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CELL STRUCTURE AND

CELL ORGANISATION

Plasma
membrane

A typical plant cells

MITOCHONDRION

Chloroplast

Nucleus

Plasma membrane

Complete the table below


Organel/ Part
of cells

Function

Nucleus

Absorb light for photosynthesis

Ribosome

Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum

Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
Processing, packaging and transporting phospholipids and
glycoprotein
Mitochondrion
Vacuole
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Cell wall

Complete the table below


Organel/ Part
of cells
Nucleus

Chloroplast

Ribosome

Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum

Function
Controls the activities of the cell.
Responsible for cell reproduction.

Absorb light for photosynthesis

The main sites of


protein synthesis
Transports proteins
made by the ribosomes
through the cistemea

Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
Golgi
apparatus

Mitochondrion
Vacuole
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Cell wall

Is the site of lipid and


steroid synthesis

Processing, packaging and transporting phospholipids and


glycoprotein
Is the main site where aerobic respiration takes place to
release energy for cell activities.
Contains water and dissolved substances such as
sugars and mineral salts
Controls the chemicals that enter or leave the cell. Allows
only some substances to pass trough it and stops others.
Supports the organelles such as mitochondria, vacuoles and
chloroplast in the cell. Site where most of the cell activities and
chemicals reactions take place.

It protects and gives support to the cell


It gives the cell a regular shape.

QUESTIONS?

Identify organelles and non organelles


Nucleus, mitochondria,
chloroplast, Vacuoles, ribosomes,
lysosomes, Golgi Apparatus

List organel with


a. Single layered membrane
Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic
Reticulum, Ribosom

b. Double layered membrane


Nucleus, Mitochondria,
chloroplast

Plasma
membrane,
cell wall,

Predict which organelle which is found in


large numbers in each cell shown below.
Explain why?

ORGANEL:MITOCHONDRION
Explanation : mitochondrion is a
site for cellular respiration which
release energy.
Sperm cells require large
amounts of energy to propel
towards the uterus and fallopian
tube during fertilization.

Nerves cells

Organelle : mitochondria

Explanation : mitochondrion is a
site for cellular respiration
which release energy.
Nerve cells require large
amounts of energy to bring
impulse.

Pancreas tissue
Organelle : ribosome,
endoplasmic reticulum
and mitochondria

Explanation :
Ribosome : synthesis enzyme
( protein )
Rough endoplasmic reticulum :
transport protein
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum :
synthesis and transport fat
Mitochondria : site for energy
production to synthesis and
transport protein

Muscle fibre

Organelle : mitochondria

Explanation :
mitochondrion is a site for
cellular respiration which
release energy.
Muscles require large
amounts of energy to
contract.

Mesophyll and palisade cells


Organelle : chloroplast

Explanation : absorbed
light for photosynthesis

Meristematic tissues
Organelle: mitochondria

Explanation : mitochondrion
is a site for cellular
respiration which release
energy.
Meristematic cells require
large amounts
of energy to run mitosis.

DIAGRAM 1

Amoeba sp

CELL ORGANISATION
Amoeba sp.

No.

Component

Nucleus

-for movement
- surrounds and engulfs the food particle

Food vacuoles

Contractile vacuole

Function

- regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell


(only allows small molecules)

CELL ORGANISATION
Parammecium sp.

No.
1

Component
Nucleus

-for movement
- surrounds and engulfs the food particle

Food vacuoles

Contractile vacuole

Function

- regulates the movement of substances into and out of the


cell (only allows small molecules)

Cell organisation in multicellular


organisms
CELL
TISSUE
ORGAN
SYSTEM

Cells and tissues of human

ANIMAL TISSUES
4 TYPES
a. Epithelial tissue
b. Muscle tissue
c. Connective tissue
d. Nerves tissue

ANIMAL TISSUES
1. Muscle tissue
a. Skeletal muscle
b. Smooth muscle
c. Cardiac muscle

Animal tissues
2. Connective tissue
a. Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) and
white blood cells (Leucocytes)
b. Bone tissues
c. Ligament and tendon
d. Adipose tissue
e. Cartilage

Animal tissues
3. Ephitelial tissue

Animal tissues
4. Nerves tissues

Organ skin
Can you identify the different types of tissues

Can you name other organs found


in your body?

Guess what type of tissues???


Goblet cells

Adipose tissue

Guess what type of tissue?

LUMEN

Bone tissues

Blood Cells

Which of these muscle tissues are


involved in involuntary movement?

Diagram shows a cell organisation


in a multicellular organisation.
Cell

x
Organism

Organ
system

Which of the following cannot be represented by X ?


A. Vascular

B Flower C Xylem

D Parenchyma

Plant tissues
4 types:a. Epidermis tissues
b. Meristematic tissues
c. Ground tissues
d. Vascular tissues

Plant tissues
1.

2. Meristematic tissue

Ground tissue

Cell walls are thickened by cellulose and


pectin
Unevenly thickened cell walls

Cell wall uniformly thickened by lignin

3. Vascular tissue

phloem

Organ stem
Can you identify the type of
tissues?

Organ leaves
Can you identify the tissues?

Organ- root

Other example of organ in plants are


flower and fruits

Flowering plants consist of two main


systems
a. Root system (consist of all the roots in
a plant)
b. Shoot system ( consist of stem, leaves,
buds, flowers and fruits)

What is meant by internal


environment?
The internal environment of a multicellular
organism consist of interstitial fluid and
blood plasma

Why is it necessary to maintain an


optimal internal environment?
So that cells can function effectively
To enable the metabolic reactions and
physiological processes to proceed even
though the internal environment fluctuates
substantially

What are the factors that need to


be maintain?
1. Physical factors ( temperature, blood
pressure, osmotic pressure)
2. Chemical factors ( salt content, sugar
content and pH value)

How can the factors be maintain?


By homeostasis
What is homeostasis?
The process of maintaining a relatively constant
internal environment.
Example: Any increase or decrease in the value of
a physical or chemical factors will trigger the
homeostatic mechanism to bring it back to
normal.
The mechanism that governs homeostasis is
called the negative feedback mechanism.

What are the systems involved in


regulating the blood glucose level?

Nervous system
Circulatory system
Endocrine system

What are the system involves


in regulating the body
temperature?

Nervous sytem
Integumentary
system
Endocrine system

The body systems that control the


blood osmotic pressure include the
I
II
III
IV

Excretory system
Circulatory system
Endocrine system
Nervous system

NUCLEUS contain genetic information for protein synthesis

RIBOSOMES the site of protein synthesis.

ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM newly synthesised proteins


are transported through the RER. The proteins are enclosed in a
vesicles which bud off from the sides of the RER as transport vesicles

GOLGI APPARATUS the proteins are processed, modified, sorted


and repackaged into new vesicles

The vesicles bud off from the Golgi


Apparatus and travel to other part of the
cells or fused with the plasma membrane to
be released to the outside of the cell

What happen to the cells when


certain organels are not present?
No.

Organelle

effect of the absent

Nucleus

All cell activity cannot be


controlled.

Golgi Apparatus

Synthesis of carbohydrates,
glycoprotein and hormone
cannot be finished.

Secretory Vesicles

Smooth ER

Mitochondrion

Protein which has been modified


cannot be transport out of the cell.
Synthesis and transported of fat and
glycerol cannot be done.
No energy produced