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CHAPTER 1
Introd uction
Concrete
Concrete is a m ixture of water, cem ent, san d, gravel crush ed rock, or other aggregates. The agg regates (sand, gravel, crushed rock) are held together in a rocklike m ass w ith a paste of cement and wa ter.
REINFORCED CON CRETE
As with m ost rocklike m ass, concrete has veryhighcom pressive strength but haveavery low tensile strength. As a structural mem ber, concrete can be made to carry tensilestresses (as in beam in fl exure). In this regard, it is necessary to provide steel bars top rovide the tensile strength lacking in concrete. Thecom positem em ber iscalled
reinforced concrete
.
AGGREG ATES
Aggregates usedinconcrete may befi neaggregates (usuallysand)and coarseaggregates (usually gravel or crushed stone). Fine aggregates are those that passesthrough a No. 4 sieve (about 6 mm in size). Materia ls retained are coarse aggrega tes.The nom inal m axim um sizes of coarse aggregate are specifi ed in Section 5. 3.3 ofN SCP. These are follow s: 1/5 the narrowe st dime nsion between sides o f forms, 1/ 3 thedepth of slabs, or 3/4 the m inimum clear spacing b etween individual reinforcing bars orw ires, bundles o f bars, or prestressing tendons or ducts. These lim itations m ay not beapplied if, in the judgment the Engineer, workability and methods of consolidation aresuch that concrete can be placed without hon eycom b or voids.
WATER
Accord ingto Section 5. 3.4, w ater used in m ixing concreteshall be clean andfree from injurious of oils, acids, alkalis, salts organic m aterials o r other substances tha t may bedeleterious to concre te or reinforcem ent. Mixing water for prestressed concrete or for
concrete that will contain alum inum em bedments, includin g that portion of m ixing w ater
contributed in the form of free moisture on aggregates, sha ll not be used in concreteunless the following are satisfi ed: (
a)
Selection of concrete proportions shall be basedon concrete m ixes using water from the sam e source and (
b
) mortar test cubes madew ith non-portable m ixing water shall ha ve 7-days and 28 day strengths equal to at least90

MO DULUS OF ELASTIC ITY


Unlike steel and other m aterials, concrete has no defi nite m odulus of elasticity. Its value isdepe ndent on the characteristics of cem ent and aggregates used, age of concrete and strengths. According to NSCP (Section 5. 8.5), m odulus of elasticity E
c
for con crete for values

of

w
c,
between 1500 and 2500 kg/ m
3
m ay be taken as.Eq. 1-1

W here

is the day 28-day com pressive strength of concrete in MPa

is the unit weighton

concrete in

. For norm al w eight concrete,

Modulus of elasticity E
s
for nonprestressed reinforced m ay be taken as 200 ,000 MPa.
DETAILS OF R EINFORC EMENT
STANDARD HOO KS
Standa rd hook s refer to one of the following :1. 180-degree bendp lus

extension but not less than 60 mm at free end of bar. 2. 90-degree bedp lus

extension at free end of bar. 3. For stirrups and tiehooks: a) 61 mm diameter bar and smaller, 90-degree bend plus

extension atfree end bar, orb)20 and 25 m m diam eter bar, 90-degree bend, plus

extension at freeend of bar, orc)25m m diam eter bar and smaller, 135-degree bend dplus

extension atfree end of bar.

MINIM UM BEND DIAM ETERS (SEC TION 407.3 )


Diameter of bend measured on the inside of the ba r, other than for stirrups and ties insizes 10m m through 15 m m, shall not be less than the values in Table 1. 1. In side diameter of bend for stirrups and ties shall not be less than

16 mm bar an dsm aller. For bars larger than 16 m m, diame ter of b end shall be in accordance w ithTable 1. 1Insid e diam eter of bend in welded w ire fa bric /9p lain or deform ed) for stirrups and tiesshall no t be less than

for deformed wire larg er than D56 and

for all other wires. Ben ds with inside diameter of less than 8db shall not be less than

from nearestwelded intersection.


Table 1 .1
- M inim um Diameters of BendBarSizeM inim um Diameter1 0 m m to25 m m

28 m m, 32 m m, and 36 mm

PLAIN REINFORCEMEN T (407. 6)


Reinforcem ent, prestressing tendons, and du cts shall not be accura tely pla ced andadequately be fore concrete is placed, and shall be secured against displacem ent w ithinto lerance perm itted.Unless othe rw ise specifi ed by the Engineer, reinforcement prestressing tendons, andp restressing ducts shall be placed within the following tolerances: Tolerance for depth d, and minim um concrete over a fl exural m em bers walls andcom pression mem bers shall be as follow s:

Effective depth, d Tolerance on dTolerance on minim umconcretecover


d

-10 m md


-12 m m
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Except that tolerance for the clear distance to form ed soffi ts shall be minus 6 mm andtolerance for cover shall not exceed minus 1/ 3 the minim um concrete cover required inthe d esign drawings or specifi cations. Tolerance for longitudinal location of bends and ends of reinforce ment shall be

50mm except at discontinuous ends of m embers w here to lerance shall be

m m.
SPACING LIM ITS FOR REIN FO RCEMEN T
Accord ingfor Section 5.7. 6 o f NSCP, them inimum clear spacing betw eenparallel barsin a layer should be d
b
but not less th an 25 mm . W here parallel reinforcement is

placedin tw o or more layers, bars in the up per layers should be p laced directly a bove bars inthe bottom layer with clear distance between layers not less than 25m m. In spirallyreinforced or tied reinforced com pression mem bers, clear distance between longitudinalbars shall be not less than 1.5 d
b
nor 40m m. In walls an d slabs other than con crete joist construction, primary fl exural reinforced shallbe spaced n ot for farther a part than three tim es the w all or slab thickness, nor 450 m m .
BUNDLED BARS

Groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact to act as unit shall be lim ited tofour in any one bundle. Bundled bars sha ll be en closed w ithin stirrups or ties and barslarger than 32 m m shall not be bundle in beam s. Th e individual bars w ithin the span offl exural m em bers should termin ate at diff erent points with at least 40 d
b
stagger. Sincespacing lim itations and minim um concrete cover of most m embers are based on asingle diameter d
b,
bundled bars shall be treated as a single bar of a diameter derivedfrom the equivalent total area.
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