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ASD Wall Design for a Single

Story Masonry Building


W. Mark McGinley Ph.D, PE

Date July , 2015


PCA Work shop

Look at a Single Wythe


single story CMU Building
Example

Slide 2

Single Story Building - Ex1


Plan of Typical Big Box - single
story Flexible diaphragm
reinforced 8 CMU, Load
bearing and non loadbearing
walls.
Flex Diaphragm- High Seismic
Item
Roof Live Load
Roof Dead Load (including
joist weight)
8 CMU wall weight (grouted
at 2 OC)
8 CMU wall weight (fully
grouted)
Weight of Glass doors and
store front
4 brick wall weight
Door dead load
Wind Zone
Wind Exposure
Soil Site Class
Seismic S1
Seismic Ss

Value
20 psf
20 psf
60 psf
80 psf
10 psf
40 psf
5 psf
150 mph, Risk
Category II
C
D
0.47
1.50

Single Story Building Ex1 Elevations

South Wall Elevation

North Wall Elevation

West Wall Elevation

4
East Wall Elevation

Ex1 Loads
Roof Load: DL = 11,900 lb
LL = 11,500 lb
uplift = 31,700 lb

Ex1 Loads

Using loads
determine Critical P,
M and V at support
and at mid-height of
walls for all load
cases

Capacity of Wall Single Wythe


Reinforced
CMUs

TMS 402 Design Provisions


Two Rational Design Methods

Allowable Stress Design (ASD) stresses under


service level loads must be less than allowable
values.
Strength Design (SD) Capacities must be
greater than load effects under strength level
loads (ultimate levels).
Both methods can be applied to unreinforced or
reinforced masonry.
Today Address Reinforced ASD.
Slide 8

ASD Load Combinations IBC 2012


/ASCE 7-10

D +F
D + H+ F+L
D + H +F+(Lr or S or R)
D +H+F+0.75(L) + 0.75(Lr or S or R)
D +H+F+(0.6W or 0.7E)
D +H+F+0.75(0.6W) + 0.75L+0.75(Lr or S or R)
D +H+F+0.75(0.7E) + 0.75L+0.75(S)
0.6D +0.6W + H
0.6(D+F) +H + 0.7E
No increase for E or W any more with Stress
Recalibration Even with alternative load cases

ASD - Reinforced Masonry:


TMS 402 Section 8.3

Masonry in flexural tension is cracked


Reinforcing steel is needed to resist tension
Linear elastic theory
No minimum required steel area and As limited only
on special shear walls.
Wire joint reinforcement can be used as flexural
reinforcement
No unity interaction equation Combined loads
must used interaction diagram

Slide 10

Allowable Stresses for Steel


Reinforcement: TMS 402 Sec. 8.3.3.1

Tension

Grade 40 or 50
20,000 psi
Grade 60
32,000 psi
Wire joint reinforcement
30,000 psi

Compression

Only reinforcement that is laterally tied (Section 8.3.3.3)


can be used to resist compression
Allowable compressive stress = tensile values above

Slide 11

Allowable Axial Compressive


Capacity

For reinforced masonry, allowable compressive


capacity is expressed in terms of force rather than
stress
Maximum compressive stress in masonry from
axial load plus bending must not exceed 0.45fm
Axial compressive stress alone must not exceed
allowable axial stress from TMS 402 Section
8.2.4.1 (unreinforced Fa).

Slide 12

Allowable Axial Compressive


Capacity: TMS 402 Section 8.3.4.2.1

TMS 402 Equations (8- 21) and (8 - 22) define axial


force limits (ASD). Slenderness reduction
coefficients are identical to those used for
unreinforced masonry.
Allowable capacity is sum of capacity of masonry
plus compressive reinforcement

h
Pa (0.25 f An 0.65 Ast Fs ) 1

140r
'
m

70r
Pa (0.25 f An 0.65 Ast Fs )

h
'
m

h
99
for
r

h
for 99
r
Slide 13

TMS 402 Section 8.3.5 Shear in


Reinforced Masonry...

In design we generally:
Check if shear can be resisted entirely by
masonry. If not, increase cross section or,
Add shear reinforcement. Check shear stress.
If still no good, increase cross section.

Next slide shows changes from past code


edition!

Slide 14

Masonry shear stress:


TMS 402 Section 8.3.5

Shear stress is computed as:

V
fv
Anv

(8 - 24)

Allowable shear stresses

Fv Fvm Fvs g
(8 - 25)
10.75 for partially grouted shear walls, 1.0
otherwise.
g

Slide 15

Masonry Shear Stress:


TMS 402 Section 8.3.5

Allowable shear stresses limits:


M / Vd 0.25
v
Fv 3 f m' g

M / Vd 1
v
Fv 2 f m' g

(8 - 26)

(8 - 27)

Can linear interpolate between limits


2

M
g
Fv 5 2
3

Vd
v

Slide 16

Masonry Shear Walls:


TMS 402 Section 8.3.5.1.3

Allowable Shear Stress Resisted by the Masonry

Special Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls

Fv 1

M
4 1.75

4
Vd
v

P
f 0.25 , (8 - 29)
An
'
m

All other masonry

Fv 1

M
4 1.75

2
Vd v

P
f 0.25 , (8 - 28)
An
'
m

M/Vdv is positive and need not exceed 1.0.


Slide 17

Shear Design of Reinforced Masonry:


TMS 402 Section 8.3.5 - (continued)

If allowable shear stress in the masonry is


exceeded then:
design shear reinforcement using Equation 8-30
and add Fvs to Fvm

Av Fs d v
Fvs 0.5
Anv s

(8 - 30)

Shear reinforcement is placed parallel the direction of the


applied force at a maximum spacing of d/2 or 48 in.
One - third of Av is required perpendicular to the applied
force at a spacing of no more than 8 ft.
Slide 18

ASD Reinforced MasonrySingly Reinforced - FLEXURE


fm Fb

kd
jd

fv bdx

T
n = Es/Em and from equil.
Ms= Asfsjd (at the limit) = AsFsjd
Mm = bjkd2fm (at limit)= bjkd2Fb

fs/n Fs/n
k ( n ) 2 2( n ) n
j 1 k / 3
A
s
bd
19

ASD Interaction Diagrams- Flexural


Compression Members

To design reinforced walls under combined loading


must construct interaction diagram
stress is proportional to strain ; assume plane
sections remain plane ; vary stress ( stress )
gradient to maximum limits and position of neutral
axis and back calculate combinations of P and M
that would generate this stress distribution

20

Allowable Stress Interaction


Diagrams

Assume single reinforced


Out-of-plane flexure
Grout and masonry the same
Solid grouted
Steel in center

CL

21

ASD Interaction Diagrams Walls Singly Reinforced

allowable stress interaction diagram


Linear elastic theory tension in masonry it is
ignored- Plane sections remain plane
Limit combined compression stress to Fb = 0.45
Fm
P Pa
d usually = t/2 - ignore compression steel since
not tied.
22

Allowable Stress Interaction


Diagrams Walls - Singly Reinforced
Assume Stress gradient- Range A
All the Section in compression
Get equivalent force-couple about center
line
Pa= 0.5(fm1+fm2)An
beff

Ma= (fm1-fm2)/2 (S)

S = bd2/6

Note at limit fm1 and fm2 Fb (set fm1=Fb)


Note much of this is from Masonry Course Notes By Dan Abrams

Also Pa must less than Eq 8-21or 8-22


2
h
h
Pa (0.25 f An 0.65 Ast Fs ) 1
for 99
r
140r

'
m

70r

Pa (0.25 f m' An 0.65 Ast Fs )

for

h
99
r

23

Distribution of concentrated loads,


running bond: TMS 402 Section 5.1.3.1
Load

Load

Load

h/2

Effective Length

Effective Effective
Length Length

Slide 24

Distribution of concentrated loads,


running bond: TMS 402 Section 5.1.3.1
Load
1

Load
1

Effective
Length

Effective
Length

Slide 25

beff

Allowable Stress Interaction


Diagrams Walls - Singly Reinforced
Assume Stress gradient- Range B
Not All Section in compression- but no
tension in steel
Get equivalent force-couple about center
line
Pb = Cm = 0.5(fm1)tb
Mb= em x Cm
em =d-t/3 = t/2-t/3 =t(1/2-/3)
Note that t = kd
This is valid until steel goes into
tension
26
Set fm1 = Fb at limit

Allowable Stress Interaction


Diagrams Walls - Singly Reinforced
Assume Stress gradient- Range C
Section in compression- tension in steel
Get equivalent force-couple about center line
em =d-t/3 = t/2-t/3 =t(1/2-/3)
Cm = 0.5(fm1)tb
Pc = Cm Ts

& T= As x fs

beff

From similar triangles of the stress diagram


fs/n= ([d-t]/t)fm1
Mb= em x Cm Ts(d-t/2) note that d=t/2 usually so second term goes to zero
At limit fs = Fs and fm1 = Fb one or the other governs
Note that at = kd

fs/n

27

Effective compression width per


bar: TMS 402 Section 5.1.2

For running - bond masonry, or masonry with bond


beams spaced no more than 48 in. center to
center, the width of compression area per bar for
stress calculations shall not exceed the least of:

Center - to - center bar spacing


Six times the wall thickness (nominal)
72 in.

Slide 28

Allowable Stress Interaction


Diagrams Walls - Singly Reinforced
NO GOOD ABOVE P CUT OFF
Axial Load P

Capacity envelop letting fm1 = Fb

P cut off Eq 8-21 or 8-22

Range A

Range B
Can get a three point interaction
diagram easily
Most walls have low axial loads
Capacity
envelop letting
fs = Fs

Ms Mm

Range C
Capacity envelop letting fm1 = Fb

Moment M
29

West Wall Design for Out-ofPlane Loads

Guess at wall unit size Usually 8 CMU.

Create interaction diagram for wall.

No P-delta , or min. As, or max. As.

Guess at bar size location and spacing


can use max. Moment and assume steel
stress governs
Plot diagram and critical P &M values
If all load effects within capacity envelope
wall is OK.

30

Ex 1 Out-of-Plane Wall Design


Flexural Design of the Wall
Trial reinforcing steel:
D - .7E produces the maximum moment. Assume
d =7.63/2 = 3.81 in.
P = 3580 lb/ft M = 16,400 lb-in /ft
Assume j = 0.9
As = M / fsjd =
16,400 lb-in /(32,000 psi0.93.81 in.) = 0.15 in. 2/ft
Try a No. 5 bar @ 16 in. on center.
This provides As=0.232 in.2 /ft
Slide 31

Ex 1 Out-of-Plane Wall Design

Range C

Range B
Slide 32

Ex 1 Out-of-Plane Wall Design

fs/n [t/ ([d-t]) =fb

32000/16.11 [(3.81/ ([3.81-.1(3.81])

70r

Pa (0.25 f m' An 0.65 Ast Fs )

Fs = 32,000

70(2.2)

21x12

for

h
99
r

Pa (0.25) 2000)

P=221 0.23 x 32000


Cmas=0.5x0.1(3.81)(12)(221)
Mb= em x Cm Ts(d-t/2)
=(3.81-( 0.1 x 3.81/3)x32000x0.23

Slide 33

Ex 1 Out-of-Plane Wall Design

fb=Fb = 900

P=221 0.23 x 32000

= [d-t/ ([t]) nfb

Cmas=0.5x0.4(3.81)(12)(900)

6.11 [(3.81 -0(3.81/ (0.4(3.81])(900 x 16.11


Mb= em x Cm Ts(d-t/2)
=(3.81-( 0.1 x 3.81/3)x32000x0.23
Slide 34

Ex 1 Out-of-Plane Wall Design

Slide 35

Ex 1 Out-of-Plane Wall Design


ASD Interaction Diagram
8 in Wall, 21 ft high, #5 @ 16 in. Centered

Capacity
D + Lr
D + .6W:
D-.7E
D + 0.75 (.6)W + 0.75 Lr
D - 0.75 (0.7E)
0.6 D + .6W:
0.6 D +0.7 E:

Slide 36

Example Shear wall in a single story


Building Shear Wall Ex2
7

8
North Wall 2

North Wall 1

East Wall
West wall
22

VD1N2

East Wall 2

Diaphragm 1

North Wall 1

VD1N1

Plan of Typical Big


Box - single story
Flexible diaphragm

VD1E2

VD1E1

East
Wall 1

East Wall 1

West
Wall
West Wall

Diaphragm2
Diaphragm 2

See MDG for Load


determination and
distribution to shear
wall lines - Flex
Diaphragm SDCD
E

VD2S

South Wall

37
VD2W

VD2E1

VD2N1

Look at Shear Wall Design


To check wall segments under in
-plane loads must first
Distribute Load to Shear wall
lines Either by Trib. Width or
Rigid Diaphragm analysis.
Distribute Line load to each
segment w.r.t. relative rigidity.
38

Shear Wall Loads Distribution


Segments get load w.r.t. relative k
East Wall 2
1

160.8 kips
Diaphragm
Shear
due to
seismic

West Wall Elevation

East Wall Elevation

10

South Wall Elevation


North Wall 2

10

North Wall Elevation

39

Shear Wall Loads Distribution


Segments get load w.r.t relative k

For Cantilevered Shear wall segments

h'
h'
k c Em t 4 3
l w
l w
3

For Fixed-Fixed Shear wall segments

h'
h'
kc Emt 3
lw
lw
3

40

Shear Wall Load Distribution

41

Shear Wall Load Distribution

22
22
Ri 10 4
3

12
12
3

1.715
Vi 160.8

10.687
42
Segment 2 Designed in later Example

Design of Reinforced Masonry (ASD)


In Plane Loading (shear Walls)
Axial Force
V

43

ASD Design of Reinforced Masonry -In


Plane Loading (Shear Walls)

Still use interaction diagrams


Axial Load is still dealt with as out of
plane (M=0)
In plane load produces moment and thus
moment capacity is dealt with slightly
differently

44

P-M Diagrams ASD-In Plane

Initially assume fm = Fb and Neutral Axis

then same as out-of-plane but area and S are based


on Length = d and t = b use OOP equations in
Range A and B.
Adjust L as before until rebars start to go into
tension. Note that L = kd
Determine fsi from similar triangles & get Ti

Check extreme fsi Fs & fm Fb

Cm = L x b x Fb (or fm when fsn = Fs)

M capacity (about center)= (Ti x (di -L/2) + Cm


x(L/2 L/3))
45

Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls - ASD


Axial Force ~ 0
V

V= base shear

L
P

M = overturning moment
46

Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls - ASD


V

Flexure Only P = 0 on diagram

Multiple rebar locations

= over turning moment

V= base shear
P- self weight only ignore
47

Reinforced Masonry Shear Walls ASD


(P =0) Can use the singly reinforced equations
di location to centroid of each bar
Tension

fsn/N<= Fs/N

Compression

d* location centroid of all bars in tension

f*si/N

k*d*
fsi/N

fsi/N

fsi/N

fsi/N

fsi/N

fsi/N

fsi/N

fsi/N

Fs1/N
Fsc/N

Tsn= Fs As

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

Ti

T1

fm

Cm

V= base shear

M = over turning moment

48

Moment only ASD In Plane

To locate Neutral Axis Guess how many bars on


tension side As*

Find d* (centroid of tension bars) and *=As*/bd*

Get k* = ((*n)2 + 2*n)1/2 n*

Unless tied ignore compression in steel.

49

Moment only ASD In Plane

Check k* d* to ensure assume tension bars


correct iterate if not

Determine fsi from similar triangles and Ti

M capacity (about C)= (Ti x (di k*d*/3))

50

Shear Wall Example 3


Geometry:
typical wall element:
25 ft 4 in. total height
3 ft 4 in. parapet
24 ft length between
control joints
8 in. CMU grouted solid:
80 psf dead

VD

25-4

VP
22-0
12-8

fm = 1500 psi
24-0

51

Shear Wall Example 3


West Wall seismic load condition
Vdiaphragm= 25,800 lb acting 22 ft above foundation
Vpier = 8,100lb acting 12.7 ft above foundation
8 in. CMU grouted solid (maximum possible dead load)
Pbase = 80lb/ft2 x 25.3 ft x 24 ft = 48,6 00 lb
Vertical Seismic: Vpier = 0.2 SDSD = (-0.2 (1.11)(48,600 )=10,800 lb
ASD Load Combination 0.6 D + 0.7 E
P = 0.6 x 48,600 + 0.7 x-0.2 (1.11) (48,600 ) = 21,600lb
M = 0.6 x 0 + 0.7 x (25,800 lb x 22ft + 8,100lb x 12.7ft)
= 469,000lb-ft = 5,630,000 lb in.
V = 0.6 x 0 + 0.7 x (25,800 lb + 8,100 lb) = 23,700 lb
52

Shear Wall Example 3


#5 bar (typ)

24

24

Assume the rebar in the wall are as shown


Axial load is negligible ignore
- To simplify assume that only three end
bars are effective (only lap these to
foundation)
53

Shear Wall Example 3


For the 24 ft long wall panel between control joints subjected to in-plane loading, the flexural
depth is the wall length less the distance to the centroid of the vertical steel at the ends of the
wall.

d 12 in (24 ft 12 in / ft ) 12 in 276 in

We are using 3 #5 Bars but if needed an estimate of A can be


determined by assuming j = .9 and applied moment , M

s
Assume that j = 0.9 The required area of reinforcing steel can be calculated
as:

5,630,000 lb in
M
M
5
,
630
,
000
lb 2 in
M As Fs jd
As req 'd

0.944 in 2 2
Asreq

Fs jd 24,000 lb in 0.9 276


in 0.71in
Fs jd 32,000 psi 0.9 276in

Es
29000000
n

21.48 21.5
Em 900(1500)
54

Shear Wall Example 3


Try 3 No. 5 bars, As = 3 0.31 in.2 = 0.93 in.2

As
0.93 in 2

0.000442
bd 7.63 in 276 in

Calculate j and k:

n 21.5 0.000442 0.00950

k 2n n n 2 0.00950 (0.00950) 2 0.00950 0.129


2

k
0.129
j 1 1
0.957
3
3
You need to get the stress at the centroid based on the extreme bar fs=Fs

276-kd
x 32,000 31,476 psi Should get third bar stress then Moments but M
280 kd
M 0.93 in 2 31,476 lb in 2 0.957 276 in 7,732,000 lb in 5,630,000 lb in ok
Check Masonry Compression Stresses

Fb 0.45 f' m 0.45 1500 psi 675 psi

fb

M
5,630,000

157 psi 0675 psi


2
2
0.5 jkbd
0.5(0.957)0.129(7.63)(276)

55

Shear Wall Example 3


Check Shear Stress
Assume no shear reinforcing and
thus

Fv Fvm Fvs Fvm

M
1
Fvm
4 1.75

2
Vd

P
f 0.25
An
'
m

5,630,000
0
1
1500 0.25

4 1.75

2
An
23,700 ( 276 )

48.3 psi Fv (Conservatively) 2 f m' 2 1500 77.5 psi OK


56

Shear Wall Example 3


Check Shear Stress
Conservatively assume just face
shell bedded areas resist shear

V
23,700lb
fv

33.9 psi 48.3 psi OK


Anv
280(1.25)2

57

Shear Wall Design


So the Final Design can use the # 5 at the
ends of the wall ignoring any bars that will
likely be there for out-of-plane loading
#5 bar (typ)

24

24

Check Prescriptive Seismic Reinforcing


58

Requirements for Detailed Plain SWs


and SDC C: TMS 402 Section 7.3.2.3
roof connectors
@ 48 in. max oc

roof
diaphragm

#4 bar (min) within


16 in. of top of parapet
Top of Parapet

#4 bars around
openings
#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of
corners &
ends of walls

24 in. or 40 db
past opening

#4 bar (min) @
diaphragms
continuous
through control
joint
#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of
all control joints
control joint

#4 bars @ 10 ft oc

#4 bars @ 10 ft oc or W1.7 joint


reinforcement @ 16 in. oc
Slide 59

Seismic Design:
TMS 402 Chapter 7

Seismic Design Category D

Masonry that is part of the lateral force resisting


system must be reinforced so that v + h 0.002,
and v and h 0.0007
Type N mortar and masonry cement mortars are
prohibited in the seismic force resisting system
Shear walls must meet minimum prescriptive
requirements for reinforcement and connections
(special reinforced)
Other walls must meet minimum prescriptive
requirements for horizontal and vertical reinforcement

Slide 60

Requirements for Special Reinforced


Shear Walls: TMS 402 Section 7.3.2.6
roof connectors
@ 48 in. max oc

roof
diaphragm

#4 bar (min) within


16 in. of top of parapet
Top of Parapet

#4 bars around 24 in. or 40 db


openings
past opening
#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of
corners &
ends of walls

#4 bar (min) @
diaphragms
continuous
through control
joint
#4 bar (min)
within 8 in. of
all control joints
control joint

#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

#4 bars @ 4 ft oc

Slide 61

Seismic Design Categories E and


F: TMS 402 Section 7.4.5

Additional reinforcement requirements for masonry


not laid in running bond and used in
nonparticipating elements

Horizontal Reinforcement of at least 0.0015 Ag


Horizontal Reinforcement must be no more than 24 in.
oc.
Must be fully grouted and constructed of hollow open-end
units or two wythes of solid units

Slide 62