BASICS OF DNA

Lecture Along with Video

Warm Up
• What is DNA?
• Where is it held in the cell?
• What kinds of organisms have DNA?

Where is DNA in a cell?
• DNA is found in all organisms! It is found in the nucleus of

the cells ( and a small amount in the mitochondria)
• In eukaryotes, DNA is found in the nucleus inside of

chromosomes
• Chromosomes: contain a DNA molecule with many genes

(these include instructions for making proteins too)
• (3 meters of DNA strands in a single nucleus!)

Why would one extract DNA?
• Scientists extract DNA for:
• Genetic testing
• Forensic evidence
• Body identification

Need to get the DNA away from cell components like lipids and
proteins
Our lab today will help us figure out how we can extract DNA from
cell parts.

Lab Activity
• Groups of 4 each- each group gets one lab handout. DO

NOT TAKE FROM LAB STATION
• You need your lab notebook to take notes
• Each group member is responsible for their lab write up-

write your name on the top and make sure it is your work

Topics Today
• DNA Structure:
• 3 major components in DNA
• Nucleotides
• Base pairs and rules
• Genes

What is a code?
• A code is a system of words, letters, numbers, figures,

etc.
• The genes in your DNA are a code that influence your
traits and characteristics by giving instructions for making
proteins.
• Genes are a small part of a long DNA strand and this

code is influenced by bases.
• Bases and their codes spell out a longer genetic code,

genes identify instructions for certain traits

DNA structure
• DNA is a nucleic acid made of two strands of nucleotides

(hold genetic info) wound together in a spiral called a
double helix.
• Nucleotides are composed of a sugar molecule known as

deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of four different
bases.
• adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), or cytosine (C).

Base Pairing Rules
• The bases extend toward the center of

the double helix
• Each base in one strand is matched

with a complementary base in the other
strand
• The base-pairing rules:
• A pairs with T and G pairs with C.
• These pairings make up your specific

genetic code!

More about base pairing…
• Enzyme DNA polymerase adds nucleotides one-at-a-time,

using the base-pairing rules to match each nucleotide in
the old DNA strand with a complementary nucleotide in
the new DNA strand.
• Basically how DNA is assembled

Focus Question:
• How does DNA replicate?
• It finds it’s base pairs!
• Does so through nucleotides

True or False?
• Do twins have identical DNA?
• Does it matter if they are fraternal or identical?

Quick Review
• List the base pair rules for DNA
• Draw out a nucleotide and label it
• Define what genes are
• Define Enzyme DNA Polymerase

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