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Ethical Perception and

Decision Making
Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat

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Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


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This session will deal in


.
# Perception
Perception
# Certain Researched examples of perception.
# Meaning of Attitude.
# Different functions of Attitude.
# Process of need satisfaction/Dissatisfaction.
# Identification of dissatisfying needs and
find attitude solution.
# Building an ethical Perception.
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Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


SMS Query:9752523531

Perception
Perception is a mediated process of
organized conclusion drawing about the
real world of time, space, objects and the
vents based on much more than the
stimulus inputs.

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Perception differs

Predictable.
Highly selective process.
Interpreted.
Response can be judged.

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Perception differs
Closure-Tendency to seek the full picture of the
events, situations and persons.
Constancy-To perceive situations as consistent and
repeatable even when they are changing.
Expectancy-To perceive what you expect to
perceive.
Assumptions-Dependent on the assumptions that
we bring with a particular situation.
First Impression-All future data in the light of first
impression.
Stereotype-Pictures in Peoples head.

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Certain Researched examples of


perception
PERSONS WHO EXPECTED TO MEET A WARM PERSON BEHAVED
IN A SAME STIMULI EVEN WITH A COLD PERSON ( Kelly,
Psychology in Administration Costello and Zailkind 1963 Prentice
hall.

Experiment: Two photos were given to two different groups ;Group ABusiness Executives; Group B- Labour Leaders. Reverse photographs
were shown. BUT THE PEOPLE REACTED WITH A SET PATTERN
IN THEIR MIND.

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Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


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Few another examples


Another popular belief: GOOD TIME-SHORTER
DUARATION
AND
BAD
TIME-LONGER
DURATION. Proved by J.J.Harton (Size of the
children's drawing of Santa Claus became bigger as
the Christmas advanced.
Another popular belief: During the situation of
crisis we view even the neutral things as
threatening.

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What is Attitude
Attitude?
A Mind Set.
The way one looks at things mentally.
Positive Attitude?
"the outward manifestation of a mind that dwells
primarily on positive matters.
Elwood N. Chapman
A Pre-requisite to Winning.
Sage Advice

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Different functions of Attitude


# Adjustive Function.
# Ego-Defensive Function.
# Value Expression Function.
# Knowledge Function.
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Adjustive Function
Development of Different Attitudes
Favorable
(Objects , People and
Situation
which
satisfy their needs)

Unfavorable
(Objects , People
and
Situation
which Frustrate
them)

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Ego-Defensive Function
Acts as a Defense Mechanism and Insulate the
person

Protecting the
Ego or the Self
image

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Living with
himself

Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


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Value Expression Function


People derive satisfaction
in
expressing values central to their ego
and confirming to their own concepts.

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Knowledge Function
People need some kind of standards or
the frames of reference to organize
their experiences and observations.

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Process of need satisfaction/Dissatisfaction


Environment

Needs

Tensions

Satisfaction

Efforts

Dissatisfaction
Process of
Attitude
change starts

Repeated Efforts
Substitute one need for
another
Change the direction of
effort

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Hence it is important to identify dissatisfying


need and find attitude solution
Intrinsic Factors

Extrinsic factors

Company policies and


Administration
Technical Aspects of
supervision
Interpersonal aspects
Interpersonal relations
with the peers and
subordinates
Working conditions.
Pay
Status
Job security

Achievement
Recognition
Responsibility
Advancement
Growth and Work

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Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


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Nature of Factors( Dis-satisfiers)


Extrinsic
Their presence does not cause positive satisfaction.
Absence causes dissatisfaction.

Intrinsic
Absence does not cause dissatisfaction.
Presence has uplifting impact.

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Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


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Positive Attitude is build by exact balance between


ID, EGO and Super-Ego
Id

Innate and source of psychic energy.


Immediate gratification for biological or instinctive needs.
Create Tensions in Personality system.

Ego

Conscious part.
It checks ID through logic and intellect.
It controls ID through reality.

Super Ego

Represents a system of values, norms and ethics.


Guides the man to behave normally.

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Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


SMS Query:9752523531

Hence Ethical Perception can be build


by
Identifying your need (dis-satisfiers).
Building a counter attitude function and following
Principle of Closure for the Pereption.
Conversion of Influenced perceptions into Positive
perception.

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Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


SMS Query:9752523531

Thank
You
Visit us at: www.drbhagatstrainingconsultancy.com.
E-Mail: gauravraj_bhagat@rediffmail.com

Dr. Gaurav Raj Bhagat


SMS Query:9752523531