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Attitudes

Attitdude
General disposition positive evaluation
or negative evaluation of objects, events,
things
The closer the match between attitude
and behavior, the stronger the
relationship:
Specific attitudes predict specific
behavior
General attitudes predict general
behavior

CAB Model of an Attitude


Component

Measured by

Cognition
Attitude scales
I believe my
knowledge
Verbal statements
boss plays
Affect
Physiological indicators
Intellectual
about beliefs
Emotions
Verbal statements
favorites.
about feelings
Behavioral
Observed behavior
intentions
Verbal statements
Tendency to act
about intentions

Example

I dont like
my boss.

I want to
transfer to
another dept

Questions
Happiness Love
or Material
Happiness
Job
Salary or Job
Profile
Important Organization or
Personal
Goal Achievement Tough
means Tender
Source of identity
Individual
collective

Cognitive Dissonance
Does Behavior Always Follow from
Attitudes?
A state of tension that is produced
when an individualattitude
behavior
experiences conflict
between attitudes
and behavior
Pieces of knowledge, information,
or beliefs held by an individual are
contradictory.

Moderating Variables
The most powerful moderators of the
attitude-behavior relationship are:
Importance of the attitude
Attitude relevance & self-interest
Rewards involved
Accessibility
Existence of social pressures
Correspondence to behavior
Personal and direct experience of the
attitude
Personality factors - ex. self-monitoring

Attitudes predict behavior, as


influenced by moderating variables.

Cognitive Routes to
Persuasion
High
Elaboration

Careful
processing

Attitude change
depending on
quantity of arguments

Absence of
careful
processing

Attitude change
depending on source
characteristics or
non-substantial aspects
of the message

Message
Low
Elaboration

What Are the Major Job


Attitudes?
Job Satisfaction

A positive feeling about the job resulting from


an evaluation of its characteristics-A
pleasurable or positive emotional state
resulting from the appraisal of ones job or
job experience

Job Involvement

Degree of psychological identification with


the job where perceived performance is
important to self-worth.

Psychological Empowerment

Belief in the degree of influence over the job,


competence, job meaningfulness, and
autonomy.

Employee
Responses
to
Job Performance
Satisfied workers
are
Dissatisfaction
productive &
productive workers
are satisfied!
OCB
Influences OCB
through perceptions
of fairness.
Customer Satisfaction
Satisfied employees
increase customer
satisfaction and
loyalty.
Less - Absenteeismless Turnover-Deviance

Exit
Behavior directed
toward leaving
Voice
Active and
constructive attempts
to improve
Neglect
Allowing conditions to
worsen
Loyalty
Passively waiting for
conditions to improve

Job Satisfaction - EVLN


Model
Active
Exit
Sabotage

Voice

Constructive

Destructive
Neglect

Loyalty

Passive

organizational
citizenship behavior
The willingness to work for the good
of the organization without the
promise of a specific reward
Identifying with a particular
organization and its goals, while
wishing to maintain membership in
Goes above and beyond call of duty.
Satisfied workers may show OCB.
Workers with service orientationempathy

Organizational
Commitment
Organizational Citizenship Behavior -Behavior that is
above and beyond duty
Is it Related to job
satisfaction??
Organizational
Commitment
The strength of an
individuals
identification with
an organization

Affective Commitment

Continuance Commitment

Normative Commitment

Organizational Commitment
Affective
Commitment

Emotional attachment to,


identification with,
involvement

Normative
Commitment

ones moral obligation to


remain with the
organization

Continuance
Commitment

Perceived cost associated


with discontinuing
employment

Major Job Attitudes


Perceived Organizational Support (POS)

Degree to which employees believe the


organization values their contribution and cares
about their well-being.
Higher when rewards are fair, employees are
involved in decision-making, and supervisors are
seen as supportive.
High POS is related to higher OCBs and
performance.

Employee Engagement

The degree of involvement, satisfaction with, and


enthusiasm for the job.
Engaged employees are passionate about their
work and company.

Attitudes
Why a person behaves in a particular
manner?
Persistent tendency to feel, Think,
and intention to act towards an object
Basic disposition towards objects
How do we evaluate aperson,
situation, object
How do we respond/behave in a
situation
Favorable or unfavorable disposition

Components
Cognitive - Beliefs based on
information
How do we form opinions about ?
Judge - successful or not successful?
Based on what you hear? What others
say? Merely beliefs or prejudices?

Affect/Emotion Desirable or
undesirable feelings- Despite having
good information or bad information
we dislike/like
Actual response to determined by this

Values
What is important to us and what is
not
Reputation- Org -What is morally desirable
and not
Values are priorities we have importance
How strong our values ?

Basic conviction that specific mode of


conduct is personally & socially
prefererable than
Who we are & what we decide ?
motivation, behavior Influence

Values
serves as a guide to action.
constructs
representing
behaviors or states of affairs
Value Systems

generalized

systems of beliefs that affect what the individual


defines as right, good, and fair
value fit lead to high performance-person-role
conflict.

Belifs
Do situations shake your values ?
Ideas formed by defaults Internal
concepts
Determine core existence - Self & Others
Empowering beliefs & Disempowering
belifs

Strong - Firmly held consistently


displayed
Weak - Not internalized
Terminal Most desirable for our lives
- Goals

Terminal Values Ambitious (hard


Instrumental
working, aspiring)

A comfortable life
An exciting life
(stimulating
A sense of
accomplishment
A world of peace (war
A world of beauty nature - Art
Equality (brotherhood,
equal opportunity for
all)
Family security (taking
care of loved
Freedom

Broad-minded (open
Capable (competent
Cheerful (lighthearted,
joyful)
Clean (neat, tidy)
Courageous (standing
up for
Forgiving (willing to
pardon
Helpful (working for the
welfare of others)
Honest (sincere,
truthful)

Contemporary Work
Cohorts
Cohort

Entered the
Workforce

Dominant Work Values

Veterans

1950s or early
1960s

Hard working, conservative, conforming;


loyalty to the organization

Boomers

1965-1985

Success, achievement, ambition, dislike


of authority; loyalty to career

Xers

1985-2000

Work/life balance, team-oriented, dislike


of rules; loyalty to relationships

Nexters

2000 to present Confident, financial success, self-reliant


but team-oriented; loyalty to both self
and relationships

Values
Baby boomersconservative &
respectful of authority
Gen X and Gen Y - team-oriented
and tech savvy
Differentiate between right and
wrong, and between ethical and
unethical behavior
Perceptions of Persons, Groups ,
situations and the problems.
Decisions reached- solutions
generated

characteristics
Persists Stable - Until someone
works on them tend to persists some one or something must be done
to change it
Range - Highly favorable to
unfavorable
Direction Directed towards
something Not in isolation but
towards on object

Formation
How are these formed?
Outward manifestations of attitudes
devp over time
Beliefs
Values
BV we have from time to time gets
expressed
What are the sources of BV?
Nature of parenting?
Associations at home?

Types
Positive : Whether we have control
on B/Not
Not adversly affected by failures
/negatives
Different people at different states
encounter different challenges
How do you handle them
determined by A
People with positive face them better
Reactive Rational Logical

Functions
Adjust / Adapt Adjust to situations determines behavior
Positives ignore or cope with !!

Ego Defense

Self respect is retained with positive


attitude

Value Expression
Attitude serves as platform to express BV
Honest Hard work Appreciate Advice

Knowledge Standard
references/Frames

Change Attitudes
Provide New information
Ignorance is mother of evilsinaccurate
Fear or Coercion- Beliefs
Universal method by Govt org
Threaten
Dire consequences - Being late
obey
Resolving Discrepancies Dilemmas
Unless dilemmas addressed or

Barriers
Prior Commitment Determination
Difficult to adapt to new way change

Insufficient Information
Lack of convincing information to change

Resistance due to affiliations

past experiences, loyalties , forces us to


remain

Safeguards
Exposure to Positives
Snipers Bulldozers - complainers
Negative working Environment
Surrounded by Mass media Friends
Change the Environment
Genetic - Psychological Env Reflective
Attitude is a choice not born
Changes from time to time
I am responsible for my attitude

Work Questions
Individual success organizational
successes
How do you achieve
Achievement - Concern for others
Honesty - Fairness

Cultural Differences in
Values

Authority is a
right of
office and
rank

Group
input is
important.
Decisions
should be
challenged.

France
The Netherlands

Power Distance
...the extent to
which the less
powerful members
of institutions and
organizations within
a country expect
and accept that
power is distributed
unequally.

Hierarchy
Centralization
Salary range
Privilege & status
symbols

Individualism vs.
Collectivism
Individualist
societies: ties are
loose and everyone
looks out for himself
or herself
Collectivist
societies: people
integrated into
strong, cohesive
groups; protection
is exchanged for
loyalty

Employee-employer
relationship
Hiring and
promotion decisions
Managerial focus
Task vs. relationship
priority

Masculine v Feminine
Masculine societies:
Distinct social
gender roles
men focus on
material success
women on quality of
life

Centrality of work
equity, compete,
performance
Ways of managing
& decision making

Feminine societies:
social gender roles
overlap (both
quality of life)
Equality, solidarity,
quality of work life
Conflict resolution

Uncertainty
the extent to
which the members
of a culture feel
threatened by
uncertain or
unknown
situations.
NOT the same as
risk avoidance
Interpretation of
What is
different

Presence of rules
Necessity of rules
Time orientation
Precision &
punctuality
Appropriateness of
emotional displays

Short Term Long term


Short-term
orientation
Social pressure to
keep up with
small savings
expect quick results
concern with
possessing Truth

Long-term
orientation
Thrift: being sparing
with resources
large savings
perseverance
toward slow results
concern with
respecting the
demands of Virtue

Examples of National
Cultural Values

ETHICS
Ethics is the moral choices a person
makes, and what he or she should do.
Ethics can also be regarded as the
vehicle that converts values into
action.
Ethics-principles of right conductsystem of moral values.

Ethical Decision Making


Criteria
A standard way of understanding ethical
decision-making is to understand the philosophical
basis for making these decisions.
Focus on consequences.
According to this criterion, if nobody gets hurt,
the decision is ethical. Focusing on consequences is
often referred to as utilitarian.

Ethical Decision Making


Focus on the rights of individuals.
The theories underlying this approach are
referred to as deontological from the Greek
work deon, or duty.
A fundamental idea of deontology is that
equal respect must be given all individuals.

Ethical Decision Making


Focus on integrity (virtue ethics).
If the person in question has good
character, and genuine motivation and
intentions, he or she is behaving ethically.
The decision makers environment, or
community, helps define what integrity
means.

Ethical Decision-Making
Guide
1. Gather the facts.
2. Define the ethical
issues (e.g. lying, job
discrimination).
3. Identify the
affected parties.
4. Identify the
consequences.

5. Identify the
obligations.
6. Consider your
character and
integrity.
7. Develop creative
potential actions.
8. Check your
intuition.

Enhancing Ethical and Socially


Responsible Behavior
Leadership by example
Written codes of ethical conduct
Formal mechanisms for ethics
problems
Accepting whistle blowers
Training in ethics and social
responsibility
Awareness of cross-cultural influences

Developmental Stages

Kohlberg theorized that people


progress through a series of
developmental stages in their
moral reasoning:
The Preconventional Stage
The Conventional Stage
The Postconventional Stage

Developmental Levels and Stages of


Moral Reasoning - Preconventional
level

Developmental Levels and Stages of


Moral Reasoning - Conventional level
Cont
.

Developmental Levels and Stages of


Moral Reasoning - Postconventional
level
Cont.