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Emergency and Disaster Risk Management

World largest archipelago: area 1,919,440 km2


Over 17,000 Islands, more than 500 languages and dialects
4th largest populated country: 234 million people in 33 provinces
3 time zones with flying time of 9 hrs from west to east

The Geographic Nature

The World Tectonic Plates


Earth Quakes

Ring Of Fire
Volcanoes
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Why we need contingency planning?


Because we live in a world where
things happen with or without prior
notice.

Because of our negligence on facts,


They come to us in a surprise

Basic Principle is developing Plans in the


field of Emergency and Disaster

Risk ?

Risk Management
Risk
Capacity

Hazard

Vulnerability

Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability


--------------------Capacity

Risk
Programme Definition

Risk is defined as measurable and


equitable value of having chance,
probability, potential threat leading
towards a damage, injury, liability, loss,
negative occurrences cost by internal or
external forces to person, thing, property,
system, environment and development
depending on the status of 3 major
contributing components, hazard,
vulnerability and capacity in a given
condition and situation.

Am I risky
?
Why

Key factors influencing the degree of Risk

Types of harmful effects known as Hazard


Exposure to harmful effects known as
Vulnerability
Knowledge, skill and practice to manage
harmful effects known as Capacity

Hazard
Types of harmful effects

Programme Definition

Hazards is defined as
possible potential source
of danger or harm or
adverse effect, threat to
life, health, property,
environment to something
or some one resulting
possibility of incurring
loss or misfortune and if
happens, causing
emergency or disaster in a
given condition and
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situation.

Hazards

Earthquake & Tsunami


Floods
Earthquake

Volcanoes Eruption

Flash floods & Landslides

Bomb Blast
Conflict Social unrest

Transportation Accident

Cyclone
Infectious Diseases
Black Outs

Industrial Accident

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Type of Hazard
Geological
Earthquake, tsunami,
landslides, volcano

Hydro-meteorological
Flood, storm, drought, flash
flood

Biological
Epidemics, plant diseases,

Technological
Transportation and
industrial accidents

Environmental
Bush fires, fire,
deforestation etc.

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Vulnerability
Exposure to harmful effects
Programme Definition
Vulnerability is defined as the
exposure, susceptibility, closeness
to undesirable physical or
emotional injury or attack or
adverse effects.
Vulnerable Group Identification
Vulnerable groups are identified in two
types.
Population living and facilities
situated close or potentially
exposed to different hazards.
Group of people who needs special
attention during emergencies and
disasters such as children,
pregnant women, old aged, 12
disables and ill patients.

Capacity
Knowledge, skill and practice to manage harmful effects

Programme Definition
Capacity is defined as mental,
physical, academical ability and
capability to retain knowledge,
skill and practice to perform,
hold, receive, absorb, act,
manage and develop to a
maximum response to adverse
effects to minimize damages in a
given condition and situation.
Capacity Identification
Human, supplies, structure,
operating system and funds are
identified as 5 main resources to
be build up as capacity.
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Emergencies and Disasters


Emergency = The Risk that can be manage with
support from existing condition in a given situation.

Disaster = The Risk that can only be managed with


extra support outside existing condition in a given
situation.
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Management
Mobilize and utilize available resources most
effectively and strategically in a given situation
to obtain maximum output .

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Crisis
Programme Definition
Crisis is defined as exposure
to risk resulting from
Emergency or Disaster
affecting a sector (s) or area
of work in a geographic
location for a period of time.
It could be acute or chronic
or acute on chronic. One
example is Health Crisis
where the health sector is
affected by emergency or
disaster.
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Conflict
Conflict is actual
or perceived
opposition of
needs, values and
interests.
A conflict can be
internal (within
oneself) or external
(between two or
more individuals)
Conflict can lead to
WAR
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Risk Reduction Plan


Risk Mapping
To obtain a map which has
identify potential hazards,
violability and capacity.
Contingency Plan
If emergency or disasters
hit, what to do.
Operation Plan
When emergency or disaster
hits, how to manage.
Standard Operating
Procedure (SOP)
Guidelines to guide how to
manage specific field of
interest
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Risk Mapping
Risk Mapping
(Hazard, Vulnerability and
Capacity Mapping)
Method
Vertical Mapping
(Geographic base
village to National) (*)
Horizontal Mapping (Facility
base household to
mega structures)
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Risk - Triage Rings


Use red, yellow and
green rings to
identify:
High Risk
Medium Risk
Low Risk
Identify the areas
where multi risk
rings overlapped.
Prioritized the area
for capacity building

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Hazard Mapping

Find appropriate map or


develop a map of the area
concern.
Identify the potential areas
that could tern into hazards specific (volcano, river, dam,
factory, etc).
Hazards General (fire,
earthquake, storm, etc)
Identify the most vulnerable
facilities health, schools,
fire fighting station, power
station, water reservoir,
police, governor office,
markets, stores, air trainport
Identify evacuation sites
religious building, sport field,
vacant land, ceremonial
halls, schools
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Vulnerability Mapping
Identify the most
vulnerable facilities
health, schools, fire
fighting station, power
station, water reservoir,
police, governor office,
markets, stores, air
train-port
Identify evacuation
sites religious
building, sport field,
vacant land, ceremonial
halls, schools

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Resource Mapping
Use excel table to
identify:
Existing
resources. (Man,
Material, Money)
Resources
needed.
Where needed
resources can be
reached.
Attached the excel
data and
information to the
map
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Public Alert System


Serine / Bell
Community
watch
Traffic light
indicators
Maps for
evacuation
Mark shelters
Call signs
Media alert
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What is Contingency Planning ?


Contingency
What to do if changes happen
Un-wanted or Wanted / Un
expected or Expected / Good
or Bad / Harmful or Unharmful / Negative or Positive

Planning
Systematic arrangement of
activities to be implemented
in a given condition and
situation.

Phases
Pre-during-post
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Contingency Plan base on SOP


Central, Peripheral and Sector based
Command Posts
Rescue and Relief
Rapid Assessment
Information and Communication
and Reporting
5. Multi Sector / Cluster
Coordination and resource
Mobilization
6. Management of Death, Injured
7. IDP Camp Management
8. Supply Management
9. Community and Facilities
Recovery, Rehabilitation,
Reconstruction
10. Stream lining back to routine
programms and development
1.
2.
3.
4.

Scenarios building Exercise Simulation

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Operational Plan and SOP


Based on the contingency
plan, given situation and
condition, develop
operational plan
Operational Map and Plan
Identification of the
available resources
Identification of resources
needed base on rights
WHO, Where, When, What,
Why, How and Expected
Output
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Standard Operation Procedures (SOP)

Updated annually:
1st version launched in 2006
2nd version launched in 2007

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PREPAREDNESS
Contingency
Plan
Early warning

Rapid Assessment
Operational
Plan
EMERGENCY
Review

Preparedness
Plan

RESPONSE

Time

Money

Lessons
learned
Rehabilitation
Plan

3 Cs
Values Info Human
Mitigation
Plan
Hazard evaluation
Disaster
Management
Plan
MITIGATION

SOP

Supplies

Management Wheel is driven by


power generated from
Information moving forward
through 3Cs

Re/Development
Plan

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REHABILITATION

Risk Reduction Plan Components


Risk Mapping

Contingency Plan

Operational Plan

Standard Operating Procedure

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Risk Reduction Plan


Geographic Risk Reduction Plan
(RRP) - Vertical
For province, district, sub-district
and village levels, contingency
and operation plans will be
developed, practiced and
integrated with risk mapping to
formulate RRP.
Facility Risk Reduction Plan (RRP)
- Horizontal
For each public health facility,
health offices and hospital,
contingency and operation plans
will be developed, practiced and
integrated with risk mapping to
formulate RRP.

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Web Link: www.who.or.id/download/docs/eha/DRR-Programme-Concept-Paper

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Disaster Management Phases


Prevent
Develop

Prepare

Mitigate
Disaster

Rescue

Reconstruct
Golden Hr
Rehabilitate

Relief

Golden Week
Recover

Respond

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Challenges for Health Sector

Death

Infrastructure

Injured and infected

IDPs / Refuges

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Why Do We Need Coordination In


Health Emergencies / Crisis ?
UN

INGOs
NGOs

Private
Sectror

Local
Groups

Media
Individual

We already have too


many challenges to
manage.
So many of them
coming now.
Who are they?
What can they help?
When can they do
it?
Where can they go?
Why they came?
How can I manage?
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Filter at port of entry

Chain of Command and Communication


I know! I know!, You guys want
to help me. But please wait ya, I
will tell you what I need.

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Health Sector and Cluster Structural and


Methodology used in Indonesia
Government Coordination
Meeting

UN Cluster
Coordination Meeting

Heath Sector / Cluster


General Coordination
Operational
Mapping
Health
Emergency
Information
Operation
Center

Sub Groups Coordination and


presentation
Immunization
Child, reproductive and maternal
Water and Sanitation
Surveillance and outbreak control
Mental Health
Mobile Clinics
Field Hospitals
Hospital care
Supplies
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Role of Regional Crisis Centers


Emergency Operational Units

Emergency Supplies Depot

Hospitals

Public Health
Facilities

Universities

Training Centers

Emergency Shelter

Each Crisis Centers is formed by 3 Basic Structural Components of the Health


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System. Hospitals, Public Health Facilities and Universities.

Early warning

Information

Crisis Center
Central Operation Unit
MoH,

Review, monitoring

Coordination 40
Resource Mobilization

Emergency Situation Reports


Emergency First Call
SMS / Radio
Call, Fax, Email
Advance
Emergency
Situation
Information
Emergency
Situation Report
Situation Report
Surveillance
Report
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What will be our future????

Practice make perfect.


When there is a will, there is a way.
Hope for the best, prepare for the worst.42

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