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General points

Pressure switches (and temperature


switches) are control instruments
and not measuring instruments

Their functions are:


To regulate a
pressure or a
temperature around
a set point

positio
n1
positio
n2

To close or open an
electrical circuit on a
set point in order to
switch on an alarm
system : Safety
fuction
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Regulation action
Dead band

V2
V1

High
thresh
old

V2

V1

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High
thresh
old

Dead band

Low
threshol
d

Dead band
Low
thresho
ld

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Regulation actions
Control of a pump
Control of a
compressor
Pressurisation
Boiler regulation
(water tank, burner)
Liquid level
Heating
etc...

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Safety action
Alarm set for
overpass the high
threshold

V2
V1

High
threshol
d

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lowthres
hold

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Safety actions
Sound alarm
Lighty alarm
Stop a machine
Saving action
locking action
etc...

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Types of apparatus
Pressure switches
Gauge pressure threshold
Diffrential pressure
threshold
(No absolute pressure
threshold for the time
beeing)

Temperature switches
temperature threshold (no
differential temperature)
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Working principles
Pressure switches
Mechanical devices with
electrical contacts(or
microswitches) : The position
of the switch (Open or Close)
depend on the value of the
controlled pressure
Temperature switches
Indentical principle as the
pressure switche but this
device include a gaz expansion
temperature sensing element
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GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Increasing pressure
detection
R
R

Microswi
tch
2
M
3

s
P

When pressure P - Applied in bellow S reach the setted threshold adjusted by


the user with the two springs R and R, le
microswith M goes from position 1 to
position 3
pressure > applied streinght by R +
R
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GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Decreasing pressure
detection
R
R
Microswitc
h

3
1

s
P

When pressure P - Applied in bellow S


- reach the setted threshold adjusted by
the user with the two springs R and R, le
microswith M goes from position 3 to
position 1
pressure applied streinght by R +
R
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MICROSWITCH
It is the mecanical inter face which
allows to control an electrical circuit on
two positions : ON or OFF
Several models of microswitches
are
available
according
the
automatism or the fuction to be
done
P or T
increase
State < set point :
close 2-1
State < set point :
open 2-3
State > set point :
open 2-1
State > set
point :close 2-3
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MICROSWITCHES
Wiring diagram

Internal wiring
done by
Bourdon
Sedeme

N
C

N
O

Wiring done on
site by
customer

To
applicati
on

P or T
increase
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DEAD BAND

FOR A PRESSURE SWITCH OR


TEMP.SWITCH,
IT
is
the
difference
between
the
switching-on
of
the
microswitch during increase
an the switching-off during
decrease of the variable
unit(P or T)

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DEADBAND TYPES
They are two deadband types :

fix deadband : It is an intrinsic


characteristic of the microswitch
Warning!
Some
models
of
microswitches are only available
with fixed deadband
Utilization : Safety functions .

Adjustable deadband : Adjusted


with deadband adjustment spring
(R)
Warning! Some models of
microswitches are only available
with adjustable deadband
Utilization : Regulation function

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SET POINT
The set point is represented by
the scale graduation of pressure
switch or Temp.switch

The deadband is never figured


with the unit on the scale

Dead
band
index: no
unit
figured

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Set point
index e
(scale
with unit:C
et F)

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Optimum using
limits,
Low value : 10% of full scale

10
090 HIGH

L
E

I
S

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10 LOW

LIMIT

High value : 90% of full scale


Not allowed
ZONE

LIMIT

IDEAL
WORKING ZONE

NOT allowed
ZONE

The set point limits are fixed between 10% and 90% de
Full scale of the apparatus
The low value 10% is defined because:
the minimum sensitivity : We must warranty the reset
when the value (P or T) decrease
Accuracy and repetability under this value.
The high value 90% is defined because:
The life time of the apparatus
To apply a certain safety coefficient

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REGULATION INTERVAL
Some rules to memorize
These limits are defined by the
switching on and the switching off of
the microswitch
These limits are called low
threshold and high threshold of
regulation interval.
This regulation interval is wider or
thiner depending if we use fixed dead
band or adjusteble deadband system
Low threshold could never be at 10%
of scale
The high threshold could be at 90% of
scale ONLY if the set point is lower than
90% of scale
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OPTIMAL USING
Utilisation limits exemple

Exemple: RPPA Code 152 - Scale : 200


mbar
Scale
C

P:
mbar
HIGH

Set point limit

max.

C
min.

%
20
0
18
0
16
0
14
0
12

Ideal

10
0
90

LIMIT

80
70
60

0
10
0

50

60

30

40

20

20

10

Working zone

80 40

LOW

LIMIT

For RPPA Code 152 - Scale 0 200 mbar, The


set point, Independently of deadband value
and type (Fix or adjustable), can be setbetween
10% of scale, so: 20 mbar minimum
and

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90% de lEM, so: 180 mbar


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FIXED DEADBAND
APPARATUS
The fixed deadband apparatus can
be, on request,

With set point adjusted with variable


DECREASING
OR
With set point adjusted with variable
INCREASING

Without customer request BOURDON


SEDEME apparatus are always deliver
with set point adjusted with variable
decreasing
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Fix deadband
threshold survey
Decreasing pressure adjustment ( standard)
pressur
e

Alarm reset

P
Set

point 2P

E=
Deadband

Alarm
threshold

1
2

1
2

1
2

Temps

With fix deadband, adjusted for pressure going


down, The reset is always happening for a
pressure upper than set point pressure :

P2 (reset pressure) = P1(set point) + E (dead band)

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Fix deadband
threshold survey
Only on
adjustment

request

Increasing

pressure

Pressure
Alarm reset

Set point
P1

Seuil dalarme

E = dead
band

P2
1
2

1
2

1
2

Time
Fix dead band, Pressure switches adjusted with
pressure increasing, the reset always happend at a
pressure lower than the set point :

P2 (reset) = P1(set point) - E (deadband)

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Fix deadband
threshold survey
Exemple : RPPA 152/FS = 0 200 mbar
Set point 100 mbar/deadband 3 mbar
(microswith caracteristic)
100 103

2
2

Deadband =
3 mbar
Above set point
1
3

200
mba
r

Pressure
decreasin
g

1
3

1
3
1
3
1

Pressur
e
increasi
ng

1
3

Switching on and switching off with apparatus of


which the set point is adjusted with pressure
decreasing

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Fix deadband
threshold survey
Exemple dun RPPA 152/EM = 0 200
mbar Consigne 100 mbar/cart 3 mbar
(dpend du microrupteur)
97 10
0

Deadband = 3
mbar
Below the set point

2
2

2
2

20
0
mb
ar

Pressure
increasing

3
1

3
1

Pressure
decreasing

3
1

1
3

Switching on and switching off with apparatus of


which the set point is adjusted with pressure
increasing

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Pressure switches
with adjustable dead
band
Because of their
mechanical design
the adjustable dead
band apparatus,
always have the set
point adjusted with
decreasing pressure,
the dead band is
consequently upper
than this set point

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Pressure switches with


adjustable dead band

In accordance with the principle oa


weighting machine, The set point is
adjusted at the low threshold(low
pressure) (Spring R streinght only) and
the high threshold at the high pressure
which is the adjustable dead band
(Spring R+R streinght)

The dead band is always above the


set point

The set point C is not modified by


the deadband adjustment

Press
ure

Regulati
on
threshol
d

Set
point C
2

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1
3

Alarm
reset

1
3

Regulation
threshold

E=
deadb
and

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Tem
ps
2

Exemple: one threshold


with adjustable deadband
Deadband always above the
set point

Exemple : RPPA 152/EM = 0 200 mbar.


Threshold: 150 mbar, adjusted with pressure
decreasing - adjustable deadband between
8 and 80 mbar

Set point compulsorily adjusted at: 150 mbar


Deadband according regulation needed
Exemple with deadband adjusted at 20 mbar
0
2

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1
3

15
0

deadban
20 d
mbar

17
0
decreas
e

20
0
mb
ar 1
2

1
3
1
3

increas
e

1
3
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Dry contacts and

Microswitchs
Rfrence Amps/Vac Dfinition

Diagram

A (SI)
5/220
1change-over
Red
* normal use
* High power cutting

white

Blue

E (GS)

2/220
1change-over
high sensitivity

Red

white

Blue

*Used when change-over is very close of the set


point
(thin deadband)
* Used in normal athmosphere
* Not recommande in regulation

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Dry contacts and

Microswitchs
Rfrence Amps/Vac Dfinition
C (SH)

2,5/220

1 sealed
change-over

diagram

Red

* for humid and corrosive athmosphere


* Nuclear safety systems

Red

B (SII)

2x 5/220
2 simultaneous change-over

* 2 IS microswitches
Red
* Control ofd two separate circuits

White

Blue

White

Blue
White

Blue

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Dry contacts and

Microswitchs
Rfrence Amps/Vac Dfinition
G (SAM) 2x 2/220

Diagram

2 change-over Red
switches with shift
andhigh sensitivity

White

Blue
Red

White

* 2 microswitches GS with shifted change-over


* Safety fonction with prior alarm and alarm Blue

Red

F (GSS)

2x 2/220 2 two simultaneous


change-over
high sensitivity
Red

* 2 microswitches GS
* Cotrol two separate circuits

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White

Blue
White

Blue

Dry contacts and

Microswitchs
Rfrence A/Vac

Dfinition

Schma
White

Red
W (SHH) 2x 2,5/220
two
simultaneous
sealed
change-over
* 2 microswitches SH
with simultaneous change-over Red
* control two differents
electrical circuits

Blue
White

Blue

White

H (SRC)

5/220

1 change-over switch
manual reset after
commutation with
pressure decreasing
* Safety fonction to oblige the
operator to go on site to reset the system

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Red

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Blue

Dry contacts and

Microswitchs
Rfrence A/Vac
J (SRF)

5/220

Dfinition

Schma

1 change-over switch
manual reset after
commutation with
Red
pressure decreasing

* Safety fonction to oblige the


operator to go on site to reset the system

Whit
e
R
Blue

D (GSH *) High sensitivity and sealed microswitch


* Thin deadband+ corrosive athmosphere
GSHH * same use as GSH with two simultaneous
change-over switches
for two different electrical circuits

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Microswitches with simultaneous


change-over and explosion proof
version

Microswitches can be supplied with


two simultaneous change-over
In following cases: SII (2xSI), GSS
(2xGS), SHH
(2xSH), GSHH (2xGSH)

In this case the deadband are multplied


by 1.5
It is the same for the use with explosion
proof box

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SAM Microswitch
Fonction : Pressure switch or temp.swich
equiped with a (SAM)microswith is able to
authaurize two different set points but with two
fix deadband

Pressur
e

Set point
n2
Set point
n1

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90
%
50
%
10
%

Microswitc
h M2

e2 = fix
deadband

Microswitc
h M1

e1 = fix
deadband

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RP2 Mechanical
principle
Microswitch
Deadband adjustment
inside swich(if any) M
Adjustme
nt screw
(VR)
Scale

Thrust
screw
(VB)

Sprin
g

Pressure

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Main Characteristics
Type of control

gauge pressure
compound pressure
differential pressure

Type of deadband

fix
adjustable

Type of contact

High sensitivity
sealed
Simultaneous or shifted
Manual reset
pneumatic

Number of contact(s)
Power cut

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Streinght points RPP - RTT


Robust and waterproof (IP65) : First
characteristic asked to a pressureswitch
or thermoswitch
Choice of wet material : according
application(normal or corrosive process)
Various type of microswitches:
corrosive atmosphre
explosive atmosphre
Dusty atmosphre
Wet atmosphre
Overpressure
Rptitivity : 1% of full scale (GS) et
2% (other models)
Various options : Hydraulic fittings,
chemical seals mounting, tropicalisation,
explosion-proof, I.S., pour des Specific
applications (Nuclear, marine, )

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Streingth points RP2


Intrinsic safety version
Explosion proof version
Safety applications
Compact design
Sensing element inox 316L
microswiches
Wheel to adjust set point
Wheel on microswitch to adjust
deadband
Overpressure (from 2 to
50
time the full scale)
Good resistance against
vibrations

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HOW TO DEFINE A
PRESSURE SWITCH
Use the guide to find the family
Define the microswitch according sert
points and deaedband needed
Then check:
Powetr cut of microswitch
Hydraulic fitting
environnement compatibility
accessoiries (siphon, valve, seal,
pressure limitor, etc)
options (voir data sheet)
Case
Standard
Explosion proof
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HOW TO DEFINE A
PRESSURE SWITCH
Hydraulic fitting
Environnement
Ambiant temperature
minimum and maximum
temprature of fluid
Full scale
gauge (P) or Differential pressure
(P)
P maximum or P
maximum and minimum sqtatic
pressure
Static pressure variation : yes or
no
If yes : maximum - minimum
values
3
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Variation frequencies
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To define a pressure
switch

Electrical contacts (Deadband x 1,5 pour ADF)

1 change-over switch
2 Simultaneous change-over switches
2 Shifted change-over switches
Note : Please see data sheet for compatibility
betwwen P and power cut
Versions
adjustment

Threshold

standard
(if asked by customer)
high sensitivity
sealed
Fix deadband
high sensitivity and sealed
Set point
pressure decreasing

manual reset minimum Set point pressure


increasing

manual reset maximum


golden contacts
Adjustable
deadband
maximum pressure

increasing
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To define a pressure
switch
Accessories

siphon
Chemical seal
Valve
Pressure limitor
others
Options

See technical sheet

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EXEMPLE OF APPLICATION
First applicatio
Filling up a tank with a pump. Run this pump
between pressure of 0,2 and 0,5 bar which
represent a height of water in an open tank.
0,2 bar = minimum level = 2 mters
0,5 bar = maximum level = 5 mtres
Action

Start the pump when pressure is lower than


0.2bar
Stop the pump when pressure is higher than
0.5bar
Which product should we propose knowing that:
Maximum pressur to control 0,5 bar (500
mbar)
No other pressure in the tank
no corrosion
Water temprature 28C
No other request from customer , exept:fitting
G 1/2" mle

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EXEMPLE OF APPLICATION
Choice of product application n1

RPPN Code 203 - FULL SCALE : 0,05 1


bar

Set point with pressure decreasing


Set point 0,2 bar,

(lower than 50%

of FS)

Set point > 10% FS -according


manufacturer recommandation

Standard microswitch A (SI) :


adjustable deadband possible between
20 to 400 mbar
We can offer
RPPN A A 3 203
with set point 200 mbar and deadband:
300 mbar (threshold high 0,2+0,3=0,5)

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EXEMPLE OF APPLICATION
Application n2

To control the drop in pressure on an


air filter with a line pressure 0,8 bar

The filter must be cleaned when the


differenof pressure between upstream
and downstream is 300 mbar

The customer wants an alarm when


this value is reachedto cknow when to
clean the filter
Which product should we propose
knowing that:

We must control the differantial


pressure between upstream and
downstream to detect whan the filter
has to be cleaned

Upstream and downstream fittings 1/2


NPT mle
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EXEMPLE DE DEFINITION
Choice of product n2

Differential pressure switch connected


upstream and downstream of the filter

The RDDP Code 157 is acceptable


because it fit with service conditions 10
to 400 mbar P with a static pressure of
1 bar maximum

it is a survey action , we dont need


adjustable deadband . We choose a fix
deadband microswitch E (GS) with
change-over and high sensitivity
We can offer
RDDP E A 6 157

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Competition
JOHNSON CONTROLS - PENN - USA

TELEMECANIQUE - France
UNITED ELECTRICS (U.E.) - USA

BURKERT - Germany
DANFOSS - Allemagne
GEORGIN - France

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Application areas
Facilities constructors

Heavy industry and large


assemblies
Production units
Chemicals,Sugar,
fertilizers
Oil, paper and pulp, glass
cement works, automotive
tyres
Power plants
nuclear plants (specific
products)
Industrial heaters
Mtallurgy
Steel production
Heating treatment
Environnement
Water treatment
incineration

ALSTHOM
CEGELEC
ATOCHEM
St GOBAIN
SACILOR
RHNE
POULENC
KAYSERSBERG
DE DIETRICH
SOLVAY
MICHELIN
DEGREMONT
TNNE
SOFREGAZ
ARJO WIGGINS
EDF-GDF
CLEMESSY
CIBA GEIGY
SACM
etc, etc

Shipbuilding, ingneering,
Manuel de Formation - Pressostat-Thermostat
OEM, etc

04/0

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des tiers sans son autorisation expresse et crite

APPLICATIONS RPPRTT
Gaz expansion circuits

Upstream pressure
Diffrential pressure

upstream/downstream
Production/Distribution of gaz
Network survey
Mix air/gaz survey
Power plants
plants

Electronuclear power
Hydraulic power plants
Thermal power stations

Mtallurgy

nozzles, ovens

Marine engines

Lubrication circuits
Cooler circuits
Fuel circuit

Ventilation

tunnels
Underground galleries
Smoke extractors

04/0

Manuel de Formation - Pressostat-Thermostat

Ce document est la proprit de BOURDON SEDEME. Il ne peut tre reproduit ni communiqu


des tiers sans son autorisation expresse et crite

APPLICATIONS RPP-RTT
Water treatment

demineralization system
settling tank
filtration, osmosis

Chemical industry

distiller/condensor
Water tank level
Vacuum in oven

Compressors

Compressor stage
Lubrication circuit
Output pressure
Pressure in auxiliary

tank

rfrigration circuit
Industrial heater
pressure

Steam production
Level in tank
Vacuum in oven

Hydraulic turbine
Input/output pressure
Steam turbineManuel de Formation
injector
- Pressostat-Thermostat
gaz04/0
Turbine
hydraulic circuit / 4
Ce document est la proprit de BOURDON SEDEME. Il ne peut tre reproduit ni communiqu
des tiers sans son autorisation expresse et crite

APPLICATIONS RPPRTT
Oil industry

automatisms

04/0

boilers
dgaser
distillation
cracking
pomping
storage
Drilling mud
Hydraulic

Manuel de Formation - Pressostat-Thermostat

Ce document est la proprit de BOURDON SEDEME. Il ne peut tre reproduit ni communiqu


des tiers sans son autorisation expresse et crite

APPLICATIONS RP2
Lubricating circuits

lubricating circuit
of rotating machines

Hydraulic automatism hydraulic jack control


pump control and survey
Heat exchanger
control

upstream and downstream


primary and secondary

circuit cotrol
Test benches

hydraulic circuits
pneumatic circuits
pumps and jack

Heat exchanger

water level
water turbine control

Fire extinguisher circuit feeding network :


sprinklers
Digester

04/0

Pressure control

Manuel de Formation - Pressostat-Thermostat

Ce document est la proprit de BOURDON SEDEME. Il ne peut tre reproduit ni communiqu


des tiers sans son autorisation expresse et crite