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CHAPTER 2

CELL AS THE BASIC UNIT


OF LIFE
Prepared by: En. Shafie Bin Buyamin

CHAPTER 2:
CELL AS THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE

WHAT IS CELL?
-Organisms are made up of cells
-A cell is the basic unit of living
things
-Only seen under microscope

THE FUNCTION OF CELL


STRUCTURES
Cell Structure Function
Nucleus

Controls all the cell activities

Cytoplasm

Place

where chemical
processes occur
Store food and waste
products

Cell Membrane Controls the movement of


substances in and out of the
cell

Cell Structure
Cell Wall

Function
Supports and
maintains the shape
of the cell
Made from cellulose

Vacuoles

Store water and


dissolved minerals

Chloroplast

Contains

chlorophyll
(green pigment)
Make
photosynthesis to
make food and
oxygen.

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFEENCES


BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT
CELL
Plant cell
Present

Structure
Nucleus

Animal cell
Present

Present
Present

Cytoplasm Present
Cell
Present
Membrane

PLANT CELL STRUCTURE ANIMAL


CELL
Fixed
Shape
Not fixed
Present

Cell Wall

Absent

Present

Vacuoles

Absent

Present

Chloroplas Absent
t

MICROSCOPE
A

tool that enables to look at cells

Make

a cell much bigger

Draw Figure 2.2 Page : 37 Text Book

HOW TO USE A
MICROSCOPE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Put the microscope on a table with the


arm towards you
Turn the low power objective lens until you
hear the click sound.
Make sure that the low power objective
lens is above the hole in the stage.
Open the diaphragm to the maximum
opening.
Look through the eyepiece. Adjust the
mirror until you see a bright, circular area.

6. Put a specimen slide over the hole of the


stage. Fix the slides position with the clips.
7. Turn the course focus knob to lower the
objective lens to about 10mm above the slide.
8. Look through the eyepiece. Turn the course
focus knob to move the objective lens
upwards until you can see a clear image.
9. Turn the fine focus knob to get a sharp image.
10. Turn the high objective lens until you hear the
click sound.
11. Repeat Step 9.

HOW TO CARRY A
MICROSCOPE
1. Hold the arm with one hand
2. Put another hand under the
base as a support

THINGS TO REMEMBER
1. Always keep clean and dry
2. Use low objective lens first
before high objective lens
3. Turn focus knob slowly and
carefully. Not to break the slide.

HOW TO PREPARE A
SLIDE
1. Cheek cell (Animal Cell)
Its has the general structure of
animal cell.
It has nucleus, cytoplasm and
cell membrane.
Methylene blue solution colours
the cell.

2. Onion cell (Plant Cell)


Its has nucleus, cytoplasm, cell
membrane, vacuole and
chloroplast.
Iodine solution colours the cell.

UNICELLULAR AND
MULTICELLULAR
ORGANISMS
Living
Living

things known as organisms.

things that very tiny and can


only seen under microscope called
microorganisms.

Unicellular

organism: Made up of
one cell only

Example:

Chlamydomonas,
amoeba, yeast, paramecium,
pleurococcus, euglena.

Multicellular

organisms: Made up
of more than one cell

Example:

Spirogyra, Mucor,
Hydra, animals, trees, human

CELL ORGANISATION IN THE


HUMAN BODY
Human

body is made up of many


types of cells

Specialised

function

Type of Cell Function


Muscle Cell
Enables to moves
Epithelial Cell Cover and protect the
body surfaces
Bone cell
Nerve cell

Protect and support the


body
Carry impulses
(information) in our
body

Type of Cell

Function

Sperm

Male cell. For


reproduction

Red blood cell

Transport oxygen
around the body

White blood cell Kill the bacteria that


enter the body

ORGANISATION OF CELLS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cell: The basic unit of life


Tissues: A group of similar cells that work
together to perform a function.
Organ: Made up of different tissues that
work together to perform a function.
System: Made up of different organs that
work together to perform a function.
Organism: Made up of different systems
that work together.

SYSTEMS IN THE HUMAN


BODY
System

Organ

Function

Respiratory
system

Nose,
- Supply
trachea, lungs oxygen and
remove
carbon
dioxide

Blood
circulatory
system

Heart, blood
vessel

-Carries

oxygen and
food.
- Remove

System

Organ

Function

Digestive
system

Mouth,
oesophagus,
stomach,
intestine

- Digest and
absorb food

Muscular
system

Muscles

- Body
movement

System

Organ

Function

Nervous
system

Brain, spinal
cord, nerve

Excretory
system

Kidney, skin,
lungs

Reproductive
system
Skeletal
system

Testis, penis,
uterus, ovary
Bones, skull

- Detects and
sends
information
- Removes
wastes from
body
- Produces
offspring
- Support and
protect

HUMAN BEINGS ARE


COMPLEX ORGANISMS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Made up of billions of cells


Has a specific cell organisation.
Each cell performs specific
function.
Ability to think, imagines, creates,
learn, and use languages.

Cell

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Cheek Cell

Onion Cell

Unicellular Organism

Paramecium

Yeast

Multicellular Organism

Type of Cell

System in the Human Body

Skeletal System

Female Reproductive System