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How and Why?
 “Qualitative

research helps
extract feelings, emotions,
motivations, perceptions,
consumer language, or

Depth interviewsquestion types
 Open-


 Silent

prompt- head nodding, smiling

 Floating

prompts- Really? That’s so interesting!

 Planned

prompts – Could u tell me more abt..

 Contrast
 Category


 Sequence


Types of Research
using IDIs

Narrative  Ask participants to relate their personal experiences and feelings related to historical events or past behaviour.  Used to develop products. like. books .

Cultural Interviews  Relate experiences with a culture/subculture.  To determine product positioning/ advertising creation. .  The knowledge participants plan to pass on to future generations.  Includes the knowledge passed on by prior generations.

Life Histories  Memories and experiences from childhood to present day regarding a product/ service category. tastes and preferences over their lives wrt pdt/bd. perceptions and preferences altered by life experiences. brand or firm.  For advertising development and positioning .  Includes significant people.

.Critical Incident Technique  Incident- any observable human activity sufficiently complete to permit inferences and make predictions. A set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior.

 Researcher refines the questions with each interview in order to converge on the central issues or themes in a topic area.  Structured process and unstructured content.Convergent Interviewing  Experts as participants in a sequential series of IDIs.  To develop appropriate questions for research. .

advertising development. product design .  For store design.  Helps the participant recall the detail of his/her own experience.  Details related to shopping behaviour or product use behaviour.Sequential Interviewing  Questions formed around an anticipated series of activities that did/might have happened.

 Records all observed behavior and describes ethnic groups. .  Researcher observes society from the point of view of subject of the society. formations.Ethnography  Systematic study of people and cultures. compositions. materiality.

 Ethnographers behaviour.High-tech Ethnography  Technology companies use ethnography to better understand how people actually use the technologies . took note of observed .  To grasp how technologies might be adopted in the future.  iSociety used ethnography throughout a yearlong investigation into families’ broadband habits.

 Broadband technology not as the “consumption of content”.Key insights  “wow moments”. .  A dynamic social process of creative interaction between families.the experience of discovering an online activity that makes the internet make sense in user’s life. friends and work colleagues.

or redesign and advertising and promotion development.  To determine product design.  Data collection and re-collection leading to codes. categories and theme. .Grounded theory  Construction of theory through analysis of data.

Product Development & Communication Strategy  Cheskin. consulting and strategic research firm. Teens .Pepsi.

 High online conversion rate.The woes of cyber shopping  Online vendors  Boston Consulting Group study indicates 65% of shoppers abandon merchandise in their carts.  Understand what caused abandonment and discover ways to eliminate such carts. .

Research .

Anti-abandonment program Ditch the jargon e-ordering and use the jargon of store shopping .

yet stimulating.Dreamworks  Steven Spielberg  Planning a movie  Where do you start?  What will the future be like?  What special effects will seem plausible. to today’s audience?  What special effects will help move the story line of a police officer to catch criminals before a crime is committed? .

law enforcement and advertising. social issues. .  Each brought expertise in a special area: entertainment. the environment.  They conceived hundreds of mind-pictures that Spielberg’s creative genius turned into special effects.Research  Spielberg invited 23 of the best futuristic minds to join him for a three-day retreat. transportation.

IBM  Strategy- create a strong connection between IBM and its customer.  Finding out form customers their most troubling business problems. .

Research  Customer  Team: Interviews Four in a box  Sales executive in charge of corporate account  Representative from services division  A person from software unit  A person form IBM research labs .

automobile.Reorganization  An executive level consulting firm rather than a technology services company. utilities. life sciences…)  IBM labs refocusing on modeling patterns of human behaviour to help solve business problems.  Company reorganized into 12industry groups (baking. . insurance.

Hamilton Beach  Small –kitchen-appliance powerhouse in USA.  Global marketing strategy.  Sold one in every four appliance in USA.logical extension. .

Research  Focus groups.Mexico and Europe.  Mexico Brand was considered quality  Selection criteria similar to Americans  Europe Lack of brand awareness  Severe problems .

SYNOVATE (Ipsos)  Detailed narrative of their last purchase within the category. product designers need to redefine. aspects  Clunky. institutional products  Product not ready for European market. startling issues.  Participants  Significant raised new . .BGIGlobal. sturdy designs  Professional.

Types of Research using PTs .

service or brand.Analogy  To learn about perception of imagery related to company. product. what would it be? .  If BMW were an animal.

service or brand.  If IBM were a person.Personification  To better understand the characteristics and image of a company. what would it be? . product.

.  Filling bubbles with speech. thought or feelings for cartoon characters. conflicting attitudes.Bubble drawings  Useful for obtaining multiple perspectives.


 How would you draw the competition between brand X and Y? . or image of a company.Metaphorical drawing  To describe an ideal or typical product user. brand or product in detail.

Picture decks  To profile a user segment or product category or emotions elicited by a company. service or brand  Informants divide an array of photographs into groups to portray how they envision a category. product. .

 Working outwards in a kind of tree diagram form focal object.Mind mapping  Elicit details about a behaviour. situation. . relationship or product benefits. feelings and associations.  Informants write down thoughts.



 Informants map focal objects on a two-dimensional continuum.Four cells  To explore interplay between brand attributes within a competitive set. .


Combining Qualitative Methodologies .

. situation.  To obtain multiple perspectives of an individual. event or process.CASE STUDY  Case history A powerful research methodology that combines  individual /group interviews  record analysis and  observation. organization.

 Thick description. extreme or unusual cases. Single/multiple case studies.  Investigating a phenomenon within its real life context. .  Examples or subjects as critical.

planned and implemented  Results of actions are observed and recorded  Action is assessed as effective or not .  Studies effects of applied solutions  The scenario is studied  The corrective action is determined.Action Research  To address problems about which little is known.