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NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

Objectives
At the end of the lesson students
can:
1. Identify the characteristics of normal
curve;
2. Compute for the value of the zscores; and
3. Interpret the results of the values
computed in response to the
problem computed

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
The distribution of some human abilities and
characteristics such as mental ability tends to follow
a certain specific shape called the normal
distribution.
When the distribution is normal, most of the
observations (about 68%) tend to converge at the
middle of the observation and the rest are distributed
to the left and right ends of the distribution.
The normal curve is bell-shaped.
In a normal distribution, the mean, median and mode
values are equal and coincide at one point when the
graph is drawn.

The Normal Curve

XX =
md=mo

The Standard Normal


Distribution
The normal curve is a graph of:
y=

1
e (1/2 )z
2
where: z is the z-score
the population standard
deviation
Population standard deviation formula:
N = (x

Properties of the Theoretical Normal


Distribution
1. A normal distribution curve is bell-shaped.
2. The mean, median and mode are equal and are
located at the center of the distribution.
3. A normal distribution curve is unimodal.
4. The curve is symmetric about the mean, which
is equivalent to saying that its shape is the
same on both sides of a vertical line passing
through the center.
5. The curve is continuous, that is there is no gaps
or holes. For each value of X, there is a
corresponding value of Y

Properties of the Theoretical Normal


Distribution. continued
6. The curve never touches the X-axis.
Theoretically, no matter how far in either
direction, the curve extends, it never meets
the x-axis but it gets increasingly closer.
7. The total area under normal curve is equal to
1. or 100%..
8. The area under the part of a normal curve that
lies within 1 standard deviation of the mean is
approximately 0.68 or 68%, within 2 standard
deviation is 0.95 or 95% and within 3 standard
deviation is about 0.997 or 99.7%.

Area under normal distribution curve


60

Y-Values

68
%

50
40

95
%

30

99Y-Values
%

20
10

-4

-3

-2

-1

Z-scores
A distribution which is not normal can be normalized
by changing all the scores in the distribution into the
z-scores.
The graph using z-scores as points is a normal curve.
The total area under a normal curve is 1.
At the vertex of the normal curve lie the mean,
median and mode values..
Since it is a bell-shaped, the right and left side of the
curve are symmetrical with respect to a vertical
axis.
The area of the curve to the right of the vertical axis
is 0.5 and the area under normal curve to the left is
also 0.5.

Z-scores
The z-score of 0 lies at the vertex.
All z-scores to the right side are positive
and those at the left side are negative.
The formula of z-score:
z= x

where: z = z-score
x = score
= population standard deviation
= mean

Exercise
1. Convert the following scores to zscores where = 75 and = 3.
a) 75
b) 80
c) 58

Exercise
2. The following are the scores of 27 students in a biology quiz:
12 10 9 10 12 15 15 16
15 20 22 23 10 12 10 14
16 17 18 20 20 21 10 12
23 10 10
a)Convert scores into z-scores using = 14.9 and = 4.5.
b)What percent of the class obtained scores higher than 20?
c)How many students obtained a score less than 20?
d)How many students scored between 10 and 20?
e)How many students scored between 20 and 23?
3. What is the z-score that marks the upper 33% of the area
under normal curve?

score

Z-score

Area

-1.31

0.4049

10

-1.09

0.3621

12

-0.64

0.2389

14

-0.20

0.0793

15

0.02

0.0080

16

0.24

0.0948

17

0.47

0.1808

18

0.69

0.2549

20

1.13

0.3708

21

1.36

0.4131

22

1.58

0.4429

23

1.80

0.4641

Answer

Given:
= 14.9
= 4.5

Questions
How many percent of students
scored between 9 and 15?
How many students scored between
9 and 15?

b. What percent of the class obtained scores


higher than 20?
The z-score of 20 = 1.13 or z=1.13
Draw a graph of the normal curve where z=1.13 is
located.
Locate in the area under normal curve (table) when
z=1.13
What is the area? A = ____ (0.3708 or 37.08%)
What is the percentage of students who scored more
than 20? (area of half of a normal curve is A= 0.5000,
while the area of z=1.13 is A=0.3708. solve: 0.5000
0.3708 = 0.1292 or 12.92%.
The desired are is lying to the right of z-1.13 will be
shaded (higher than 20)
Therefore, 12.92% of the students scored higher than 20.

Graph of the class scored higher


than 20

z=0

Area
covered by
the
percentage
of the
students
scored
higher than
20

How many students scored more


than 20?
The area of half of a normal curve is A=
0.5000, while the area of z=1.13 is
A=0.3708.
Solve: 0.5000 0.3708 = 0.1292
Multiply 0.1292 by the total number of
students (based from the problem, there are
27 number of students (n=27)
0.1292 x 27 = 3.4884 or 3
Therefore, there are 4 students who scored
higher than 20.

Solve for the answer and interpret


a.1) How many percent of students scored
less than 10?
a.2) How many students scored less than
10?
b.1) How many percent of students scored
less than 20?
b.2) How many students obtained a score
less than 20?
c.1) How many percent of students scored
between 10 and 20?
c.2) How many students scored between 10
and 20?

EXERCISES
1. Convert the following scores to z-scores if the
mean is 50 and the standard deviation is 10.
a.
b.
c.
d.

76
40
50
10

2. In a certain test in English, the mean score of


a group of 200 students was 56 and the
standard deviation was 12. in a test in
chemistry, the mean score was 68 and the
standard deviation was 8. if a student scores
65 in English and 75 in chemistry, in which
test did she perform better?

QUIZ
1. A statistics professor reported that
of the 30 students who took the
quiz, the mean score is 72 and the
standard deviation is 6.
a. What is the percentage of students who
obtained a score less than 75?
b. How many students got a score higher
than 80?
c. How many percent of students got a
score between 75 and 90?

2. The weights of 20 female students aged 15 to


20 years have a mean of 120 pounds and a
standard deviation of 6 pounds.
A1. What percent of the students have weights
below 110 pounds?
A2.How many students have weight below 110?
B1.What percent of the students have weights
above 130 pounds?
B2. How many students have weights above
130 pounds?
C1. How many percent of students have
weights between 100 and 125 pounds?
C2. How many students have weights between
100 and 125 pounds?

SKEWNESS

Objectives
At the end of the lesson students
can:
1. Identify the characteristics of
skewness;
2. Compute for the value of the
skewness: and
3. Interpret the results of the values
computed in response to the
problem computed

Skewness (Sk)
It refers to the symmetry or asymmetry
of a frequency distribution and its
measure can be obtained by using the
formula:
Sk = 3 (xX- Md)
s
If the values of the mean and the
median are equal, the distribution is
normal and the graph is bell-shaped
curve.

Types of Skewness
1. If the observations are concentrated at the
left side of the vertical axis and has fewer
observations at the right, it is called
positively skewed distribution.
the mean is higher than the median
Example: marrying age of women

2. If the observations are concentrated at the


right side , you have negatively skewed
distribution.
The mean is lower than the median
Example: age vs education

Example
1. Calculate the degree of skewness of
a distribution if the mean is 45, the
median is 40, and the standard
deviation is 5. Graph and describe
the skewness.

Exercise
Find the degree of skewness of the
scores of students in a Statistics
Exam. Graph and describe
the
result
Scores
f
91 95

86 90

81 85

15

76 80

20

71 75

18

66 70

13

61 - 65

QUIZ
1. Calculate the degree of
skewness in a
distribution if the mean
is 45, the median is 40,
and the standard
deviation is 5.
2. Referring to the table
on the right, find the
degree of skewness for
the of the scores of
students in Math 150.
Describe the graph
formed.

SCORE
S
60-64

f
4

65-69

70-74

10

75--79

14

80-84

12

85-89

90-94

KURTOSIS

Objectives
At the end of the lesson students
can:
1. Identify the characteristics of
kurtosis;
2. Compute for the value of the
kurtosis of a given data; and
3. Interpret the results of the values
computed in response to the
problem computed

Kurtosis (Ku)
The degree of peakedness or flatness
of the curve.
This also known as the percentile
coefficient of kurtosis.
Formula: Ku = QD/PR
where: QD = quartile deviation
PR = Percentile Range

Kurtosis (Ku)
QD = (Q - Q) / 2
PR = P - P
When the value of Ku is:
a. Equal to 0.263, the curve is a normal
curve or mesokurtic.
b. Greater than 0.263, the curve is
leptokurtic or thin.
c. Less than 0.263, the curve is
platykurtic or flat.

Exercise
Find the degree of kurtosis of the
scores of students in a Statistics
Exam. Graph and describe
the
result
Scores
f
91 95

86 90

81 85

15

76 80

20

71 75

18

66 70

13

61 - 65

seatwork
1. Calculate the
percentile
coefficient of
Kurtosis for the
scores of students
in Math 150.
Graph and
interpret.

SCORE
S
60-64

f
4

65-69

70-74

10

75--79

14

80-84

12

85-89

90-94

Quiz
2. Determine the degree of skewness
and kurtosis of the given data and
interpret the result.
Anxiety level of Students During the
Exam

Level
15 19
10 14
59
0-4

Frequency
25
34
40
32