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Filipino Value

System:
A Cultural Ideal

VALUES

- from the Latin word VALERE.


strong and vigorous

JOCANO (2000)

- concepts which we use as points of reference or


criteria for recognizing, expressing and evaluating
social realities in the environment in terms of:

desirability - quality
importance - merit
significance - price
worth - usefulness

EDGAR SHEFIELD BRIGHTMAN


- whatever is actually likes, prized,
esteemed, desired, approved or enjoyed by
anyone at any time.

ANDRES (1989)
- it is the actual experience of enjoying a
desired object or activity. Hence, value is an
existing realization of desire.

STANDARD VALUE
we decide on things depending on some valid

criteria that would provide credibility to


pursue such action.
one is guided with his/her own or commonly

accepted norms in realizing a particular end.


its function to direct our way of looking at

things towards a desirable result.

VALUE SYSTEM
one of the important elements in Filipino

culture.

Others Elements are:

basic personality
basic social unit
politics
economics
technology
ecology

Filipino values can be translated as:


Buti
- it is something desired of what is good.
Pamantayan

- standards which enable us to organize our ideas and


interpret our experiences within the context of commonly
shared meaning of things, events or actions.
Halaga

- worth, importance, evaluation or assessment.


Ganda

- encompassing everything that is to be pursued. What is


beautiful must be realized.

4 Tests of Value by Robin Williams


1. Extensive of the value in the total activity
of the system. What proportion of the
population manifests the value? How many
of the people in the community are
applying?
2. Duration of the value. When was this value
implemented? Was it persistently important
over a period of time?

3. Intensity with which the value is


sought or maintained as shown through
efforts, choices, verbal affirmations and by
reactions to threats to the value.
4. Prestige of value carriers. Who are the
implementers of the value? Do they
possess the integrity to be such models of
the value?

Stages and
Development of
Filipino Value
Formation

1. PRECONDITIONAL STAGE: CHILDHOOD


- is the phase wherein children comply with the
values of those who assert power on them
(parents, teachers, nuns, and priests).
2. THE CONVENTIONAL STAGE: YOUTH

- during the conventional stage or youth,


adolescence identify with their peers, idols and
teachers due to interpersonal communication.
3. POSTCONVENTIONAL STAGE: ADULTHOOD
- the people internalize the values they have
imbibed in the first two stages without fear.

Pamantayan System: An
Alternative Approach to Filipino
Value System

Landa F. Jocano
-pamantayan is the appropriate model for
understanding the Filipino traditional value
system.
- The model rightfully answers the question:
Why do Filipinos behave the way they do?
The answer is unanimous: because they
observe the same pamantayan for doing things.

NATURE

FUNCTIO
N

ORIENTATIO
N

REFERENC
ES

JUDGMENT
S

Extrinsic

Cognitive/
Evaluation

Kamalayan
(conscious
knowledge)

PersonPerson
PersonSociety

Right/
Wrong

Intrinsic

Cognitive/
Expressive

Kalooban
(subconscious
/ inner
feelings)

Person-Self

Good/ Bad

Psychic
(extrasensory)

Affective/
Spiritual

Pananampalat Personaya (faith)


Supernatural

(a) Sacred/
Profane
(b)Strong/
Weak

HALAGA represents the surface level of the

pamantayan system and functions as the


cognitive-evaluate core of the system.

ASAL is primarily a behavioral concept which


refers to the intrinsic quality and meaning of
actions.
DIWA is the spiritual core of our traditional
values and the essence of our collective
sentiments or psyche as a people.

FAMILY CLOSENESS AND SECURITY


natural dependence and mutual sharing

among family members, financially and


emotionally.
Filipinos have an extended family structure

where married sons and daughters remain


under the roof of their parents for protection.

CLOSE-KNIT PHENOMENON is a

binding element as the threads of society


are rewoven by giving attention on what
the individual experiences in his/her
capacity as a member of the community.
The family is seen as a defense against a

hostile world and a unit where one can


turn to in case he/she has a serious
problem (Panopio & Rolda, 2000).

SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE
- refers to the way of life of
Filipinos to be recognized or
acknowledged by their fellowmen
and social groups.

PAKIKISAMA
- is yielding to the will of the majority or to
the leader which could result to both to
positive and negative behavior. It refers to
ones effort to get along with everybody.

Fr. Frank Lynch


- defined PAKIKISAMA as the ability to
get along with each others in such way
as to avoid signs of conflict. Camaraderie
among Filipino makes them flexible and
easy to be with.
Pakikisama occurs when teenagers join

their peer groups in a drinking spree for


fear of incurring the groups disapproval.

EUPHEMISM

- stating an unpleasant truth, opinion or


request as pleasantly as possible. In order not
to offend others, direct, harsh and brutal
words must be avoided.
The Use of a Go-Between to Preserve or
Restore Smooth Interpersonal Relations
(SIR)
Go-between or middleman is a way of social

acceptance to avoid being embarrassed in a


face-to-face confrontation that may bring about
an uncomfortable feeling of shame.

MIDDLEMAN is used when a person needs

his/her promotion or appointment papers


signed, when following up documents or when
in need of certifications.
PAKIKIRAMDAM

- a value affecting the teams spirit.

PERSONALISM
- emphasizes the importance of the
person with whom one has immediate face-toface contact over the abstract rule of law or
common good.

Personalism is manifested in
practices such as:
pakiusap (request)
lagay o areglo (fixing)
palakasan (use of power and influence)
nepotism
favoritism
Friendship and Kinship

- play important roles in the reciprocal relationship


between parties.
Nepotism

- is the employment of relatives to share an


individuals good fortune.

NONRATIONALISM

- refers to the tendency to perceive


thoughts, objects, events and persons as
sacred.
ANIMISM

- is the belief that a spirit pervades in


activities.
FATALISM

- expresses the bahala na attitude which


means leaving matters as they are because
nature will take its course.

It is believing that life


depends on:
Swerte or buenas (good luck)
Tadhana (decried by fate)
Malas (bad luck)
BAHALA NA

- is an expression which
expresses that fatalistic
outlook of the Filipino. It
happens when one simply
resigns to the consequences of
lifes difficulties.

Expressions which reflect


bahala na are:
iginuhit ng tadhana (decried by

fate)
malas (bad luck)
swerte (good luck)
gulong ng palad (lifes ups and
downs)
tsamba (undeserved success
brought about by luck)

In every positive way, bahala na is

what makes people move, take risks


and plan for the future (Panopio &
Rolda, 2000).

BAYANIHAN: TEAM

SPIRIT
- denotes
camaraderie among the
people in the
community and
connotes helping one
another in time of need.

UTANG NA LOOB: INFINITE

RESPONSIBILITY
- portrays our true
identity based on our concern
and response to others.
o Pagtanaw is the unending

gratitude but this is not


enough because the
responsibility to others does
not end since pagpapakatao
has no limits, same with
pakikipagkapwa-tao.

HOSPITALITY: A WELCOME

ATTITUDE
Bukas-Loob na Pagtanggap
- Filipinos open their
hearts to complete strangers
and offer them the best in their
homes.

2 Hospitable Attitudes
1. Tao Po? Tuloy!

(Is There Anybody Home? Welcome!)


- invites a down-to-earth encounter
between a stranger and a host.
- process of welcoming ones sense of
being: I am a person who knocks and wishes
to be treated as a person (tao poako); The
host or hostess who welcomes is also a
person (tao rin ako tuloy!).

2. Puwede bang makisukob? Oo, ba!


(May I take cover? Of course!)
- denotes sharing something.

Puwede (May I) is a courteous word in


packaging of pleading and request.

Oo is the height of the encounter that shows


as acceptance of a person is no matter what
he/she looks like.

Puwede bang makisukob? Oo, ba! May


be interpreted in the Filipino ideal as
PAKIKISAMA.

Disvalued Perceptions explained by Jocano


Some critics portray Filipino values as possessing

no value at all: they are negative.


They say values have damaged our culture,

brought about the ills in our society, given rise to


our undesirable traits, brought about weaknesses
in our character as a people and have caused the
moral breakdown of our institutions.
We were made to believe that what is imported

must be better that its local counterpart.

Filipino Value System


and National
Development: A
Cultural Challenge

Hilario David
CULTURE simply rendered peoples lives

meaningful.
It was a source of identity, of confidence and of

self-esteem.
It allows people to understand the world and to

define their places within it.


Culture permitted communities and generations to

share a common memory.

Filipinos are:
proud of being puspusang-loob.
Mapamaraan(resourceful) and mapanuklas

(ingenous).
Part of their being resourceful is their use of ANTING-

ANTING (amulets and charms)

Filipinos know their competence (kilala ang

kakayahan).
Kayang-kaya mo yan is the encouraging phrase

of the Filipinos to do their best through tiyaga.

imbued with lakas ng loob (self-confidence or

self reliance).
In their desire for social acceptance, Filipinos

are:
Marunong makibagay
Marunong makiisa
Marunong makilahok
Marunong makipagpalagayang loob
Marunong makisalamuha
Marunong makisangkot
Marunong makitungo
Marunong makisama

Filipinos are likened to a bamboo which

symbolizes flexibility, endurance and harmony


with nature.
Bahala na attitude should not be judged as

a fatalistic resignation or withdrawal from an


engagement or crisis but because of their
kababaang-loob.
It is manifested by their daop-palad habit.
Their relationship with God is the source of

their malinis at tapat na panunungkulan.

N atap o
s d in sa
W AKAS
!:D
Th an k
You !
m w ah