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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE

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CHAPTER 1
1.1 Science is Part of Everyday Life
1.2 Your Science Laboratory
1.3 Steps in a Scientific Investigation
1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units
1.5 Is Mass the Same as Weight?
1.6 Learning How to Use Measuring Tools
1.7 The Important of Standard Units in
Everyday Life.
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1.1 Science is Part of Everyday Life


Science
Is the knowledge of thing that happen in
nature and how it effect us and environment.
These event we called as Natural Phenomena

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Because the discovery of the gravity

White Stone contains calcite

Red Stone Contains more iron or ferrum

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Brown Stone contains quartz

Example of
Natural Phenomena
Growth of
baby

Melting of ice

Falling a cat
Rainbow

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rainbow

Sunlight passes through rain droplet


Light will dispersed into the colours of the rainbow
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Scientific knowledge
Is the information that produce from the
study of science

Technology
Is the application of scientific knowledge
for the use of mankind.

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Importance of Science
Science helps us to:
1) Understand our selves.
2) Understand our environment.
3) Makes our life more comfortable

Benefit of Science
1. Transportation

4. Communication

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2. Medicine

3. Education

5. Agriculture

Careers
related to
Science

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Branch
of
Studies

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Chemistry

To Study the substance,


its characteristic and their
possible reaction

Biology

To study of all living things

Physics

To study of Matter, Energy,


Forces and Motion

Biology
Biology is the study of all living things

Differences in
cells structure
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Characteristic
animal live in
different places

Phenomena
like what beans
need to grow

Chemistry

The Rusty Gate


- Gate react with air to
form rust

The Brown Apple


- The oxidation of tannin
When expose with air

Getting Rid of Paint


- Kerosene react with paint,
Allowing water to wash
the paint
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Physics

Moving Forward
There is force acting on him

Is about the study of motion, forces,


heat and light

The Basketball
The ball thrown always
Falls because the pull
of gravity on earth

Hot Pot
Rate of heat transfer of
different materials
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Astronomy

Other
areas
Of
Study

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To Study of Planets and


Stars in the universe

Geology

To study of rocks, minerals and


the structure of the universe.

Meteorology

To study of weather and climate

Biochemistry

The study of chemical processes


In living organisms

A Forensic Scientist uses


scientific tests to help the
police solve crimes.
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1.2 Your Science Laboratory


Scientific experiments are conducted in a
science laboratory.
Laboratory
The place where a scientist works

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boratory Safety Rules

Do

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Dont

Hazardous Substance
Hazard warning symbols
The placed on labels of bottles or containers
of hazardous substances to show the danger
of these substances.

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Table 1.1 common hazard warning symbol

Symbol
1.Poisonous

2.Flammable

Danger of
substance
Causes death or
harm to the body if
absorbed through
the skin, swallowed
or inhaled.

Easily catches
fire and burns

Examples Handling
Techniques
mercury,
chloroform,
lead,
benzene

Do not inhale,
touch or taste the
substance.
Keep in a locked
cupboard.

Sodium,
Potassium.

Keep in
paraffin

Concentrated
Avoid contact
acids and
with water
alkalis.
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Symbol

Danger of
substance

Examples

Handling
Techniques

3.Corrosive

Causes damage
to the skin or
eyes upon
contact

Concentrated
sulphuric acid,
bromine,
hydrogen
peroxide

-Avoid contact
with skin or eyes.
-Spill on body
parts should be
washed away
quickly under
running water.

Causes
discomfort to the
body ( itch and
rashes)

Ammonia
solution,
chloroform and
dilute acid and
alkali

-Spill on body
parts should be
washed with a lot
of water.

4. Irritant

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Symbol
5.Radioactive

6.Explosive

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Danger of
substance

Examples

Gives out
Uranium,
radiation that can plutonium,
cause cancer or radium
destroy body
tissue
Easily explodes
when mixed
with other
substances

Handling
Techniques
Keep in
special lead
container

Sodium,
Potassium.

Keep in
paraffin

Concentrated
acids and
alkalis.

Avoid contact
with water

Laboratory Apparatus

Tripod Stand

Measuring
Cylinder

Beaker

Boss head

Test Tube

Retort Stand
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Test Tube Rack

Bunsen Burner

Tripod Stand
-Used to supports
other light
apparatus

Bunsen Burner
-Used to produce
heat and flame

Test Tube Rack


-Used to hold substances
to be tested
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Beaker
-Used as container in
heating process
Retort Stand
-Used to hold or clamp
the apparatus

Measuring Cylinder
- accurate measuring
tool

Bunsen burner
Function : used in laboratory to heating
substance.

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Bunsen burner

There are three main steps to start the


Bunsen burner:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Close the air hole by turning the collar.


Hold the lighted match at the top of
barrel
Turn on the gas slowly. Luminous flame
will be obtained.
Open the air hole to obtain nonluminous flame.

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1. One the gas on, be careful


when you light a flaming match
to the burner
2.During heating process,
make sure do not have direct
contact with heated apparatus

Types Of Flame
1

Luminous Flame
(Yellow flame)

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Non-luminous Flame
(Blue flame)

Table 1.2 Luminous flame and Non-luminous flame

Luminous Flame

Air-Hole
Easy to see

Non-Luminous Flame

Get yellow flame when Get blue flame when


its open
its closed
Yes

No

Soot

Gives out a lot of soot

Does not gives out soot

Hotness

Flame not so hot

Flame is very hot

Heating
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Not suitable

Suitable

1.3 Steps in a Scientific Investigation


Process skills in science

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Asking questions

Making observation

Taking measurements

4
5

Recording the data collected


Analysing and interpreting the data

Making conclusions

Writing reports to communicate the


results

Terms in Scientific Method


Observation

Gathering information using


five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and
touch.
Inference Making a smart guess or a
tentative explaination about the
phenomenon based on the observation.
Hypothesis Making general statement
about the relationship between a
manipulated variable and a responding
variable in order to explain the question
asked.
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Terms in Scientific Method


Variables

Manipulated, responding and


fixed variables
Record data Record in a table
Interpreting data Organising and
analysing data
Conclusion Making statement about the
outcome of the experiment
Writing report Communicating the
details of the experiment to spread and find
benefit to the findings.
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Writing Report (Format)


Day:
Date:
Title:
Aim:
Problem statement:
Hypothesis:
Variables:
(a) Manipulated variable:
(b) Responding variable:
(c) Fixed variable:
Materials:
Apparatus:
Procedure:
Data and Observation:
Interpreting data:
Discussion:
Conclusion:
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c
Identifying the problem
f
i
t
n
e
n
i
o
c
i
S
t
a
g Forming a hypothesis to explain the problem
i
t
s
e
v
n
I
Planning an experiment and controlling the variables
(Constant, Manipulated, Responding)
Carrying out the experiment
Observing and collecting data from the experiment
Analysing and interpreting the data
Forming a conclusion
Result do not support the hypothesis
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The hypothesis is rejected

Result support the hypothesis


A scientific theory is formed

Problem Statement:

What type of clothes affects how hot


we feel on a hot day?
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Title

Simple Pendulum

Aim

To investigate the relationship


between the length of a string of
pendulum and a time taken of
oscillations?

Problem :
Statement
Hypothesis :
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How does the length of simple


pendulum affect the time taken
of oscillation?
The shorter the length of the string
of pendulum, the shorter the
time taken for 10 oscillation?

Variables:

a) Constant Variable
Number of Oscillation
Mass of the pendulum
b) Manipulated Variable
Length of the simple pendulum
c) Responding Variable
Time taken for 10 oscillation.

Apparatus:
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A retort stand, string, pendulum bob, ruler,


stopwatch.

Steps/procedures:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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Prepare the simple pendulum with a 20cm long thread


Pull the pendulum bob to one side, then release
Record the time taken for 10 complete oscillation in a
table.
Repeat the step 1-3 by using a simple pendulum of
different lengths as shown in the table
Draw the graph showing the time taken verses length of
pendulum for 10 complete oscillation.

Observation / Collecting Data :


The length
of the
string, (cm)

Measurement

Average

Time taken
for 1
complete
swing, T (s)

20
30
40
50
60
Interpreting
Data: Graph
Conclusion: The time taken for the pendulum to make one

complete oscillation is longer when the


length of the pendulum is longer.
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1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units


Physical Quantities
Are quantities that can be measured.
Measured in S.I. units
Basic quantity are length, mass, time,
temperature, and electric current.

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Can and Cannot be Measured

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Me
as
ur
ed
??

CAN

How far an athlete


jumped in a long jump
competition
The amount of materials
something
How long it takes to get
from home to school
How got a glass of
water is
How much electric
current is flowing
through an electric
circuit
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CANNOT

How beautiful a person is


How a durian tastes
How a flower smells
How soft a pillow feels

Table 1.3 The SI units and measuring instruments for specific physical quantities

Physical
quantity
(symbol)

Unit

(symbol)

Measuring
Instrument

Length

Metre

(m)

Metre ruler

Mass

Kilogram

(kg)

Lever/beam balance

Time

Second

(s)

Stopwatch

Temperature

Kelvin

(K)

Thermometer

Electric Current

Ampere

(A)

Ammeter

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What Missing??

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A prefixes
Used in SI units to state a very small or a
very big value.
Table 1.4 Symbols and values of some prefixes

Prefix

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Symbol

Value of prefix

kilo-

1000

centi-

1/100

mili-

1/1000

Table 1.5 Symbols and values of prefixes

Prefix

Symbol

Prefix Value

Standard Form

Tera

1 000 000 000 000

1 x 1012

Giga

1 000 000 000

1 x 109

Mega

1 000 000

1 x 106

Kilo

1000

1 x 103

Hecto

100

1 x 102

Deca

da

10

1 x 101

Deci

0.1 (1/10)

1 x 10-1

Centi

0.01 (1/100)

1 x 10-2

Milli

0.001 (1/1000)

1 x 10-3

Micro

0.000 001

1 x 10-6

Nano

0.000 000 001

1 x 10-9

Piko

0.000 000 000 001

1 x 10-12

Femto
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0.000 000 000 000 001

1 x 10-15

Physical quantities in the prefix and


standard forms.
1. Write the prefix value of prefixes in Table
(a). Then, change the value of the physical
quantity given to the standard form in
Table (b).
PREFIX

PREFIX VALUE

mili
centi
deci
kilo
mega
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Table (a)

VALUE OF PHYSICAL STANDARD


QUANTITY
FORM
5 500 m
0.09 m
500 000 m
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0.000 007 m
0.004 m
Table (b)
564 0000 m
0.000 0068 m
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2. Change the value of the physical


quantities below to the prefix
forms.
a) 300 g =_______________kg
b) 0.04 kg =________________ g
c) 5 300 g = _______________ kg
d) 2 500 m = ______________km
e) 260 m = _____________ km
f) 0.03 m = _____________ cm

1.5 Is Mass the Same as Weight?


The concept of Weight
Define: weight of an object is the pull of the
Earth on the object.
Its called force of gravity or gravitational force
S.I. units : Newton (N)
The weight of an object can change
Weighing devices: spring balance or
compression balance

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The concept of

Mass

Define: mass of an object is quantity of matter


contained in the object
Mass of an object is constant
S.I. units : kilogram (kg)

1kg =10 N

Weighing devices: lever balance, triple-beam


balance or electronic balance

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Table 1.6 Differences between weight and mass

Weight of an object is

Mass of an object is

Due to the pull of the Earth


on the object

The amount of matter in the


object

Change according to places

Remains the same at all place

Measured in Newton (N)

Measured in kilograms (kg)

Measured by using a
spring balance,
compression balance

Measured by using a triplebeam balance, a lever balance


or an electronic balance

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Title
Aim

:
:

Problem :
Statement

To measure the mass and weight of


various objects?
How does the weight and mass
an object can be measure?

Hypothesis :

Variables:

Mass and Weight

Weight of an object can be measure


using the spring balance while the
mass of an object can be measure
using triple beam balance.

a) Constant Variable

Types of Spring balance and


Triple beam balance
b) Manipulated Variable Types of an object
c) Responding Variable Mass and weight of an object

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Apparatus:

A 100 g weight, a piece of rock, exercise book,


spring balance and triple beam balance

Conclusion
The lever balance measures __________ while
the spring balance measures ___________.

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Questions
1. State the meaning of
(a) Mass of an object is the _____________
that is present in the object.
(b) Weight of an object is the _____________
that acts on the object
2. What are the measuring units for mass and
weight?
(a) mass:_______ b) weight: __________
3. Which balance measurement is not influence by
the gravitational force?
4. Name two other balance used to measure the
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mass of an object in the laboratory?

1.6 Learning How to Use Measuring Tools


Measuring Length
Define: Length is the distance between two point
S.I. units : metre (m)
Short length
Long distance

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Measured in centimetres
(cm) or milimetres (mm)
Measured in kilometres (km)

The relationship between the units is as follows:

1 cm = 10 mm
1 m = 100 cm
1 km = 1000 m

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Measuring 'length'
Tools

Function

Figure

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Metre rule,
Half metre
rule, or Ruler

Measuring
Tape

Measure the
length of short
straight lines

Measured the
length of long
straight lines

Thread and
Metre rule
Measure the
length of a
curved line

Activity 1.4 and 1.5


TITTLE
: Length of straight and curve line.
AIM
: To measure the length of straight and curve line
PROBLEM
: How to measure straight and curve line
STATEMENT
HYPOTHESIS: The length of straight line is measured by using a
metre ruler or measuring tape while a curve line is
measured by using thread and metre ruler.
VARIABLE:
Manipulated : the metre ruler, measuring tape and thread
Responding : The measurement of straight and curve line
Control
: 2 times of measurement
Procedure
: (textbook m/s 25 activity 1.4)
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Results:

Objects

Measurements (cm)
1

Pencil
Pen
Pingpong Ball
Bola Sepak
Curved line

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Average

ANALYSIS:
1. What is length?
The _____ between two point.
2. Why should the average value of a few readings be required?
To get a result that is more ___________.
3. State two advantages of a using measuring tape.
(a) can be used to measured ___________________
(b) can measure length of ___________________
4. State why the metre rule is not suitable to measure
(a) the length of classroom:___________________
(b) The thickness of a strand of hair:_____________
5. Suggest how you would measure the length of a river on a map.
__________________________________________________
CONCLUSION:
2. The length of an object can be measure by using a ___________ or
_____________.
3. The length of a curve line can be measure with the use of __ and
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______________.

Measuring 'diameter'
The diameter of objects can be measured using
calipers and a ruler.
External calipers
- used: measure
the external
diameter of an
object

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Internal calipers
- used: measure
the internal
diameter of an
object

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Activity 1.4 and 1.5


TITTLE
: Diameter of objects.
AIM
: To measure the external and internal diameter of
objects using calipers
PROBLEM
: How to measure diameter of an objects
STATEMENT
HYPOTHESIS: The internal diameter can be measure using
Internal Calipers while the external diameter can
be measured using external calipers.
VARIABLE:
Manipulated : Types of Calipers
Responding : The measurement of diameter
Control
: 2 times of measurement
Procedure
: (textbook m/s 26 & 27)
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ANALYSIS:
1. Why are 2 readings for the internal diameter and external diameter
different?
The thickness of the beaker is ______________
2. Calculate the thickness of the beaker wall using the following formula
thickness of beaker = (external diameter internal diameter) x
thickness of beaker wall = _____________________
3. Name two other apparatus in which the external diameter and the internal
diameter can be measured in the same way.
____________________________________________
4. State how you would use a pair of external calipers to measure the thickness
of a sheet paper.
measure the thickness of a hundred sheets of the paper with the
_________________ and divide the value you obtained by ____________.
CONCLUSION:
4. The external diameter and the internal diameter of a beaker can be
measured by using ___________ and _______________.
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Measuring 'area'
Area is the total surface covered by an objects.
SI units: m2, km2, cm2, mm2
Regular or irregular shapes can be estimated using a
graph paper.
The number of squared covered by the shape is than
counted using the following method:
Count the number of complete squares
An incomplete square is counted if half or more of
the square is covered
Do not count an incomplete square if less than half
of the square is covered
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Measuring 'volume'
Volume of liquid are measured using measuring
cylinder, burette and pipette.
SI units: millilitres (ml), cubic centimetres (cm 3)
The level of liquid in any measuring tool is curved
that known as the meniscus

The position of eyes


is at the same level
as the bottom of the
miniscus

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The meniscus of water is concave while the


meniscus of mercury is convex.

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Precautions during taking a reading


1. Measuring cylinder
placed on a flat surface
-. Avoid parallax error
2. Pipette used pipette pump to
sucked the liquid into the
pipette until the bottom of the
meniscus reached the mark on
the pipette.
3. Burette used with retort stand
and filter funnel. Make sure that
the level of the liquid inside the
burette reaches the zero mark.
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Water displacement method


Used to finding the volume of
regular and irregular shaped
solids
The increase in the volume of
the water in the measuring
cylinder is equal to the volume
of the object.

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The volume of water displaced = ( y x ) ml


The volume of the stone

= The volume of water displaced


= (y x) ml
= (y x) cm3

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(1 ml =1cm3)

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Activity 1.7
TITTLE
: Volume of regular and irregular object.
AIM
: To measure the volume of regular and
irregular objects
PROBLEM
: How to measure the volume of marbles
STATEMENT and stone.
HYPOTHESIS: The volume of marble and stone can be
measure by using Water Displacement
Method (measuring cylinder and Eureka
Can)
VARIABLE:
Manipulated: Types of object
Responding : The volume of water
Control: Initial reading of water
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MATERIALS : Marbles, stone , water, thread.


APPARATUS : 100 ml measuring cylinder
PROCEDURE:
a) Half filled a measuring cylinder with water.
b) Recorded the initial reading of the water level.
c) Slowly drop five marbles of equal size into measuring cylinder.
d) Recorded the final reading(volume) of the water level in the
measuring cylinder
e) Repeated the step 1-4 by using the stone.

BSERVATION:

Solid

Five Marbles
Stone
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Cork

Eureka can: Volume of 5 marbles =

Initial
Reading
(ml)

Final
Reading
(ml)

Volume of
Solid (ml)

ANALYSIS:
1. What method is used in this activity?
_____________________________
2. Calculate the volume of one marbles?
_____________________________
3. Can this method be used to measure the volume of a lump of
sugar crystal? Give a reason for your answer.
________. The sugar crystal will _________________ in
water.
CONCLUSION:
The volume of regular and irregular shaped objects can be
determined by using the ____________________________.
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How to increase accuracy of


measurement

Using suitable measuring tools


Using the right technique

Taking several reading

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Measure Temperature
Temperature: The degree of hotness and coldness
of an object.
S.I. unit : Kelvin
In daily life, we used degree celcius (C)
Temperature can be measured by using laboratory
thermometer or clinical thermometer.

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1.7 The Importance of Standard Units

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Basic quantity Unit used /


/ Kuantiti asas Unit yang digunakan
Length
Panjang

Inch, foot, yard, cubit, mile


Inci, kaki, ela, hasta, batu

Centimetre, metre, kilometre


Sentimeter, meter, kilometre
Mass
Jisim

Ounce, pound
Auns, paun

Tahil, Kati
Gram, Kilogram

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Problems :
Using different units gives rise to several
problems such as:
It is difficult to make comparison.
Sukar untuk membuat perbandingan

Foreign tourists may not understand the


units used in the countries they visit
Pelancong asing mungkin tidak memahami unit yang
digunakan di negara yang mereka lawati.

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Measuring length:
1 Inch = 2.54 cm
1 feet = 12 inches = 0.3048 m
1 Yard/ela : 3 foot/kaki = 0.9144 m
1 mile/batu : 1609 m
Measuring mass:
1 Ounce/ Auns = 28.35 g
1 Pound/ paun = 0.4536 kg
1 Kati = 16 Tahils

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Importance :
Using standard units enables scientist:
1. To understand one another measurements and make
accurate comparison.
Memahami pengukuran orang lain dan membuat perbandingan yang jitu.

2. To communicate and understand one another


experiments and research.
Berkomunikasi dan dan memahami eksperimen dan penyelidikan orang lain.

3. To exchange information, knowledge and technology


Bertukar-tukar maklumat, ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi

4. To avoid confusion.
Mengelakkan kekeliruan..

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