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INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

BIOLOGY
The study of life.
The study of living things.
Organisms living things
Biosphere the part of earth that sustain life

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Importance of biology
Food. All foods are made directly from living things,
or indirectly from the products of organisms.
Biotechnology the use of organism to produce
things that people need.
Clothing. Most Clothing is made from biological
products.
Shelter
Health
Fuel
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Characteristics of life

All living things are made up of cells.


Living things are highly organized.
All living things respond to the environment.
All living things use energy for growth and
maintenance.
Living things reproduce.
Living things grow and develop.
Living things adapt to their environment for survival.
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Levels of organization
Molecular level. Atoms and molecules are the
simplest parts of the living system.
Cellular Level. Cell is the smallest unit of life capable
of carrying out all the functions of living things.
Tissue Level. Tissue is a group of cells performing a
specific function in a multicellular organism.
Organ Level. An organ is a group of different tissues
that function together for a special purpose.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Levels of organization
Organ System Level. Organ system several organs
working together to perform a function.
Population Level. Population -a group of organisms
of the same species that live together in particular
location.
Community Level. Community - all the population of
different kinds of organisms living in the same place.
Ecosystem. Ecosystem a community of organisms in
an area, as well as the non-living factors of the
environment.
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Areas of study in biology


Anatomy. Physical structure of humans or other
animals.
Botany. Structure and function of plants.
Cytology. Structure and function of cells
Ecology. Relationships among organisms and their
environments.
Ethology. Animal behavior.
Genetics. Heredity.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Areas of study in Biology


Immunology. The bodys defenses against disease
and foreign substances.
Microbiology. Microscopic organisms.
Molecular Biology. The chemical processes within
cells.
Physiology. The functions of organs and organ
systems.
Taxonomy (Systemics). The scientific classification
and naming of organisms.
Zoology. The structure and function of animals.
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

THE VARIETY OF ORGANISMS


Kingdom Monera the bacteria and the
cyanobacteria.
Kingdom Protista include the plantlike protist and
the animal-like protists.
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi unlike true plants, lack chlorophyll
and therefore cannot manufacture their own food.
Kingdom Animalia

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

Nature of Science
Science is uncertain.
Science is always changing.
Science is collaborative.

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Methods in Science

Observing and Questioning.


Designing an Experiment.
Collecting and Analyzing Data.
Communicating Conclusions.
Finding Out More

ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Tools in Biology
Microscope are used to study organisms that are too
small to be seen with the unaided eye.
Light microscope focuses light onto specimen using
a mirror or a light bulb that can magnify up to 1500x
Electron microscope uses beam of electron to create
an image that is about 1000 time better than a light
microscope.
Computers have revolutionized the work of biologists
by its ability to store and use large amounts of
information and analyze data.
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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Techniques in Biology
Field Studies
Laboratory Studies
Separation Techniques
Electrophoresis molecules of mixture are separated
according to their shape, size and electrical charge.
Cell Fractionation a centrifuge is used to separate
mixtures by spinning them at various speeds.
Chromatography the components of a mixture of gas
or liquid can be separated.
Tissue Culture
ENGR. YVONNE LIGAYA F. MUSICO

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