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FAILURES IN BRICK

MASONRY

Repairs: Process to replace or correct


deteriorated/damaged materials and components of
a building.
Retrofitting: Upgradation of structural and nonstructural systems to provide a higher level of
resistance than existing conditions. (Renovation)

HOW DAMAGE OCCURS IN BRICK MASONRY


STRUCTURES:
Effect of Aging on Brick-Work:
Exposure to rain
Temperature
Moisture Absorption
Chemical Alteration
Continuous Exposure to Chemicals

Construction Errors:
Eccentrically Loaded Walls gives overturning effect (Decorative
Panels on one side, Support of Working platforms on one side)
Usage of Poor quality of materials
Error due to saving in economy

HOW DAMAGE OCCURS IN BRICK MASONRY


STRUCTURES:
Maintenance:
Common maintenance to brick is to white wash or to paint them
at regular intervals, preferably every 2 years.
To maintain all sanitary installation in a good condition, any
leakage notice anywhere should be intended to immediately, since
a small leakage from nahani-trap would lead to a major damage in
due course.
Any cracking wherever noticed should be attended immediately
either by sealing the joints with cement mortar or by
strengthening the cracks with reinforced bands.

TYPES OF CRACKS IN
BRICK MASONRY
STRUCTURES:
1.Vertical cracks in sidewalls at
corner
2.Vertical cracks around balconies
3.Vertical cracks below the
openings in line with the window
jambs.
4.Vertical cracks at the junction of
RCC column and masonry wall.
5. Vertical cracks in the top most
stories at corners of structures
having RCC slab.

TYPES OF CRACKS IN BRICK MASONRY


STRUCTURES:

TYPES OF CRACKS IN BRICK MASONRY


STRUCTURES:

TYPES OF CRACKS IN BRICK MASONRY


STRUCTURES:
7.Horizontal cracks in the top most story below the RCC slab
level.
8. Horizontal cracks at eaves level in the buildings having
pitched roof with wooden joists and purlins..
9. Diagonal cracks over RCC lintels spanning large openings.
10. Shrinkage cracks.

GENERAL CAUSES TO DEVELOP CRACKS:


Poor quality of bricks.
Absence of grading in before the use of fine aggregate for
mortar.
If percentage of clay and silt in fine aggregate exceeds by 3
%.
Plumb alignment.
The position of the element in the structure.
Differential loading.
Weak mortar.
Insufficient bonding and improper curing.
Seepage of dampness from ground, roof and exterior faces.
High daily temperature variations & atmospheric pollution.
Lack of strength at corner and at junction of walls.

AGEING, WEATHERING, TEMPERATURE


VARIATION ON BRICKWORK:
Temperature variation Rain exposure, Moisture
absorption, Chemical alterations, elasticity& plasticity Might lead to small cracking, wide cracking, sprawling of
mortar, bulging.
Thermal change of masonry materials is not always
reversible develops cracks
Average values for
a.Concrete in Compression and tension 0.10 & 0.01%
b.Brick in Compression and tension 0.20 & 0.016%
c.Stone in Compression and tension 0.25 & 0.007%
d.Steel in Tension 0.13&

e. Copper in tension 0.29%

Sand / Cement Mortar:


It is the most simplest and basic repair method. It is highly
reliable but may fail under severe drying conditions.
Thus cracks will appear as a result of shrinkage in the plastic
state of mortar.
Due to this shrinkage, debonding and delaminating frequently
occurs.
Due to high water cement, ratio strength decreases.
High density of pores and capillaries allow water and acidic
vapours to more easily penetrate the repair and attack to the
reinforcement bars.

Polymer modified cementations mortars:


Polymer modified cementitious mortars are factory controlled
blend of specially graded fillers, cement and admixtures to control
strength development in set time. To reduce the shrinkage they
contain polymers to improve the low permeability, quality and to
enhance adhesion.
The thermal expansion properties are similar to normal
concrete.
Heat development is low so much larger volume repairs can be
undertaken.
Low impermeability can prevent ingress chlorides.

Epoxy resin mortars:


Epoxy technology is based on the mixing of two liquid
resins which react together to form a hard solid if
aggregates are added the resin system acts to bind them
together to create mortar.
Achieves compressive strength of 60-80 N/mm2 and
very heavy high flexural strength.
Due to good adhesion repair will never fail along
correctly prepared bond line.
More strength gain occurs in one day in normal
atmospheric conditions.
Properly compact mortar is impermeable to water.
Most epoxy mortar requires primer.

Epoxy injection:

Narrow cracks of 0.05 mm cracks are repaired by this

method.
High strength, highly viscous material can be achieved.

In this, holes are drilled at closer interval repairs are done

under external force through pumps or greasing guns.


Normal pressure should be of 1 kg/cm2.We should not apply

too much pressure which propagates the cracks.


High degree of skills and executions are required to repair

these types of cracks.

Crack stitching:
This method involves drilling holes on both sides of
crack and grouting in stitching dogs.
Stitching may be used when the tensile strength must
be re-established across major cracks.
Stitching a crack tends to stiffen the structure, causing
the concrete to crack elsewhere. therefore it may be
necessary to strengthen the adjacent section with
external reinforcement.

METHOD FOR ADVANCE RETROFIT TECHNIQUE


WITH HELICAL REINFORCEMENT
Firstly slots are cut with cutter machine of length 500 mm on
1. each side of crack. The depth of slot is 10 mm but it also
depends on the plaster surfaces.

Clear loose detritus from slots ensuring exposed brick surfaces


2. are cleaned of mortar and flush thoroughly with water, or
treated with a suitable primer.

3. Now fill the slot with grout with pressure.

4.

Push Helical 6mm reinforcement crack stitching tie into grout


to approximately two thirds of slot depth.

5.

Finish the surface and repair the crack on the wall with
appropriate filler /grout chemical.

Tuck pointing:
Defective joints can usually be repaired by tuck-pointing with
Portland cement mortar, with the help of skilled stonemason
In this method, all joints, vertical and horizontal, in the face
of the wall should be tuck-pointed.
This procedure requires removing and replacing all mortar to
a depth of at least 16mm throughout every joint. each joint is
raked to a depth not greater than 26mm unless the old mortar
is so defective then it is necessary to remove the mortar up to
greater depth.
The depth of old mortar is removed first so that sound mortar
acts as a base for new mortar.
All dust and dirt within the raked joints should be washed out.
The mortar is mixed at least 1 hour prior to use to ensure prehydration which stabilizes the plasticity and workability of
mortar and minimizes any tendency to shrink after insertion
into the joint opening.
The sand/cement ratio should be about 3 to 1 by volume.

TUCK POINTING

Grouting (cement mortar):


Masonry structures can be sealed effectively with less cost by
using grout provided the cement-base stabilizing mixture contains
an intrusion aid.
The consistency of intrusion mixture is that of smooth slurry.
Before the intrusion, grout is pumped, the holes are tested by
pumping water to see the drilling is adequate and to determine
correct consistency for the slurry repairs.
Firstly plaster is removed near the cracks from inside and
outside of walls and clean the cracks thoroughly with airjet and
water.
Wet the cracks ,if dry ,by sprinkling water.
This mixture is pumped into holes previously drilled at various
interval to various depths without damaging the integrity of
structure.
Pumping the grout simultaneously into multiple series of drill
holes ensures good penetration into any fissures within the
structure and for making masonry structures watertight.

Grouting (chemical):
Chemical grouts consist of solution of two or more
chemicals (such as urethanes, sodium silicate) that
react to form a gel. This grout opposed to cement
grouts that consist of suspension of solid particles in
a fluid.
Advantages of chemical grout include applicability in
moist environment and their ability to be applied in
very fine facture.
Disadvantage is high degree of skill needed for
satisfactory use and their lack of strength.
Crack as narrow as 0.05 mm can been filled with
chemical grout.

Polymer coating:
Polymer coating is use for the job condition and can be
an effective protective coating if properly applied.
Polymer coating should be selected from the material
specifically for the intended application.
Some formulation will adhere to damp surfaces and even
under water but may required a completely dry surface.
Mixing and applying polymers below 16 degree and
above 32 degree Celsius will require special caution and
procedure.
Moisture passing through the sub grade backfill or from
rainwater can accumulate under the coating, which will
be interrupted by freezing and thawing.

Epoxy resins
Epoxy resins are excellent binding agents with high tensile
strength. The epoxy components are mixed just prior to
application. The product is of low viscosity and can be
injected in small cracks too.
The higher viscosity epoxy resin can be used for surface
coating or filling larger cracks or holes.

Epoxy mortar
Epoxy resins when combined, with sand aggregate it forms
epoxy mortar. Epoxy mortar mixture has higher
compressive strength, higher tensile strength and a lower
modulus of elasticity than Portland cement concrete.

Quick-setting cement mortar


It is a non-hydrous magnesium phosphate cement with two
components, a liquid and a dry, which can be mixed in a
manner similar to portland cement concrete.

Gypsum cement mortar


It has lowest strength at failure among these three
materials. So it is used in minor repair works in structural
application.

Mechanical anchors
Mechanical anchors provide both shear and tension
resistance. Such anchors are manufactured to give
sufficient strength.

RETROFIT:

Post earthquake improvement of the


seismic resistance of a structure including repair
of damage . Upgrading of structural and nonstructural systems to provide a higher level of
resistance than existed before the earthquake.
SURFACE TREATMENT:

Surface treatment is a common method, which


has largely developed through experience.
Surface
treatment
incorporates
different
techniques such as ferrocement, reinforced plaster,
and shotcrete.

FERROCEMENT:
Ferrocement consists of closely spaced multiple layers of
hardware mesh of fine rods
(Figure 1 (a)) with reinforcement ratio of 3-8% completely
embedded in a high strength (15-30 MPa) cement mortar layer
(10- 50 mm thickness).
The mortar is troweled on through the mesh with covering
thickness of 1-5 mm.
Typical mortar mix consists of 1 part cement: 1.5-3 parts
sand with approximately 0.4 w/c ratio.

REINFORCED PLASTER:
A thin layer of cement plaster applied over high strength
steel reinforcement can be used for retrofitting.
The steel can be arranged as diagonal bars or as a vertical
and horizontal mesh.
In diagonal tension test and static cyclic tests, the
technique was able to improve the improvement in strength
depends on the strengthening layer thickness, the cement
mortar strength, the reinforcement quantity and the means
of its bonding with the retrofitted wall, and the degree of
masonry damage.

Shotcrete overlays are sprayed onto the surface of a


masonry wall over a mesh of reinforcing bars.
In shotcrete the size of coarse aggregate is limited to 6mm.
With thorough mixing of aggregates and adjustment of
pressure at the nozzle should be controlled otherwise a large
proportion of coarse aggregate is lost in rebound.
Due to greater wear of nozzles during shotcrete there is a
tendency to reduce the proportion or even eliminate coarse
aggregates.
Certain additives are available which can reduce wear and
tear of nozzles.
After shotcreting proper curing is essential.
In situation where heavy construction machinery can not be
moved or is not economically viable, manual shotcreting can
also be resorted too.
In manual method layers of concrete can not exceed 35-40
mm in thickness when laid.
Mason should be trained properly to move the trowel
applying vibrations and simultaneously for compacting effect
on each layer.
Non destructive testing of shotcrete repair work should be
carried out.

GROUT
AND
PROCESS
: EPOXY INJECTION:
The crack or joint should be widen wherever the injection work
is to be carried out (approximately 15 mm wide x 15 mm depth)
Drill holes of about 13 mm dia upto 150 mm deep at 500 mm @
c/c.
Use compressed air to clean the hole, as well as crack to
remove dust, dirt, loose materials etc.
Use 12 mm dia specially threaded injection nipples and fix
them into the holes provided. Seal the entire surface around
the nipple with putty.
Seal the surface of the crack with putty so as to ensure that the
injected grout does not leak from the gaps & from cracked
surface.
The surface now is ready for injection.
Prepare the injection grout and load it into the injection gun.

EXTERNAL REINFORCEMENT:
A steel plates or tubes can be used as external
reinforcement for existing Unreinforced Masonry(URM)
buildings.
Steel system is
diaphragm or wall.

attached

directly

to

the

existing

Two vertical members (via pin connections), which are


placed next to the existing wall (i.e. creating in-fill panel)
can be used.

CONFINING
URMwith
USING
R.C. frame
COLUMNS:
Confined masonry
R.C., weak
represents one of
the most widely used masonry construction system in Asia
and Latin America.
In China, they used such confinement in new masonry
buildings as well as it is used as retrofitting for existing
URM buildings.
The basic feature of confined masonry structures is the
vertical R.C. or reinforced masonry tie columns, which
confine the walls at all corners and wall intersections as well
as the vertical borders of doors and windows openings.
In order to be effective, tie columns should connect with a
tie beam along the walls at floors levels.

POST TENSIONING:
Post-tensioning involves a compressive force applied to
masonry wall; this force counteracts the tensile stresses
resulting from lateral loads.
There has been little application of this technique; posttensioning is mainly used to retrofit structures characterized as
monuments.
This is due in part to lack of knowledge about the behavior of
post-tensioning masonry.
In addition, the codification of post-tensioning masonry has
only begun recently.

(Contd..)POST TENSIONING:
Post-tensioning tendons are usually in the form of alloy steel
thread bars.
Bars typically show higher relaxation losses (2-3 times strand
losses) and much lower strength/weight ratio (VSL 1990); in
addition, a major drawback for using of steel bars is corrosion.
Fiber reinforced plastic presents a promising solution for this
problem
Tendons are placed inside steel tube (duct) either within holes
drilled along the midplane of the wall or along groves
symmetrically cut on both surfaces of the wall.
Holes are cement grouted and external grooves are filled with
shotcrete.

GROUT OR EPOXY INJECTION


IN CRACKS
1 - Plaster removed
2 - Cracks sealed after cleaning
3 - Grout ports

Strengthening of
existing masonry
1 - Brick or block wall
2 - Injection holes
3 - Grout mixture

STRENGTHENING WITH WIRE MESH AND MORTAR


STRENGTHENING WITH WIRE MESH

Two steel meshes (welded wire fabric with an elementary mesh of


approximately 50 x 50 mm) are placed on the two sides of the wall, they
are connected by passing steel each 500 to 750 mm apart, A 20 to 40
mm thick cement mortar or micro concrete layer is then applied on the
two networks thus giving rise to two interconnected vertical plates. This
system can also be used to improve connection
of orthogonal
walls.
1 - Welded
wire mesh
- 50 mm

50 mm

2 - Mortar or micro-concrete
rendering
3 - Concrete roof band
4 - Cross ties at 500 to 750
mm apart
3

CORNER REINFORCEMENT

5 - Corner bar diameter 8 mm

For Large cracks and crushed concrete


For cracks wider than about 6 mm or for regions in which the concrete or
masonry has crushed, a treatment other than injection is indicated. The following
procedure may be adopted.
The loose material is removed and replaced with any of the materials mentioned
earlier, i.e., expansive cement mortar, quick setting cement or gypsum cement
mortar.

Strengthening of
existing masonry
1 - Wire mesh on front
face
2 Clamps
3 - Wire mesh on back
face
4 - Cement plaster
5 - Crack in wall

The technique of
Splint and bandage strengthening technique
covering the wall
with steel mesh and
mortar or microconcrete may be
used only on the
outside surface of
external walls but
maintaining
continuity of steel at
the corners. This
would strengthen
the walls as well as
bind them together.
As a variation and
for economy in the
use of materials, the
covering may be in
the form of vertical
splints between
openings and
horizontal bandages
over spandrel walls
at suitable number

Splint and bandage strengthening technique

NEGLIGENCE AFTER REPAIRS AND


RETROFITTING
No.

Negligence

Reasons

Hair cracks are


lack of curing after 4 hours from the
found on the all
application of cement mortar.
ready strengthened
brick masonry walls.

Weld mesh are soon improper thickness of the cement


on the brick masonry
mortar
walls after finishing
coat.

Uneven plaster
works are going on without
surface are found on preparing proper level markers.
the wall.
Different shades are
Improper mixing of cement with
found on plastered other materials and improper curing
surface.

REFERENCES:

Civil Engineering & Construction Review (Vol.14


Dec.2001)
Technology of building Repairs R.N. Raikar
Structural Consolidation & Strengthening of
masonry (Department of Civil Engineering,
Belgium)
Deterioration & Damages in Buildings,
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur

QUESTIONS FROM OUR PRESENTATION

Why cracks or deteriorations occurs in brick


masonry structures?
What is the effect of ageing, weathering,
temperature variation on brick work.
State any 6 techniques by which the damage can
be repaired.