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Objectives in finishing
Andrews six keys to normal occlusion (static occlusion)
Gnathologic occlusion concept
(functional occlusion)
Periodontal factors
Esthetic factors
How to achieve these finishing objectives
In standard Edgewise appliance system
In Pre-Adjusted Edgewise appliance system
In Begg appliance system

Finishing can be defined as The final
stage of fixed appliance orthodontic
treatment, during which final detailing
takes place to idealize individual tooth
position .
Orthodontic finished occlusion is the
occlusion that is desired at the time of
active appliance removal.

There is a significant range of opinions

within the profession regarding both the
appearance (esthetic) and function of the
treatment results.

During early 1970s Andrews definition of

the 'Six Keys to Normal Occlusion'
constituted the first real effort to tabulate
specific variables that could be measured
in the finished orthodontic result.

Roth has provided much information about

gnathologic concepts of finishing in
orthodontics which takes TMJ health into
Other important consideration of esthetic
and periodontal health during orthodontic
finishing are highlighted by Kokich.

Andrews six keys to normal

During a period of four years (1960 to 1964), Andrew
selected 120 non-orthodontic normal models
Models selected were of teeth which
(1) had never had orthodontic treatment,
(2) were straight and pleasing in appearance,
(3) had a bite which looked generally correct, and
(4) in his judgment would not benefit from orthodontic

The crowns of these models were then

studied intensively to ascertain which
characteristics, if any, would be found
Tentative conclusions were reached, and
six characteristics were formulated in
general terms as six keys

First key : inter-arch relationship

1. Molar relationship.
- The mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first
permanent molar fall within the groove between
the mesial and middle cusps of the lower first
permanent molar. (Angles key of occlusion)
- The distal surface of the distobuccal cusp of
upper first permanent molar occlude with the
mesial surface of the mesiobuccal cusp of
lower second molar.

- Distal marginal ridge of maxillary first

molar occlude with mesial marginal ridge
of mandibular second molar.
- Mesiolingual cusp of maxillary first molar
occlude in central fossa of mandibular first

1, Improper molar
2, Improved molar
3, More improved molar
4, Proper molar

2 premolar relationship
- buccal cusp of maxillary premolars have
cusp-embrasure relationship with
mandibular premolars
- lingual cusp of maxillary premolars have
cusp-fossa relationship with mandibular

3 Canine relationship
Maxillary canine has cusp-embrasure
relationship with mandibular canine and
first premolar, but cusp tip is slightly
mesial to embrasure.

4 Incisor relationship
Maxillary incisors overlap mandibular
incisors and midlines are matching.

Inter-arch relationship

2nd key :crown angulation / Mesiodistal

The term crown angulation refers to
angulation of the long axis of the crown,
not to angulation of the long axis of the
entire tooth.

Crown angulation (tip) long

axis of crown measured from
line 90 degrees to occlusal
"plus reading" is given when
the gingival portion of the
long axis of the crown is
distal to the incisal portion.
"minus reading" is assigned
when the gingival portion of
the long axis of the crown is
mesial to the incisal portion.

+ 5 degree tip



+ 9 +11 + 2 +2

+ 5 +5



+2 + 5 + 2 + 2 + 2 +2

3rd key : Crown inclination (labiolingual

or buccolingual inclination).
Crown inclination refers to the labiolingual
or buccolingual inclination of the long axis
of the crown, not to the inclination of the
long axis of the entire tooth.

Crown inclination is determined by

the resulting angle between a line
90 degrees to the occlusal plane
and a line tangent to the middle of
the labial or buccal clinical crown.
plus reading is given if the gingival
portion of the tangent line is lingual
to the incisal portion,
minus reading is recorded when
the gingival portion of the tangent
line is labial to the incisal portion,

Crown inclination of
central and lateral
incisors :
Definite +ve crown
inclination of upper
incisors allow proper
occlusion of the
posterior teeth.

Improperly inclined anterior

crowns result in improper

Spaces resulting from normally occluded

posterior teeth and insufficiently inclined
anterior teeth.

Upper posterior teeth (canines through

molars ):
A lingual crown inclination exist in the
upper posterior crowns.
It is constant and similar from the canines
through the second premolars but is
slightly more pronounced in the molars.

A lingual crown inclination

generally occurs in
normally occluded upper
posterior crowns.
The inclination is constant
and similar from the
canines through the
second premolars and
slightly more pronounced
in the molars.






Lower posterior
(canines through
molars )
The lingual crown
inclination in the lower
posterior teeth
increase from the
5 6
canines through the
second molars.
- 11 - 17 - 22 - 30 - 33

4th key : Rotations.

There should not
be any rotations.

A rotated molar
occupies more
mesiodistal space,
creating a situation
unreceptive to normal

5th key : Spaces.

There should not be any spaces; tight
6th key : Occlusal plane.
The plane of occlusion varies from
generally flat to a slight curve of Spee.

A, deep curve of Spee

results slippage of the
upper teeth progressively
mesially and distally.
B, flat plane of occlusion is
most receptive to normal

C, reverse curve of Spee

results in excessive room
for the upper teeth.

Possible 7th key of occlusion

Inter-arch tooth mass harmony
It seems Andrews normal occlusion
sample did not have any tooth mass

Gnathological / functional occlusion

Gnathological Objectives
The first objective of a gnathological occlusion
is to obtain a stable centric relation of the
mandible and have the teeth intercusp
maximally at this mandibular position.
(no CR-CO discrepancy)

The second objective is to have a harmonious

glide path of anterior teeth working against each
other to separate or disclude the posterior teeth
immediately, but gently, as soon as the mandible
moves out of centric closure.
(Mutually protected occlusion)

CR-CO harmony
Centric relation (CR)
A gnathological term that designate the
relation of the mandible to the maxilla
when the condyles are in a
physiologically stable position,
independent of tooth contacts.

Centric occlusion (CO)

Mandibular position dictated by maximum
and habitual intercuspation of the
maxillary and mandibular teeth.
It is a dentally determined position,
independent of condylar position.

Ideally, centric relation and centric

occlusion of the teeth should be
Maximum intercuspation of the teeth
should occur when the mandible is in
centric relation.
However, a CR-CO discrepancy of 1 1.5
mm is acceptable.

Shift from CR to CR may be in horizontal

or vertical direction.
Horizontal shift occur because of
inadequate intercuspation of posterior
teeth (end on buccal segment
relationship) or anterior interference which
force the mandible to move antero
posteriorly for proper intercuspation.

Horizontal discrepancy
from centric relation.

Vertical shift
Most common cause for Vertical shift is
molar fulcrum created during treatment
which try to draw the condyle out of fossa.

Fulcrum effect
A. an anterior open
bite or
B. posterior and
displacement of the

Vertical discrepancy
from centric.

In cases with a short ramus and/or short

posterior facial dimension (vertical growth
pattern), care should be taken not to drive
molars distally and wedge the mandible
into a molar fulcrum.

Mutually protected occlusion

In Mutually protected occlusion :
- All centric stops of posterior teeth should hit
equally and simultaneously and the stress
should be directed as nearly as possible along
the long axes of the posterior teeth.
There should be no actual contact of the anterior
teeth in centric closure (.0005" clearance).

- Cuspids should provide the main gliding

inclines for lateral excursion
- Maxillary anterior teeth should articulate
with the mandibular anterior teeth during
protrusive movement

Its very critical that

cuspid incline
provided by upper
canine should be in
harmony with path
followed by condyle.
Diagram of effect of side-shift on the
lingual concavity of the maxillary

During protrusive movements, anterior

teeth should protect posterior teeth by
dis-occluding them.
Two important factors which contribute to
this function are :
Overjet. ( Horizontal overlap of incisors)
Overbite ( Vertical overlap of incisors)

Overjet (The horizontal overlap)

The key feature during protrusion is contact of
mandibular incisor edges with concavity
provided by lingual surfaces of upper incisors.
If overjet is large, there will be trauma to
posterior teeth by the time anteriors start
discluding them.

Overbite (vertical overlap) will be dictated

primarily by :
Cusp height and fossa depth of
Steepness of articular eminence
Cant of occlusion plane

Cusp height and

fossa depth of
posterior teeth is the
first and single most
determinant in
establishing vertical
overlap (overbite)

Maximal fossa depth or

cuspal height + 1mm =
optimal overbite

The vertically incline

of articular
eminence is the
second factor of
consideration in
establishing the
proper vertical
Steeper the eminence, more
vertical overlap

Occlusion plane
Occlusion plane nearly
parallel to angle of the
less posterior tooth
separation occurs during
mandibular protraction
sufficient overbite is critical to
obtain posterior disclusion.

Occlusion plane divergent

from the angle of the
more posterior tooth
separation occurs during
mandibular protraction and
therefore overbite is not as
critical as in previous case

Mutually protected occlusion.

A, Centric occlusion.
B, canine guidance during lateral excursion
C protrusive excursion, separating posterior

In this way, a "mutually protective"

occlusal scheme is established where the
anterior teeth protect the posterior
teeth from lateral stress during excursive
movement and the posterior teeth
protect the anterior teeth from stress
during closure into centric relation

Periodontal Factors

Root Angulation
In theory, if the roots of adjacent teeth are
perpendicular to the occlusal plane and
parallel with one another, there will be
sufficient supporting bone between them.

Whether or not close root proximity

enhances interproximal bone destruction
is not clear ( Kokich, Osterberg, Artun

However, at the end of orthodontic

treatment, roots of all teeth should be
parallel to each other especially in
extraction cases where properly placed
roots enhance stability by preventing
opening of extraction space.

Bone Level
If adult patient has horizontal bone loss, it
is best to align the bone levels rather than
adjacent teeth.
Incisal edges are equilibrated to establish
correct incisal edge position, occlusion,
and crown-to-root ratio.

In posterior segment, angular bony defects

are very common with mesial migration of
Uprighting of these teeth will eliminate
bony defects.

Patient with missing mandibular

left second premolar.
A) First molar had tipped mesially
and undergone periodontal
breakdown, producing 8mm
pocket with significant bone
B,C) During uprighting, molar
was substantially extruded and
occlusal surface was
C. Bony defect get eliminated
interproximally between first
premolar and first molar.
D,E). After appliance removal.
F) Four years later.

Esthetic Factors
Crown Width
Gingival Levels
Gingival Form

Crown Width
Occasionally, one or both lateral incisors are
narrower than normal which need restoration
after orthodontic therapy.
When space is created for restoration on these
small teeth, following factors should be
considered :

Where should the lateral incisor be

positioned mesiodistally relative to the
central incisor and canine?
Where should lateral incisor be positioned

If the lateral incisor is positioned too close

to the canine, the mesial surface of the
lateral must be over-contoured to achieve
the appropriate crown width. The result
could be unaesthetic.

Therefore, the peg-shaped lateral incisor

should be positioned nearer the central
incisor than the canine during orthodontic

Vertical (inciso-gingival) relationship is

determined by the relative positions of the
gingival margins.
Gingival margins of the peg-shaped lateral should
be aligned with the contra-lateral lateral incisor.
Incisal edges will be leveled by restorative

Gingival Levels
During orthodontic finishing, following
factors should be taken into consideration
regarding gingival levels of anterior teeth :
- Gingival margins of the two central incisors
and canines should be at the same level.

- Gingival margins of the lateral incisors

should be positioned more coronally than
the central incisors and the canines.
- The contour of the gingival margins should
mimic the cementoenamel junctions of the

When gingival margin discrepancies exist,

two possible remedies are :
- surgical correction of gingival margin
- orthodontic movement to reposition the
gingival margins

If tooth has a
deeper sulcus
(pseudo pocket),
gingivectomy is
treatment of

When Sulcus depth is normal, the problem

is due to supra-eruption of teeth which
carry gingival margin along with them.
Such discrepancies are best treated with
orthodontic and restorative approach.

Gingival Form:
Presence of interdental papilla between
maxillary incisors is a key esthetic factor.
Occasionally, adults have open gingival
embrasures or black triangles between the

This space can be due to :

Periodontal factor - Deficient papilla due to
periodontal bone loss
Dental factors
- abnormal root angulation
- abnormal tooth shape (triangular shape)

If deficient papilla is the problem, the

cause is lack of bone support due to an
underlying periodontal disease.
These case should be treated with
periodontal therapy.

If the root
angulation is
divergent, then
the brackets
should be
repositioned so
the root position
can be corrected.

If shape of the tooth is problem, two

possibilities are :
- restore the open gingival embrasure.
- reshape the tooth, by flattening the incisal
contact and closing the space.

To counteract any rebound tendency of biologic
system, all treatment procedures should be
done towards overcorrection.
Both inter-arch and intra-arch overcorrections
are necessary to compensate for inevitable

Overcorrection in
class II case

in class III case

Typical overcorrection in transverse plane

Finishing with standard

Edgewise Appliance

Angles latest and best appliance which

he introduced in 1928 is still best in
achieving any 3-dimensional tooth
movement with appropriate wire bending.
Rectangular wire (edgewise mode) in
rectangular slot provide excellent control
of tooth movement.

All brackets are practically identical to each other

except for mesiodistal width.
During finishing stage, various bends are placed
in following order :
First order bends
Second order bends
Artistic positioning bends
Third order bends

First-order bends (Offsets,

In-out bends)
Labiolingual or Vertical
step bends in the
archwire to accommodate
variations in the
prominence and vertical
discrepancies of
individual teeth.
These bends do not
change the angulation
of teeth

Typical first-order bends

are :
- lateral incisors
- canines (offsets) and
- first molars (bayonet
bends, toe in).

Second-order bends
(Tip bends)
Offsets in the archwire
in the vertical plane,
to change the
(mesiodistal tip).

Typically, wire should cross the bracket at an

angle to be effective for changing the angulation
of tooth.
With more flexible wire, 2nd order bend can be
placed without any loop.
But in case of stiff rectangular wire, loops should
be placed to increase flexibility of wire.

Asymmetric height of
anterior and posterior
legs of loop provide
desired angulation

Artistic bends
(Esthetic bends)
Bends to position
anterior teeth for
optimal esthetic
appeal. (Usually
referring to secondorder bends on
anterior teeth).

Third-order bends
(Torquing bends)
Twists in a rectangular
archwire to change
buccolingual or
labiolingual inclination
of teeth.

Anterior torque
Before placing torque
in wire, its important
to separate incisors
from posterior
segment by placing a
v bend between
lateral incisor and

Posterior torque
Continuous posterior
A torquing activation
placed at one point on the
archwire for the entire
buccal segment.
This is performed by
holding the archwire with
two pairs of pliers very
close to each other, and
twisting appropriately

The torquing activation is mainly felt by the

tooth immediately distal to the bend.
The teeth lying more posteriorly along the
archwire will feel minimal torquing
activation until the inclination of the tooth
distal to the bend has actually changed as
a result of the torque.

Progressive posterior torque

A gradually progressing torquing
activation placed over the entire
buccal segment.
This is performed by holding the
archwire with plier close to the end
of the wire and twisting
appropriately with the fingers
placed distal to the canine bracket.

Tip and torque relationship

As the anterior portion of an upper
rectangular arch wire is lingually torqued,
a proportional amount of tip for the
incisors is lost. (undesirable)

The wagon wheel

Anterior arch wire
torque negates arch
wire tip in a ratio of
four to one.

Finishing with Pre-adjusted

Edgewise Appliance

Andrew in early 1970s tried to simplify wire

bending procedure by incorporating
various 1st, 2nd and 3rd order prescription in
brackets and molar tubes.
Acc. to original straight wire concept, this
will eliminate wire bending during finishing.

First order control

Third order control

Second order control

Standard edgewise appliance on extracted

teeth with full size rectangular archwire in
place (no bends other than arch form)
showing inherent tip and torque errors.

Straight-Wire Appliance on extracted teeth

with full size rectangular archwire in place
(no bends other than arch form) showing
inherent appliance positioning of maxillary

Hence, the single most important factor in

finishing with PEA is selection and
placement of these attachments.
Selection of different attachments
depending on treatment needs has been
used by wick Alexander in his VariSimplex technique.

Brackets and molar tubes placement

Though some techniques (MBT etc.) have
come up with bracket placement guides
for operators convenience, but still
Andrews FA (Facial Axis) point on crown
is recommended.

FA is a point along the long axis of clinical

crown which is exactly midway of :
mesiodistal dimension
occlusogingival dimension

Except molars, long axis of all other teeth

is considered along the most prominent
ridge on labial surface.
For molars, long axis is considered along
the most prominent developmental groove
(mesiobuccal groove)

Acc. to straight wire

concept, once brackets
are placed at exact
point (FA), a well
coordinated U/L
rectangular wire will
control all types of tooth
movement with no
additional finishing bend

But invariably, some wire bending is required in all

cases. This may be due to:
- As a compensation for abnormal bracket
- inadequate expression of bracket prescription
(with undersize wire)

- Different type of malocclusion

First order control

The in-out compensation built into the
preadjusted appliance, combined with
correct positioning of attachments , is
reasonably effective in controlling rotations
and contact points.

But some wire bending is required in

following two common conditions :
- Abnormal tooth morphology
- Class II molar finish

Any buccolingual
thickness variation will
necessitate wire
bending to establish
proper contact point

Maxillary-first-premolar extraction case in which molars are finished in Class II

relationship. Maxillary first molars should be rotated mesially in to produce
better contact with mandibular second premolars.

Second order (tip) control

Tip is the strengths of preadjusted appliance,
especially when twin brackets with adequate
width are used.
Hence unless bracket is improperly placed, there
is no need for 2nd order wire bending.

Nearly full expression

of the bracket tip is
achieved with
relatively little play
once rectangular steel
wires are placed.

Third order (torque) control

Torque control is weakness of the preadjusted
appliance system. This is due to the following
reasons :
- Approximately 1 mm segment of rectangular steel
wire is placed in a bracket to carry out a rather
difficult tooth movement, which involves moving
an entire portion of the root through alveolar

- A full size wire is normally

not used routinely.

For example 0.019 x

0.025 wire is often
selected for the 0.022 slot
and 0.0175 x 0.025 is
often selected for the
0.018 slot
This reduces the
effectiveness of torque
expression because of
large play

- Even a slight variation

in bracket placement
changes torque
prescription rapidly
especially on teeth
with convex labial

- Different malocclusions require different

torque of incisors.
3rd order bend are most common bend
required during finishing especially in
following two situations :

Maxillary lateral incisor that was in

lingual crossbite prior to orthodontics

If the crown is moved into proper position

but the torque is not adjusted to bring the
root into its proper position, then the
stability will be affected.
Two options are:
- 3rd order wire bending
- inversion of bracket

Upper-bicuspid-extraction with class II

molar finish
- Usually the lower incisors will be at a
greater inclination than ideal before
- Lower incisors will further procline during
leveling curve of Spee

- During retraction of upper incisor with

undersize wire ( e.g 0.019 x0.025 in 0.22
slot), there will some torque loss.
All these factors warrant some additional
torque to be placed in wire to achieve
good occlusion.

A. Moderate-to-severe Class II case before treatment.

B. After overjet reduction, torque has been lost in upper
anterior segment and lower incisors are angulated
C. Additional torque needed in archwires to recover correct
incisor angulation.

Additional buccal root

torque needed to
adjust upper molars
during finishing stage
to correct hanging
palatal cusp.

Correction of curve of Spee

Typical reverse curve of

Spee is placed in lower
arch wire and curve of
Spee in upper arch for

Overbite control is enhanced by

including lower second molars.

Midline correction
Best time for midline correction is during space
closure by using differential space closure.
However, mild midline correction can be
achieved during finishing by using diagonal
elastics with or without simultaneous use of
asymmetric class II and class III elastics.

Methods of elastic wear to

correct minor midline
discrepancies during finishing
A. Case with bilateral Class II
component: double Class II
elastics on right side, single
Class II elastic on left.
B. Case with Class II molar
relationship on right side and
Class I on left: single Class II
elastic on right side.
C. Case with Class II molar
relationship on right side and
Class III on left.
(continued on next page)

D. Case with Class I dental

relationship on right side and
Class III on left: single Class III
elastic on left side.
E. Case with discrepancy
primarily in anterior segment:
anterior cross-elastic.

Arch asymmetry

Asymmetric lower

Mirror image asymmetry

placed in arch wire

Vertical triangular
elastics used in
settling phase before

A. Patient before treatment.

B. Round archwires and elastics in
place after 22 months of treatment.

C. After 10 days of settling.

D. Patient after debonding, four
months later.

Finishing with Begg appliance

Compared to PEA, finishing with the Begg

appliance is difficult but not impossible.
Difficulties in the finishing stage using the
classic Begg appliance arise because of
the use of round archwires in the Begg

While this combination (round archwires in

the Begg bracket) is efficient in the first
order detailing (bucco-lingual or rotational
correction), it lacks the second order tip
and third order torque control, which are
vital ingredients of finishing and detailing.

2nd order tooth movements are achieved

with uprighting springs
3rd order tooth movements are achieved with
torquing auxiliaries, or by using
rectangular (ribbon or square) finishing

Rectangular finishing has the added

advantage of being able to apply torque to
posterior teeth.
Posterior root torque of individual teeth is
possible with Begg auxiliaries, but torquing
all the posterior teeth is more difficult
using a round base wire.


First order adjustments
- Upper laterals are slightly tucked lingually
with horizontal offsets to compensate for
the difference in the labio-lingual
thickness compared to upper central

- The difference in the crown thickness of

the lower canine in relation to the lower
lateral usually pushes the crown of the
canine slightly lingually.
Lateral inset is placed in lower arch to
compensate for this dimension.

A. Difference in
thickness between
lower lateral Incisor
and lower cuspid.
B If brackets have
same thickness
lower cuspids are
excessively inset.

- On account of difference in the labiolingual thickness between the upper lateral

incisor and canine, an offset (canine
contour) is required in the archwire to
compensate for this canine prominence

- An offset between the

premolars and the
molars, to
compensate for the
different buccal

2nd order adjustment

Uprighting springs are used to achieve
desired tip of dentition.
3rd order adjustments
various torquing auxiliaries are used to
gain torque of anteriors and posteriors.


Rectangular ribbon molar tubes should be
provided from the beginning by using
combination tubes, or else, round molar
tubes are replaced with rectangular tubes
at the time of starting the finishing stage.

alpha-titanium 0.018" x 0.022" ribbon

wires are recommended for finishing
because :
1. Employing this wire, it is possible to build
the precise degree of torque in the anterior
segment using a 0.022" torquing turret, in
which the wire is held in the ribbon mode.

2.The wire is relatively soft while shaping,

and hence easy to bend.
It becomes harder in the mouth by
absorption of hydrogen atoms.
3. Its vertical 0.022" dimension gives
enough clearance in the 0.040" Begg
vertical slot for vertical settling of the teeth.

The upper and lower

archwires are shaped
as described for the
round wires in an
ideal form
incorporating first,
second order bends
and required anterior
and posterior torque.

Final settling elastics
can be used during
finishing just like as in
Edgewise Appliance.

Finishing with other appliances which use

Begg philosophy for major tooth
movement but have additional preadjusted edgewise slot (e.g CAT) is
exactly similarly to PEA.

Orthodontist should keep finishing objectives in
his mind during treatment planning and setting
up of appliance.
Bracket positioning is most important point to
considered with any technique especially with

Both static and functional occlusion

objectives should be fulfilled because they
have intimate relationship especially with
regard to stability.
All tooth movements should be
overcorrected because some amount of
biologic rebound is inevitable.

Esthetic factors should also be considered

because these are the features which are
most important from patients point of
In adult patients, its important to keep
restorative objectives in mind during

Andrews, L. F. The Six Keys to Normal Occlusion, Sept.
1972, AJO.
Roth, R. H.: Temporomandibular Pain-Dysfunction and
Occlusal Relationships, The Angle Orthodontist, April
A Gnathologic Approach to Orthodontic Finishing, JCO
1975 Jul (405-417)

Special Considerations for Adult Orthodontics JCO 1976

Jul (535-545)
RALEIGH WILLIAMS): Eliminating Lower Retention, JCO
1985 May (342-349)
Is Your Case Really Finished : JCO 1988 Nov (702-713)

Dr. Bjorn U. Zachrisson on Excellence in Finishing JCO

Interviews- JCO 1986 Jul (460-482)
Bioprogressive Therapy Part 12: Finishing Procedures and
Retention, JCO 1978 Aug (569-586)
Henry Kaplan : Case Finishing Procedures employing
coordinated light multiple vertical looped edgewise
archwires and directional elastics, JCO 1968 Jun (281290)

L. COLIN RESS : A Finishing Technique for the StraightWire Appliance , JCO 1988 Jan (29-31)
RICHARD P. McLaughlin, JOHN C. BENNETT : Finishing
and Detailing with a Preadjusted Appliance System, JCO
1991 Apr (251-264)
Systemized orthodontic treatment mechanics - RICHARD
P. McLaughlin, JOHN C. BENNETT , Hugo J Trevesi

Refined Begg for modern times : Dr. Vijay P. Jayade

Finishing and detailing a review how to achieve finishing
objectives in Begg treatment, JIOS 1994, 25 (10-20)