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Major 50 Fires & Explosions

1983 to 2003

Pillai Sreejith
pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Abbreviations used:
 VCE-Vapour Cloud Explosion
 BLEVE: Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapour explosion
 DNA- Details Not Available
 FLR- Floating Roof Tank
 Pr- Pressure
 Fr-Fixed Roof tank
 Exp- Explosion
 NA- Not Applicable
 GL- Ground Level
 NK- Not Known
 ff-Fire Fighting
Major Fire / Explosion 1
 Date: 7.1.1983
 Location: New York port, NJ, USA
 Chemical involved: Gasoline
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: VCE
 Cause of Fire: NK
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/0i/0e
 Property loss: 40.3 Million USD
Major Fire / Explosion 2
 Date: 30.08.1983
 Location: Milford Haven, Refinery, U.K.
 Chemical involved: Crude Oil
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire / Boil Over
 Cause of Fire: Crack in the roof allowed vapours to get
ignited by carbon particles from flare
 Time taken to fight fire:15 h
 Problems faced in ff:Insufficient foam
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/2i/0e
 Property loss: 17.3 Million USD
Major Fire / Explosion 3
 Date: 19.11.1984
 Location: LPG Depot, San Juanico, Mexico
 Chemical involved: LPG
 Type of tank: Pr. Vessel
 Event: VCE /BLEVE /Fire
 Cause of Fire: Leak from 12” pipeline ignited by GL
flare
 Time taken to fight fire:8 h
 Problems faced in ff:Nil
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 650d/20000i/200000e
 Property loss: 22.5 Million USD
Major Fire / Explosion 4
 Date: 24.2.1986
 Location: Oil terminal, Thessalonilca, Greece
 Chemical involved: Crude Oil
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: VCE /Exp/Boil Over
 Cause of Fire: Hot work in bund area ignited oil spillage
 Time taken to fight fire:168h
 Problems faced in ff:Burn back of flame in area
extinguished by foam
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 5
 Date: April 1986
 Location: Storage Terminal, Usan, South Korea
 Chemical involved: Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Exp.
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:Nil
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 14d/12i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 6
 Date: April 1986
 Location: Refinery, Singapore
 Chemical involved: Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 7
 Date: May 1986
 Location: Storage Terminal, Saraland, USA
 Chemical involved: Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire /Exp.
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/3i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 8
 Date: May 1986
 Location: Refinery, Sardinia, Italy
 Chemical involved: Gasoline
 Type of tank: Gas
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Soldering iron ignited during maintenance
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 9
 Date: May 1986
 Location: Refinery, Mexico
 Chemical involved: Gas Oil
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Exp.
 Cause of Fire: Lightning
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/3000e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 10
 Date: May 1987
 Location: Storage Terminal, Kuwait
 Chemical involved: LPG
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Sabotage
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 11
 Date: May 1987
 Location: Tokyo, Japan
 Chemical involved: Fuel Oil
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Exp.
 Cause of Fire: Unsafe maintenance act
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 3d/6i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 12
 Date: June1987
 Location: Storage Depot., Lyon, France
 Chemical involved: Gasoilne
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Exp./Fire
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/16i/00e
 Property loss: 12 Million Franc
Major Fire / Explosion 13
 Date: 2.6.1987
 Location: Shell Depot, Port Edoward, Herriot, France
 Chemical involved: Flammable Liquid
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire /Exp./Boil Over
 Cause of Fire: Welding Machine ignited flammable spray
 Time taken to fight fire:32 h
 Problems faced in ff:Inadequate foam / lack of heavy
duty equipment
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 14
 Date: 11.6.1987
 Location: Refinery, Dalmeny, Grangemouth
 Chemical involved: Flammable Liquids
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Sludge with flash point less than 1 C ignited
by a cigarette
 Time taken to fight fire:32 h
 Problems faced in ff:Inadequate foam / lack of heavy duty
equipment
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 15
 Date: Aug 1987
 Location: Philadelphia, USA
 Chemical involved: Gasoline
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Lightning
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA
 Property loss: 24000 barrels burnt
Major Fire / Explosion 16
 Date: Oct 1987
 Location: Plastic plant, Tray Ohio, USA
 Chemical involved: Molten Polymer
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire /Exp.
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/10i/00e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 17
 Date: Dec. 1987
 Location: Refinery, Mumbai
 Chemical involved: Crude Oil
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 18
 Date: Dec.1987
 Location: Chemical Plant, Basle, Switzerland
 Chemical involved: Ethylene Oxide
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Fire / Exp.
 Cause of Fire: Material Fire
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/6i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 19
 Date: 02.01.1988
 Location: Floreffe, Pensylvania
 Chemical involved: Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Tank shifted 100’ away & spillage went to river
 Cause of Fire: Rupture of tank due to low temp
embitterment & ignited by welding equipment
 Time taken to fight fire:NA
 Problems faced in ff:NA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 20
 Date: April 1988
 Location: Petrochemical Plant, Jubail, Saudi Arabia
 Chemical involved: Ethylene
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Missile Attack
 Time taken to fight fire:1 week
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 21
 Date: May 1988
 Location: Storage Terminal, Chihuahua City, Mexico
 Chemical involved: Gasoline
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Exp.
 Cause of Fire: Electrical Short Circuit
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/150000e
 Property loss: USD 0.5 Million
Major Fire / Explosion 22
 Date: June 1988
 Location: Storage Terminal, Sines, Portugal
 Chemical involved: Fuel Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Exp./Fire / Roof Blowing
 Cause of Fire: NK
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:Flying roof fell on firemen
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/03i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 23
 Date: 15.06.1988
 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Genoa, Italy
 Chemical involved: Hydrogen
 Type of tank: Pr. Vessel
 Event: Exp.
 Cause of Fire: NK
 Time taken to fight fire:NK
 Problems faced in ff:NA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/02i/15000e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 24
 Date: 23.06.1988
 Location: Storage Terminal, Mexico
 Chemical involved: Gasoline
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Exp.
 Cause of Fire: Sparks of soldering iron ignited overfilled
contents through corroded roof
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 04d/14i/10000e
 Property loss: USD 3 Million
Major Fire / Explosion 25
 Date: 16.07.1988
 Location: Refinery, California
 Chemical involved: Hydrogen Peroxide
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Exp. /Spillage of 600 BBL
 Cause of Fire: Sparks welding torch
 Time taken to fight fire:NA
 Problems faced in ff:Crew built dykes for containment
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/05i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 26
 Date: 23.10.1988
 Location: Electronics Industry, Sunnywale, California, USA
 Chemical involved: Silane Gas
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Auto Ignition
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:Fire continued till product is consumed
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/04i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 27
 Date: 25.10.1988
 Location: Refinery, Singapore
 Chemical involved: Naphtha
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: NK
 Time taken to fight fire: 5 days
 Problems faced in ff:Mutual Aid sought from govt. &
industries
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: USD 8 Million
Major Fire / Explosion 28

 Date: 09.01.1988
 Location: Refinery, Mahul, Mumbai
 Chemical involved: Naphtha
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Exp/fire/roof blowing
 Cause of Fire: Pipeline burst
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 12d/40i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 29
 Date: 17.01.1989
 Location: Fertlizer Plant, Bhatinda, Punjab
 Chemical involved: Ammonia
 Type of tank: DNA
 Event: Gas leak & Fire
 Cause of Fire: Not Known
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/500i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 30
 Date: 20.03.1989
 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Janova, Lithuania
 Chemical involved: Ammonia
 Type of tank: Refrigerated storage
 Event: Fire / Toxic release
 Cause of Fire: NH3 vapour pressure increased and tank burst due to NH3
compressor failure
 Time taken to fight fire:12 h for tank fire & 72 h for fertilizer
plant
 Problems faced in ff:NA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 07d/57i/3000e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 31
 Date: 22.03.1989
 Location: Storage terminal, Sulfam Voe, U.K.
 Chemical involved: Crude Oil
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Lightning
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 32
 Date: 26.03.1989
 Location: Refinery, Porvoo, Finland
 Chemical involved: Hexane
 Type of tank: Floating chamber storage tank
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Not Known
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 33
 Date: 30.06.1989
 Location: Power Station, Puerto Ayacuho, Venezuela
 Chemical involved: Fuel Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire / Boil Over
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 34
 Date: 26.08.1989
 Location: Refinery,Bahrain
 Chemical involved: Petroleum Products
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/03i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 35
 Date: 17.10.1989
 Location: Storage Terminal, Rotterdam
 Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Explosion
 Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 36
 Date: 29.05.1991
 Location: Refinery, Vishakapatinam
 Chemical involved: Naphtha
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Lightning strike
 Time taken to fight fire:1 hour
 Problems faced in ff:though Halon acted, foam and
portable fire extinguishers also were used
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 08d/0i/0e
 Property loss: approx. 55 lakhs
Major Fire / Explosion 37
 Date: 11.07.1991
 Location: ONGC, Mehsana, Gujarat
 Chemical involved: Crude Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire / Roof & shell were blown out
 Cause of Fire: lightning strike (tank not earthed)
 Time taken to fight fire:2 ½ h
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/0i/0e
 Property loss: Rs. 1 crore
Major Fire / Explosion 38
 Date: 21.08.1991
 Location: Tank terminal, Coodee Island, Australia
 Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Lifting of tanks from base & bund, pool fires,
tank explosion
 Cause of Fire: NK
 Time taken to fight fire:NK
 Problems faced in ff:NK
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e
 Property loss: USD 24 million
Major Fire / Explosion 39
 Date: 02.11.1994
 Location: Tank Depot, Dronka, Egypt
 Chemical involved: Aviation / Diesel
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Blazing liquid flowed into village
 Cause of Fire: Lightning
 Time taken to fight fire:NK
 Problems faced in ff:NK
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: NK
 Property loss: NK
Major Fire / Explosion 40
 Date: 08.04.1995
 Location: Barouch
 Chemical involved: Impure Methanol
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire & Explosion
 Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 41
 Date: 04.08.1995
 Location: Refinery, Baroda
 Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire / Fire Ball
 Cause of Fire: Ineffective spark arrestor provided
 Time taken to fight fire:27 h
 Problems faced in ff:Intense fire did not allow people to
go near the dyke
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: NK
Major Fire / Explosion 42
 Date: 31.12.1995
 Location: Pharmaceutical factory, Mohali, Chandigarh
 Chemical involved: Toulene / HCL
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Static Electricity
 Time taken to fight fire:3 ½ h
 Problems faced in ff:Nil
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: Rs. 3.25 crores
Major Fire / Explosion 43
 Date: 05.01.1996
 Location: Petroleum Company, Manesar, India
 Chemical involved: Acid
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Explosion
 Cause of Fire: Clogging of filter
 Time taken to fight fire:NA
 Problems faced in ff:NA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 44
 Date: 10.02.1996
 Location: Thane
 Chemical involved: Furnace Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Fire & Explosion
 Cause of Fire: Overheating of coils due to low oil level
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 45
 Date: 09.09.1996
 Location: Refinery, Digboi
 Chemical involved: Crude Oil
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Flash fire through storm water drain
 Cause of Fire: Spark from nearby hutment
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 46
 Date: 24.09.1996
 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Rourkela
 Chemical involved: Naphtha
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: DNA
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/2i/0e
 Property loss: DNA
Major Fire / Explosion 47
 Date: 20.07.1997
 Location: Refinery, Haldia
 Chemical involved: Crude
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Tank rim fire
 Cause of Fire: Lightning
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:DNA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e
 Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs
Major Fire / Explosion 48
 Date: 07.10.1997
 Location: Refinery, Gujarat
 Chemical involved: Naphtha
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Smoke / Fire from the tank roof
 Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron
 Time taken to fight fire:DNA
 Problems faced in ff:Foam used, mutual aid assistance
from neighboring industries called in for help
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e
 Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs
Major Fire / Explosion 49
 Date: 07.03.2003
 Location: Refinery, Digboi, Assam
 Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol
 Type of tank: FLR
 Event: Fire
 Cause of Fire: Terrorism
 Time taken to fight fire:60 h
 Problems faced in ff:Fire fighting hampered due to
collapse of floating roof and partial tank shell
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: Rs. 11.25 crores
Major Fire / Explosion 50
 Date: 09.04.2003
 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Paradep,Orissa
 Chemical involved: Phosphoric Acid
 Type of tank: FR
 Event: Explosion
 Cause of Fire: Pressurization of tank due to generation of
Hydrogen due to reaction between Phosphoric acid and steel
 Time taken to fight fire:NA
 Problems faced in ff:NA
 Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil
 Property loss: Rs. 4 crores
Thank you!!

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com