Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 23

Myers PSYCHOLOGY

(7th Ed)

Chapter 3
The Nature and Nurture
Of Behavior
James A. McCubbin, PhD
Clemson University
Worth Publishers

Genes: Our Biological


Blueprint
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA that
contain the genes

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)


complex molecule containing the genetic
information that makes up the
chromosomes
has two strands-forming a double helix-held together by bonds between pairs of
nucleotides

Genes: Our Biological


Blueprint
Genes
biochemical units of heredity that make
up the chromosomes
a segment of DNA capable of
synthesizing a protein

Genome
the complete instructions for making an
organism
consisting of all the genetic material in its
chromosomes

Genes: Their Location


and Composition
Nucleus

Cell

Chromosome

Gene

DNA

Evolutionary Psychology
Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of
inherited trait variations, those that lead to
increased reproduction and survival will most
likely be passed on to succeeding
generations

Mutations
random errors in gene replication that lead to
a change in the sequence of nucleotides
the source of all genetic diversity

Evolutionary Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
the study of the evolution of
behavior and the mind, using the
principles of natural selection

Gender
in psychology, the characteristics,
whether biologically or socially
influenced, by which people define
male and female

Evolutionary Psychology
Men preferred attractive physical features
suggesting youth and health
Women preferred resources and social
status

Behavior Genetics
Behavior Genetics
study of the relative power and
limits of genetic and environmental
influences on behavior

Environment
every nongenetic influence, from
prenatal nutrition to the people and
things around us

Behavior Genetics
Identical
twins

Fraternal
twins

Identical Twins
develop from a single
fertilized egg that splits
in two, creating two
genetically identical
organisms

Fraternal Twins

Same
sex only

Same or
opposite sex

develop from separate


eggs
genetically no closer
than brothers and
sisters, but they share
the fetal environment

Behavior Genetics
Temperament
a persons characteristic emotional
reactivity and intensity

Heritability
the proportion of variation among
individuals that we can attribute to
genes
may vary, depending on the range of
populations and environments studied

Behavior Genetics
Interaction
the dependence of the effect of one
factor (such as environment) on
another factor (such as heredity)

Molecular Genetics
the subfield of biology that studies
the molecular structure and
function of genes

Environmental
Influence
Two placental arrangements in
identical twins

Environmental
Influence
Experience affects brain development

Impoverished
environment

Rat brain
cell

Enriched
environment

Rat brain
cell

Environmental
Influence
A trained brain

Environmental
Influence
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas,
attitudes, and traditions shared by a
large group of people and transmitted
from one generation to the next

Norm
an understood rule for accepted and
expected behavior

Environmental
Influence
Personal Space
the buffer zone we like to
maintain around our bodies

Memes
self-replicating ideas, fashions,
and innovations passed from
person to person

The Nature and


Nurture of Gender
X Chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men
and women
females have two; males have one
an X chromosome from each parent
produces a female child

Y Chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in men
when paired with an X chromosome from
the mother, it produces a male child

The Nature and


Nurture of Gender
Testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones
both males and females have it
additional testosterone in males stimulates
growth of male sex organs in the fetus
development of male sex characteristics during
puberty

Role
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position
defining how those in the position ought to behave

The Nature and


Nurture of Gender
Gender Role
a set of expected behaviors for males
and females

Gender Identity
ones sense of being male or female

Gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional
masculine or feminine role

The Nature and


Nurture of Gender
Gender and Culture

The Nature and


Nurture of Gender

The Nature and


Nurture of Gender
Social Learning Theory
theory that we learn social behavior by
observing and imitating and by being
rewarded or punished

Gender Schema Theory


theory that children learn from their
cultures a concept of what it means to
be male and female and that they
adjust their behavior accordingly

The Nature and


Nurture of Gender
Two theories of gender typing