Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 29

Suggestion on How to Use

Industry Trainers are encouraged to use this


material in their sessions
Download both the PowerPoint file (.ppt) and script
file (.pdf)
Print the script file (.pdf) and read the script as you
view the PowerPoint presentation in the Slide
Show view. In this way you see the slides in large
format and have animation (if there is any)
Must have PowerPoint and Adobe Reader
application software on your system.

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Types of Overcurrent
&
Calculations

NEC Article 100 Definitions

Overcurrent
Any current in excess of the rated current of
equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. It may
result from overload, short circuit, or ground fault.

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

NEC Article 100 Definitions


Overload
Operation of equipment in excess of normal, full-load rating,
or of a conductor in excess of rated ampacity that, when it
persists for a sufficient length of time, would cause damage
or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or
ground fault, is not an overload.

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Normal Load

IL= VS / RT

IL

VS

Source

Load

IL
R

R
R

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Overload

VS

Source

IOL= VS / RT

Load

R
R

Within the normal path

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Short Circuit

VS

Source

ISC= VS / RT

Load

R
R

Out of the circuit


Outside the normal path

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Types of Faults

Bolted Faults
Arcing Faults

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Bolted
Short Circuit

Arcing
Fault

Current
Thru Air

B
2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Bolted Faults Various Types


480Y/277 V
3 / 4W
Solid Grd

A
B
C
N
Ground

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Bolted Faults Three Phase


A

480Y/277 V

3 / 4W
Solid Grd

C
N
Ground
Typically considered the worst
case or highest magnitude

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Bolted Faults Line to Line


A

480Y/277 V

3 / 4W
Solid Grd

C
N
Ground
87 % of the three phase
bolted fault

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Bolted Faults Line to


Ground
A

480Y/277 V

3 / 4W
Solid Grd

C
N
Ground
Typically much lower than 3 fault, but
can be > 3 fault near Xfmr terminals

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Arcing Faults Many Variables Effect Current &


Whether Sustainable
System Voltage
Gap spacing

Available 3 Short Circuit Amps


Amount of Copper Vaporized
Degree of Containment
Configuration of Equipment
Typically does not sustain on 208Y/120V
A

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Arcing Faults Progression


480Y/277 V
3 / 4W
Solid Grd

A
B
C
N
Ground

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Arcing Faults Three Phase


A

480Y/277 V

3 / 4W
Solid Grd

C
N
Ground
Can vary widely possibly up to
89% of 3 bolted fault

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Arcing Faults Line to Line


A

480Y/277 V

3 / 4W
Solid Grd

C
N
Ground
Can vary widely possibly up to
74% of 3 bolted fault

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Arcing Faults Line to


Ground
A

480Y/277 V

3 / 4W
Solid Grd

C
N
Ground
Can vary widely

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Arcing Faults Sustainability


480Y/277 V
3 / 4W
Solid Grd

A
B
C
N
Ground
Rule of thumb:
Arcing faults will typically not sustain
at less than 38% of 3 bolted fault

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

How do you know what the short-circuit current is


throughout a system?
and
What are some typical values

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Short Circuit Currents


Vary Depending on Many
Factors

Transformer Size & % Z


Voltage
Conductor Size & Length

MSB

M
2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Short Circuit Currents


Vary Depending on Many
Factors

60,000 A
60,000 A

MSB
40,000 A

18,000 A

27,000 A

9,000 A
M

M
2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Short Circuit Current Examples #1


500 KVA

1500 KVA

1500 KVA

5%Z

5% Z

5% Z

480/277V

480/277V

208/120V

500 KVA

1500 KVA

1500 KVA

1A

2%Z

2%Z

480/277V

480/277V
2A

2%Z
208/120V
3A
2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

How to Calculate Transformer


Secondary (assuming infinite primary)
Isca = (Xfmr FLA) x 100 / %Z
(increase result by 10% due to UL
tolerance for transformer impedances)

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Short Circuit Current Example #1 Answers


500 KVA

1500 KVA

1500 KVA

5%Z

5% Z

5% Z

480/277V

480/277V

208/120V

39,666 A

3 91,608 A

13,222 A

500 KVA

1A

1500 KVA

2%Z

2%Z

480/277V

480/277V

33,055 A

99,165 A

2A

1500 KVA
2%Z
208/120V
3A

229,020 A

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Short Circuit Current Example #2

208/120V

480/277V

480/277V

4 40,000 A.

5 40,000 A.

6 40,000 A.

50 ft # 1

4A

50 ft 250 kcm

5A

6A
2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Calculating Short Circuit


Currents
Utilize Point-to-Point Method
Steps 4, 5 & 6 for 3 Faults

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Short Circuit Current Example #2 Answers

208/120V

480/277V

480/277V

4 40,000 A.

5 40,000 A.

6 40,000 A.

50 ft # 1

4A

50 ft 250 kcm

5A
12,367 A.

6A
20,322 A.

28,818 A.
2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.

Summary / Questions / To
come
Overcurrent overloads, bolted faults, & arcing
faults
Fault currents can be determined through out
distribution system
Short circuit currents needed to assess I.R.,
Component Pro, Coordination, Arc Flash Hazards
& OCPD Selection

2001 Cooper Bussmann, Inc.