavior
Jay Conger is recognized
throughout the world as
an expert on leadership,
training and development
of leaders and managers,
organizational change,
and boards of directors;
Senior Research Scientist
Jay Conger
Empowerment should begin with job content and
proceed to job context. Because the workforce
is so diverse, managers should recognize that
some employees are more ready for
empowerment than others. Managers must
diagnose situations and determine the degree
of empowerment to extend to employees.

The empowerment process also carries with it a

risk of failure. When you delegate responsibility
and authority, you must be prepared to allow
employees to fail; and failure is not something
most managers tolerate well.

Power and Political Behavior

Four Dimensions Comprise the Essence of Em


Power and Political Behavior

Four Dimensions Comprise the Essence of
Meaning is a fit between the work role and the
employee’s values and beliefs.

Competence is the belief that one has the

ability to do the job well.

Self-determination is having control over the

way one does his or her work.

Impact is the belief that one’s job makes a

difference within the organization.
Power and Political Behavior
Guidelines on How Leaders Can Empower
Managers should express confidence in employees
and set high performance expectations.

Managers should create opportunities for

employees to participate in decision-making.

Managers should remove bureaucratic constraints

that stifle autonomy.

Managers should set inspirational or meaningful


Power and Political Behavior

Point D Point E
Follow-up Mission Self-
Defining Management

Alternative Point C


Point A Point B
Identification No Discretion Task Setting

Problem Alternative Alternative Alternative Implementation/

Identification Development Evaluation Choice Follow-up

Decision-Making Authority over Job Context

Employee Empowerment Grid

No Discretion (Point A)
Represents the traditional, assembly-
line job:
• Highly routine and repetitive
• With no decision-making power

If these jobs have a demanding pace and

if workers have no discretion, distress will
Power and Political Behavior
Task Setting (Point B)
Is the essence of most
empowerment programs in
organizations today. In this case, the
worker is empowered to make decisions
about the best way to get the job done,
but has no decision responsibility for
the job context.

Power and Political Behavior

Participatory Empowerment (Point C)
Represents a situation that is typical of
autonomous work groups that have some
decision-making power over both job context.
Their job involvement is in problem
identification, developing alternatives, and
evaluating alternatives, but the actual choice of
alternatives is often beyond their power.
Participatory empowerment can lead to job
satisfaction and productivity.

Power and Political Behavior

Mission Defining (Point D)
Is an unusual case of
empowerment and is seldom seen.
Here, employees have power over
job context but not job content.

Power and Political Behavior

Self-Management (Point E)
Represents total decision-making
control over both job content and job
context. It is the ultimate expression
of trust.

Power and Political Behavior

Managerial Implications: Using Power
Use power in ethical ways.

Understand and use all the various types of power and


Seek jobs that allow you to develop your power skills.

Use power tempered by maturity and self-control.

Accept that influencing people as an important part of

the management job.

Power and Political Behavior

Thank You!!
Muchas Gratias!!
謝謝 你們 !!
ありがとう みんな ~ さ
ん !!