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FUNCTIONS

Chapter Objectives

In this chapter, you will learn:


what a function is;
what makes something a function;
how to represent a function;
how to determine a function;
about the various types of functions;
about the different classes of functions;
what operations can be done on functions;

INTRODUCTION TO
FUNCTIONS

A function is an association of exactly one


object from one set (the range) with each object
from another set (the domain).
This means there must be at least one arrow
leaving each point in the domain.
Also that there can be no more than one arrow
leaving each point in the domain.

Ex:

Which of the relations below are functions?

The relation in (a) has more than one


arrow leaving a point in the domain so it is
not a function.
The relation in (b) does not have an arrow
leaving a point in the domain so it is not a
function.
The relation shown in (c) is a function
from {a, b, c} to {1, 2}

ELEMENTS OF A FUNCTION
We usually denote relations with capital letters.
With functions the convention is to use
lowercase letters.
Let f be a function from A to B. Because each
element x of A appears in one and only one pair ( x, y) f
x A
y f (x)
, it is possible to write
whenever
. This notation suggests mapping the element x to
the element y
Functions are often referred to as mappings or
transformations

Ex: Determine whether each of the following


relations is a function.
For those that are functions, give the domain
and range of the function.

{(1, a ), (1, b), (2, c), (3, b)}

This is not a function because (1, a) and (1, b)


are both in the relation

{( a, a ), (b, b), (c, c)}

This is a function, with domain, codomain, and


range equal to {a, b, c}

COORDINATE GRAPHS
The set of all ordered pairs of the function f
plotted in a Cartesian coordinate system is called
the graph of f.
The graph of a function f is equivalent to the graph
of the equation y f (x )as described in
elementary algebra.

Ex: Draw the graph of

f ( x) x

For a graph to be the graph of a function, any given


vertical line can intersect the graph in a most one point.
Not all equations in x and y determine functions

Ex : Draw the graph of the relation

y x
2

Explain why the graph of is not a function.

The reason is not a function is that it


contains the ordered pairs (9, -3 )
and (9, 3)
, i.e. a vertical line intersects the graph
in more than one point.

Exercise: Which of the following graphs are


graphs of functions?

The graph in (a) is not the graph of a


function because there are vertical
lines that intersect the graph twice.

Graphs (b) and (c) are graphs of


functions.

TYPES OF FUNCTIONS

INJECTIONS
SURJECTIONS
BIJECTIONS

INJECTIONS
Let f : A B be a function. The function f
is called an injective function, or an
injection, if x, y A, f ( x) f ( y )
implies x = y
Graphically this means that if two
arrows arrive at the same point in B,
they must come from the same point in
A, and therefore they are the same.
An injective function is also called a oneto-one function, or a function.

Ex : Graphically represent an injective


function.

SURJECTIONS
The function f is called a surjective function,
or a surjection, if for each

y B x A f ( x) y

Graphically this means there must be an


arrow arriving at each point of B.
A surjective function is also called an onto
function.

Ex: Graphically represent a surjective


function.

BIJECTIONS
A function can also be neither nor onto,
or it can be both and onto.
If a function is both and onto it is called a
bijection or bijective function.
A bijection from a set A to itself is called a
permutation of the set

Ex: Graphically represent a bijective function.

or

Ex: Graphically represent a function that


is neither nor onto.
or

LIMITS
The limit of a function f as x
approaches infinity for large values of x is
a very important concept.
The function f (x) approaches the limit L
as x approaches , written lim f ( x)
x
, if the values of get arbitrarily close to
L as x gets arbitrarily large.
c
If n 0 , lim n 0 for any
x x
constant c

To find the limit of a function as x approaches , first


divide the numerator and denominator by the highest
power of x appearing in either place and then let x
approach
Exercise :

Show that

2x 1
lim
2
x x 1

2x 1

2x 1
x
x
lim
lim
1
x x 1
x x

x x

1
2
20 2
x
lim
lim
2
1 x 1 0 1
x
1
x

Ex:

Find the following limit:

lim

x 3 3x 1

x2 7x 3

Dividing the numerator and denominator by


have

lim

x 3x 1
2

x 7x 3

lim

1 0 0 1

000 0

3 , we

1
x

1
1
3
7 2 3
x
x
x

If we divide 1 by smaller and smaller


numbers, the quotients will become larger
and larger.
x 3 3x 1

Thus, we write: lim 2
x x 7 x 3
When the limit of a function is 1 / 0 , we
say that

lim f ( x )

Another way to view limits as x approaches


or is to use only the highest degree
terms in the numerator and denominator.
Exercise : Find the

5 x 3x
lim 4
x 9 x 4 x 3 2
3

We need only consider the dominant


terms:
3

5x

9x

9x

Since

5
lim
0
x 9 x
3

lim

x 9 x

5 x 3x
4

4x 2

EQUAL FUNCTIONS
Two functions are said to be equal if they
have the same domain and codomain, and
for all x in the domain

f ( x) g ( x)

6x 4
Ex: Let f ( x ) 2
and g ( x ) 3 x 2
, then f ( x ) g ( x ) , since they both have
the same domain and codomain, and for all
x in the domain

f g

SUM OF FUNCTIONS
The sum of f and g, f + g, is defined by
( f + g) (x) = f (x) + g (x)
Ex: Find the sum of f(x) = 3x+ 5 and
g(x) =4x -3

s( x) ( f g )( x) (3x 5) (4 x 3) 7 x 2

DIFFERENCE OF FUNCTIONS
The difference of f and g , f g , is defined by
( f -g) (x) = f (x) - g (x)

Ex: Find the difference of f(x) = 3x+ 5


and g(x) =4x -3

d ( x) ( f g )( x)
f ( x) g ( x) (3 x 5) (4 x 3)
(3 x 5) (

4 x 3) x 8

PRODUCT OF FUNCTIONS
The product of f and g, fg, is defined by

( fg )( x) f ( x) g ( x)

Ex: Find the product of f(x) = 3x+ 5 and


g(x) =4x -3

p( x) ( fg )( x) f ( x) g ( x) (3x 5)(4 x 3)
2

12 x 11x 15

QUOTIENT OF FUNCTIONS
The quotient of f and g,
is defined by

f
g

f ( x)
f
( x)
g ( x)
g

f ( x) 3x 5
f
q( x)

( x)
g ( x) 4 x 3
g

COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS
As functions are subsets of relations, the
composition of a function is the same as for
relations.
Ex: Let f(x) = 3x+ 5 and g(x) =4x 3 Find

g (x)

g f (x)

f f (x)

g g ( x)

g (x)

f ( g ( x)) f (4 x 3)
3(4 x 3) 5
12 x 9 5 12 x 4

INVERTABLE FUNCTIONS
Any function f has an inverse relation,

The inverse relation does not


need to be a function
If the inverse relation of a function
is a function, we say that the
function is invertible

To find the inverse of a


function : y f ( x )

1.Solve the equation for


x in term of y
2.In the resulting equation,
replace x by y and y by x
3. equals the right side of
the equation found in step 2

Ex : Find the inverse of

f ( x) 4 x 1

First we solve y 4 x 1 for x in terms of y:

4x y 1

y 1 4x

y 1
x
4

Now replace x by y and y by x, obtaining

x 1
y
4
Therefore,

x 1
( x)
4

Verify that

x 1
f ( x)
4
1

Is the inverse of

f ( x) 4 x 1

To verify this we need to show that

(f f

)( x) ( f

f )( x) x