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ERIKSON THEORY OF

PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
(1963)

Subbalekshmi
02.03.15

Eric Erikson

Identity
and the
Life Cycle

Human beings face eight major crises or


conflicts during the course of their lives.
Each conflict has its own time for
emerging, as dictated by both biological
maturation and the social demands that
developing people experience at
particular points in life.
Each stage demands resolution before
the next stage can be satisfactorily
negotiated

Basic trust vs mistrust (birth to 1


year)
Forms the first trusting relationship with the
caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

A
(

Autonomy Vs Shame (1-3years)


Children must learn to be autonomous
to feed and dress themselves, to look after their
own hygiene and so on.
Failure to achieve this independence may force
the child to doubt his or her own abilities and
feel shameful.
Parents are the key social agents.
Forms the first trusting relationship with
the caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

Initiative Vs Guilt (3-6years)


Children attempt to act grown up ,will try to accept
responsibilities that are beyond their capacity
They sometimes undertake goals or activities that
conflict with those of parents guilty.
Successful resolution of this crisis requires a
balance the child must retain a sense of initiative
and yet learn not to impinge on the rights,
privileges or goals of others.
The key social agent is the family.
Forms the first trusting relationship with
the caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

Industry Vs inferiority
(6 12 years)
Children must master important social and
academic skills.
Child compares the self with peers.
If sufficiently industrious, children will acquire the
social and academic skills to feel self assured.
Failure to acquire these important attributes leads
to feelings of inferiority.
Significant social agents are teachers and peers.
Forms the first trusting relationship with
the caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

Identity vs. role confusion (1220yrs)


crossroad between childhood and maturity.
The adolescent grapples with the question who
am I?
must establish basic social and occupational
identities or they will remain confused about the
roles they should play as adults.
The key social agent is the society of peers.
Forms the first trusting relationship with
the caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

Intimacy Vs isolation(20 40 years)


The primary task at this stage is to form
friendships and to achieve a sense of love and
companionship, with another person.
Feeling of loneliness or isolation is likely to
result from an inability to form friendships or an
intimate relationship.
Key social agents are lovers, spouses and close
friend
Forms the first trusting relationship with
the caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

Generativity Vs stagnation
(middle adulthood)
Adults face the tasks of becoming productive in
their work and raising their families.
These standards of generativity are defined by
ones culture.
Those who are unable or unwilling to assume
these responsibilities will become stagnant or
self-centered.
Significant social agents are the spouse, children
and cultural norms.
Forms the first trusting relationship with
the caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

Integrity Vs Despair (old age)


The older adult will look back at life
Viewing it as either meaningful, productive and
happy experience
or
A major disappointment full of unfulfilled
promises and unrealized goals.

Ones life experiences, particularly social


experiences, will determine the outcome of this
life crisis
Forms the first trusting relationship with
the caregiver
Well handled, nurtured,loved trust and
security
Badly handled insecure and mistrustful

Merits

Based on
extreme ends
of personality

Demerits

Based on agewise
classification
Simple and
comprehensiv
e to
understand

QUESTIONS?

THANK YOU